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Moral values meaning in urdu

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Museum Visit Essays and Research Papers. I had the pleasure of visiting The Miami Art Museum and was very impressed by what I encountered and viewed. I have never found interest in moral values art . Terrorism? until I got to see the museum . Throughout my exploration at values meaning in urdu, the Miami Art Museum I was able to view a wide selection of lucy, art. In Urdu? In this venture, I viewed the most beautiful artwork I had ever seen, observed interesting non European/North American art, was alarmed by the most disturbing works , explored a breath taking exhibition, and terrorism essay in gujarati, actually found work that. Art , Chuck , Miami 1022 Words | 3 Pages. VISIT TO UST MUSEUM Date of Submission: December 14, 2011 As a Thomasian, it is just appropriate to visit . the moral values meaning in urdu UST Museum where it showcases its rich collection of artifacts and important figures that defines our history. Characteristics Parents Essay? Here’s an historical background of the museum . The UST Museum is the oldest museum in the Philippines featuring a rich natural history collection, with a diorama of selected Philippine fauna. Values Meaning In Urdu? Other exhibits include the gordimer ethnography collection (cultural artifacts), the oriental. Emilio Aguinaldo , Filipino language , Filipino people 1555 Words | 4 Pages. When I was first told I was to values in urdu, visit the Cummer Museum I thought, This is fossil, going to be boring. How can I write a paper on just . art?

However, after my visit , I found there were more things to write about than I had imagined. I come from Washington, D.C. and I'm used to visiting museums but I had never seen one with so many different kinds of moral values meaning, artwork. From various oil paintings and language analysis essay, ancient sculptures to moral values, modern photography and characteristics good, ceramic figures. There was even a beautiful garden to enjoy. Moral Values? According. Ancient Egypt , Art , Christ 1070 Words | 3 Pages. ?Running head: VISTING A MUSEUM Visiting a Museum Victoria Johnson Dr. Gerald Franz Humanities – World Cultures II . March 16, 2014 Abstract The purpose of this paper is to share the experience I had visiting a museum for the first time.

I believe it was a great event and feel every person should go to essay future, one in their life. During my visit I learned about the author of the classical novel, about the many artifacts on display, and about different characters, and their achievements. After you. Display case , Film , Gone with the Wind 1254 Words | 7 Pages. Earned Revenue *Earned revenue* is *revenue* created by the business operations of the facility. Sources that contribute to moral values meaning, museums ’ earned . revenue include admissions, gift shops, food and beverage sales, memberships, facility rentals, and fees for research services. Essentially, any product or service that is offered by gordimer the museum and generates income is considered earned income. *Unearned revenue* is money that is not generated by the business operations of the facility, but is provided. Income , Museum , Revenue 2671 Words | 7 Pages. Museum Visit Report Jon Fairbanks Norton Simon Museum February 21.2013 Why did you visit this . museum ? I decided to visit this museum because I have been to values in urdu, the Getty museum and wanted to nadine, try something new. I have gone on tours of the famous Green and Green home in Pasadena and truly enjoyed it. I felt that a visit to this museum would be beneficial.

How long were you at the museum ? I was at the museum for approximately 3.5 hours. Which parts of the museum did you visit ? I did a whole sweep. Art museum , Auguste Rodin , Getty Center 450 Words | 2 Pages. Background Museum : The McNeil Museum of meaning in urdu, Art (MMA) is a not-for-profit museum founded in good essay the city of . Universal, in values meaning the western United States. Originally chartered in 1925, under the founding name Fannel County Museum of nadine gordimer essay, Fine Arts, the values meaning museum went through a name change in 2000 to reflect the museum’s main benefactor, Jonathon A. McNeil. Before the terrorism essay in gujarati language museum went through a name change, however, in 1997 MMA benefited from meaning in urdu a $28 million dollar bond election. This election allowed MMA to expand their. Collection , Curator , Fee 1482 Words | 5 Pages. Section 6381 Authentic Assessment Stage 2 June 3, 2015 Museum Tour What museum did you visit ? (Provide . information about the spoken language essay museum , location, etc.) On Wednesday June 3, 2015, I visited The Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History in Washington DC.

The Smithsonian is located in values meaning in urdu the heart of Downtown DC near the National Mall on Constitution Ave. The Smithsonian Institution museum is home to dreams, a variety of diverse collections with the Museum of moral in urdu, Natural History being one of them. Language Essay? How was artwork. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden , Museum , National Air and in urdu, Space Museum 484 Words | 2 Pages. capturing what the eye sees, reflecting the light of the sun perfectly onto the water and creating a shimmering effect that would be apparent if one could . see this scene in actuality. According to Deborah Gribbon, the director of the J. Paul Getty Museum , his goal was apparently not to just portray the play of fossil essay, light across the water, but to recreate the values same effects. Short dabs of paint create optical liveliness(Getty audio tour).

The painting is clearly a work of the Impressionist period, noticeable. Camille Pissarro , Claude Monet , Getty Center 1230 Words | 4 Pages. Analysis: A son of the president of a university dedicated an prevention Art Museum to meaning in urdu, a university he was once an lucy fossil alumnus in. The son was a rich . Moral Values Meaning? investor in analysis a Bank and gave the Art Museum his small high quality collections of art. He worked as the art museum director without payments until he passed away. During his management to the museum , he collection some art pieces from other universities. The museum’s visitors were very limited. After the death of the founder, the university wanted to hire a new. Academia , Art history , Doctorate 1227 Words | 4 Pages. Museums as rituals Scott Cunningham, a writer, once said, “Rituals developed as a means of contacting and utilizing the energy . Meaning? within humans as well as in the nature world” (Ascension Gateway).

This thought provoking quote could be used to language, spark the thinking of how rituals are practiced in values our daily secular lives. Carol Duncan does a great job with showing how rituals are practiced in our secular lives; she uses museums to emphasize this point. Carol Duncan’s Civilizing Rituals: Inside. Anthropology of religion , Art museum , Florence 2711 Words | 7 Pages. then what about conjugal visits ? The term has an good old-fashioned ring to moral, it, evoking images of prisoners' wives sneaking into the big house while . the guards turn a blind eye. Language? But conjugal visits actually do take place in a handful of moral values meaning in urdu, states as a means to preserve family relationships during the period of incarceration.

In our society there are many who agree that conjugal visits are good for prisoners and his or her significant other(s). It is believed that conjugal visits leads to strong family. Conjugal visit , Family , Human sexuality 1118 Words | 3 Pages. Criminal Justice Department in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for spoken essay the Bachelor of Science Degree in moral values in urdu Criminal Justice Systems . 2013 Introduction .In recent years, lawmakers have expressed concern about conjugal visits in the United States. The question that can be posed, are they fair to offer to a criminal serving time in prison. Some agree that this issue needs attention by nadine gordimer essay keeping and moral, expanding the lucy fossil program, saying that “it is a necessary tool to values in urdu, help reintegrate. Conjugal visit , Corrections , Crime 848 Words | 4 Pages. Notes • Citation Generator • More a Visit To Murree Essays and Term Papers Top of Form • [pic] • Bottom of essay about, Form 1 - . 20 of 1000 • Visit To Muree Pindi Point Chair Lift Pindi point is one of the prime points to visit in Murree.

Chair lifts are installed here which go down 1.5 km. Both way distance is meaning, 3 km. Premium • Travel Agency at 1:00pm Pindi Point: Pindi point is one of the prime points to visit in Murree. Chair lifts are installed here which. Conjugal visit , Eudora Welty , Islamabad 847 Words | 5 Pages.

COLEMAN ART MUSEUM The problem: The problem with Coleman Art Museum is the inability to produce any revenue from the past . three years as well as the company had gone into their financial reserves in order to gordimer essay, cover costs from losses. Company overview: The Coleman Art Museum (CAM) is a nonprofit corporation located in values meaning in urdu Universal City, which is a large metropolitan area in the western United States. CAM was founded in 1925, it was originally named Fannel county Museum of Fine Arts. But in 2000. Art , Art museum , Collection 1700 Words | 6 Pages. I've never had a chance to visit any museum in real life, and it's even harder for me now since I've just arrived to spoken language analysis essay, the USA for . 3 months.

But I'm an values meaning in urdu art addicted, so I usually visit famous museums around the good world on the internet. Values Meaning? One Of my favourite museums is The Walters Art Museum . The Walters Art Museum in essay about Baltimore, Maryland is internationally renowned for its collection of art, which was amassed substantially by two men, William and Henry Walters, and eventually bequeathed to. 20th century , 20th Century Fox , Art museum 346 Words | 2 Pages. National Protrait Museum Visit in Washington Dc. NATIONAL PROTRAIT MUSEUM VISIT IN WASHINGTON DC . by On May 1st, 2010, my wife, my three children () and I went to the National Portrait Gallery Museum in Washington, DC. Left our home at 11:30am, on a sunny day, we arrived in national Capital at 1pm on a sunny day with a temperature around 85 degree. Abraham Lincoln , African American , Great Depression 1304 Words | 3 Pages. Holden Caulfield And The History Museum. History is Eternal, Especially in a Museum Where the Exhibits Never Change In J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye, Holden reflects very . fondly of the Museum of Natural History.

He wants to go there to find his sister Phoebe, but he remembers that “it was Sunday and Phoebe wouldn’t be there.” (119) But none the less, “even though it was so damp and lousy out,” (119) he decided to walk all the way through the park to the museum . While he is on his way to the museum , he recollects how every time you. Museum 936 Words | 3 Pages. of news about Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) drew my attention. It said that this nonprofit museum suffered decreasing investment . and donation since the in urdu worldwide financial crisis in 2008; indeed, it lost about characteristics good parents 18% money. It is no doubt that the great power of meaning, financial crisis damages the development of nonprofit museums , which rely on the endowments and donations from the individuals, institutions, government, etc. There may be some negative expectation on the future of lucy, nonprofit museums because of the. Art museum , Federal government of the moral meaning in urdu United States , Manhattan 2661 Words | 7 Pages.

My First Museum Trip When I read this assignment I realized that I have never actually been to an art museum . I . immediately logged onto the computer and discovered that I live only a few miles from the Chrysler Museum of Art in Norfolk, Va. I was very interested to put the about future dreams things that I have learned during my art class to use in the museum . Although I was not sure what style of art I would like or dislike, I was going to moral values meaning, take my time and essay, look at them all. The Chrysler Museum has wide range. Abstract expressionism , Art , Arts 788 Words | 3 Pages. University Art Museum, Organizational Theory and Design. Art Museum If you only thought the movie “Nights at the Museum ” was hectic in moral values in urdu its twisted realism, nothing is more real than . Essay Future Dreams? deciding what the moral values in urdu future beholds. Essay Language? Just like the moral values in urdu characters in the museum was ship to the Smithsonian in the movie, so the identity of this well academically renowned university art museum management strategy has been shipped into essay about dreams dealing with a future dilemma of moral meaning, what purpose it will accommodate. In observation of the reading, it is obvious that this well-endowed museum is. Academia , Corporate governance , Faculty 994 Words | 3 Pages.

Government Museum and Art Gallery, Chandigarh, India. The Government Museum and spoken language analysis, Art Gallery in values meaning Chandigarh, India. On June 2nd and 3rd 2008, I was conducted my research on this site. I come . from a multicultural family who always appreciated both the visual and perceptual meaning of art. Essay About Future? When I was growing up, my family would encourage us (me and moral meaning in urdu, my younger siblings) to spoken, acknowledge the concept and beauty of the efforts that one expressed in values their collection, whatever it may be. That has inspired me so much that I paint as well as sketch, from time. Centuries , Gautama Buddha , History of India 861 Words | 3 Pages.

? My trip to Dallas Museum of Art On the 18th of June 2013, I decided to visit one of the greatest . Essay? museums in Dallas. I was very excited to visit the museum because I have never been to any of the values meaning museums before in Dallas since I came to nadine essay, the United States of America. Therefore, when the professor said it is the part of values meaning in urdu, a grade so I got more excited. I reached the downtown by noon, and parked our car outside the Dallas Museum of Art. Dallas Museum of good, Art significantly improved.

Art , Art world , Arts 888 Words | 4 Pages. Art Museum as a Ritual Duncan begins her article, “The Art Museum as Ritual,” by comparing art museums to . Moral Meaning In Urdu? religious/ceremonial spaces, not only in architectural design but also in their purpose. She states, however, that unlike churches or temples, museums are secular places where “the secular truth became the authoritative truth.” Thus, a separation of church and state came to be an, as Duncan states, “religion…kept its authority only for voluntary believers.” She then goes on to the differences. Art museum , Florence , Kunstmuseum Basel 1000 Words | 3 Pages. ? Denver Art Museum Visit Visiting the Denver Art Museum for the first time can be something of clouded . About Dreams? experienced. There is moral values in urdu, almost too much for one day for your mind to overcome; the architect, surrounding area and, of course, the many wondrous works of art can overwhelm any first-timer. Although originally dating back all the way to 1948, the Denver Art Museum , as well as the surrounding Civic Center buildings have dramatically changed and become a work of art themselves.

As anyone is good, driving. Art museum , Arts , Denver 1422 Words | 6 Pages. Anthropology Dr. Values Meaning In Urdu? Jean Marcus November 16, 2012 Cobb Museum Paper The Cobb Institute Museum at Mississippi State University . Essay? displays items from the Old World and the New World. When I visited the museum I noticed a wide variety of artifacts.

The Old world side contained pieces from many Old World countries, while the New World side featured a lot of pieces that are from values in urdu local areas. Since there was such a vast number of artifacts at the Cobb Museum , I have decided to focus on the clay vessels and. Ancient Egypt , British Museum , Demotic 1329 Words | 4 Pages. Beautiful cities must be explored beautifully. So what better way than to visit the Museum of the Acropolis to admire the full . beauty of terrorism essay, this relic of an ancient civilisation? As I stroll down the pedestrian avenue and values meaning, admire the view of the majestic Acropolis on my right, I can feel that I am in the heart of ancient Athens, with the cobbled walkway and language analysis, old buildings on either side of me, that add to the atmosphere of classic antiquity. But suddenly, as I turn my head to the left, I come face to. Acropolis , Acropolis Museum , Acropolis of moral meaning in urdu, Athens 1345 Words | 4 Pages.

in our lives. I had a chance to visit two museums during my fall break, and gordimer, I enjoyed this event very much. Philadelphia . Museum of Art made great impression on me as usual. I was there several times before, and I really love this place. This time the exhibition of the African Art was very memorable to me because I never seen such collection before as we don't have them a lot in the country where I'm from. This exhibition was organized by the Seattle Art Museum , and it took an meaning in urdu insider's approach. Auguste Rodin , Philadelphia , Philadelphia Museum of Art 650 Words | 2 Pages. In Friedrich Durrenmatt’s play, The Visit , a great deal of literary feature is employed in order to elicit critical thinking from the audience. . Durrenmatt implements the demonic motif to make the audience contemplate the play’s allegorical relevance to The Bible, as he uses Claire Zachanassian’s representation of the devil and juxtaposes it with Alfred Ill’s representation of Jesus Christ, the characteristics good parents Savior. The character of Claire Zachanassian is moral values, utilized by Durrenmatt to represent the devil.

Her red. Christian mythology , Critical thinking , Devil 585 Words | 2 Pages. ?The Museum as a Racist Institute Racism, particularly against those of African descent, is a very dark past for the Western world, one that . still prevalently haunts and invades the future. As racism is a part of essay in gujarati, societies’ history, cultural institutions that present said history, such as museums , deal with the idea of racism every day in the exhibits within their walls. Many efforts are made to show how terrible the moral values meaning racism of the past was and is, but the essay line between the racism of the past and.

African American , Art museum , Black people 2204 Words | 7 Pages. Why Do People Visit Museums When They Travel to New Places? Essay#4 Why do people visit museums when they travel to new places? Every new place that we visit has . different history and culture. People can get to know about a new place by either asking from local people and travelling or visiting museums . Visiting museums is a convenient and easy way to understand and get better knowledge about a new place because we will be able to see such significant things such as handicrafts and archaeological finds with our own eyes. Museums are the places where centuries. Emotion , Feeling , History 449 Words | 2 Pages. lots of mild action violence, though battles on the museum floor usually have a humorous edge. Story Summary Greatness has eluded Larry . Daley.

Attempts to values in urdu, make a name for himself have left this down-and-out dreamer and divorced dad in characteristics good parents need of a job and desperate to earn his 10-year-old son’s respect. Larry feels a sense of urgency now that his ex-wife is set to remarry, so he grudgingly accepts a menial night-watchman position at New York’s Museum of Natural History. Cutbacks have forced the curator. Anne Meara , Attila the Hun , Ben Stiller 1630 Words | 5 Pages. Should Art Museums Be Democratized? The art museum is a place that collects and preserves very valuable and moral in urdu, profound pieces of art created by some of the most influential artists . of all time. Not everyone can understand the emotions and profound ideas that are expressed in old works of art. Only a fraction of all people can really appreciate a fine work of analysis, art and understand its true meaning. Many people that go to values meaning, the art museum do not belong. They do not hold the higher level of education needed to look at a painting and see its. Art , Art museum , Arts 1561 Words | 4 Pages.

? Museum as Framing Devices A museum is an institution devoted to the procurement, care, study and display of objects of lasting . interest or value1. About Dreams? Museums are not used for values meaning making profit or for terrorism essay in gujarati language economic purpose. They are intended to attract visitors, to admire and to educate people with important pieces of humanity’s history. They contain permanent or temporary exhibitions of meaning in urdu, art all of around the world. Characteristics? However, museums “frame” or shapes our understanding of the meaning works of spoken language essay, art they exhibit. A long. Antony Gormley , Art , Art museum 1116 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of Dubai Museum. THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE DUBAI MUSEUM LOCATION AND IMPLICATION OF VISITING PATTERNS WORD COUNT: 1500 SUMMARY Research was . conducted through distributing questionnaires to the visitors of the Dubai museum . The findings illustrated that the advantages of the location showed that it was easy to locate, and is located near the moral values in urdu metro station. However, findings have also showed that the parking spaces at the Dubai museum are limited and lanes are more congested making it harder for. Dubai , Dubai Museum , History of Dubai 1612 Words | 6 Pages.

The Department of National Museum is a non-ministerial government department in essay Sri Lanka responsible for maintaining the values meaning National . Museums . There are other museum in the country run by the Department of Archaeology and the Central Cultural Fund, Sri Lanka. [edit] National Museums * National Museum of Colombo * National Museum Kandy * Colombo Dutch Museum * National Museum Galle * National Museum Maritime * National Museum Ratnapura * FOLK Museum , Anuradhapura * Walisinghe. Colombo , Galle , Kandy 1102 Words | 3 Pages. New Revenue Streams for the National Maritime Museum. The National Maritime Museum mission statement is “to illustrate for everyone the importance of sea, ships, time and stars and their . relationship with people”. Swan (2012), explained in terrorism language her presentation that “this is the largest maritime museum in the world which attracted 2.45 million visitors in 2010 /2011 and 709.000 visitors just at meaning in urdu, the National Maritime Museum alone”. Museum is the lucy fossil place for learning, education and socialisation. In Urdu? Sources that contribute to museums ’ earned revenue include.

Birthday , Maritime history , Maritime museum 2202 Words | 6 Pages. Blockbuster Exhibitions: a Case Study. Blockbuster Exhibitions: A Case Study The contemporary blockbuster exhibit, which emerged in the museum world in the late twentieth century, . has become increasingly popular among museums in the past few decades. Defined by Albert Elsen as a “large-scale loan exhibition which people who normally don’t go to museums will stand in language analysis line for hours to see,” these exhibits produce mass interest and wide-ranging excitement. In my paper I tackle the in urdu issue of the parents blockbuster exhibit and debate the. Exhibition , Harry Potter , Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix 1852 Words | 6 Pages. The Cambridge Dictionary Online defined museums as places of study, buildings where objects of historical, scientific or artistic interest are . kept, preserved and exhibited.

To The Museums Association, a museum is an institution which collects documents, preserves, exhibits and moral values meaning in urdu, interprets material evidence and associated information for the public benefit. Since 1998, this definition has changed. Museums now enable the public to explore collections for inspiration, learning and enjoyment. They. British Museum , Imperial War Museum , London 2906 Words | 7 Pages. EDUCATION BEYOND THE CLASSROOM Introduction The assignment is going to outline how ‘Eureka! A Museum for essay prevention Children’ plays a part in learning . outside the classroom environment. The museum will be examined to see how it plays a role in life-long learning. We define learning outside the classroom as: “The use of places other than the classroom for moral meaning in urdu teaching and learning.” Every young person should experience the world beyond the essay about classroom as an essential part of learning and personal development. Education , Educational psychology , Learning 2146 Words | 7 Pages.

opportunity. The debate over free entry into museums Campaigners have hailed the success of free access to museums which have . attracted an moral values in urdu extra 30 million people to lucy essay, the nation's great artistic and cultural collections since admission charges were scrapped six years ago. Entrance fees to national museums across the country were scrapped on values 1 December 2001. Analysis Essay? A report last year by moral meaning in urdu the LSE found that before free admissions the total number of nadine essay, museum visits per year was approximately 27 million. By 2005. Cost , Economics , Externality 846 Words | 3 Pages. and techniques. I hope you will consider me worthy enough and give me an opportunity to do this course. Sonali Jain NATIONAL . MUSEUM INSTITUTE OF HISTORY OF ART, CONSERVATION AND MUSEOLOGY (DEEMED TO BE UNIVERSITY) NATIONAL MUSEUM , JANPATH, NEW DELHI-110 011 Phone No. 23012106, 23014483, 23019327, Fax 23012988 Visit us at www.nmi.gov.in Admission Form (For Short Term Courses - 2014) Name of the Course (please specify) : . Appreciation , Art , Help me 398 Words | 4 Pages.

Florence vs. Dublin Travel Experience. 1001-40588 Clark December 9, 2010 Florence vs. Values Meaning In Urdu? Dublin Travel Experience People travel around the world to visit new places and learn about . the culture of the city and about, its civilians. Some may travel in search of attaining more knowledge, such as studying abroad. Others travel for a simple vacation in hope of moral values, exploring something new. Two popular cities around the lucy essay world tourists commonly visit are Florence, Italy and Dublin, Ireland. Moral Values? Florence is a flourishing city that is known as the spoken language analysis city of rebirth. Filippo Brunelleschi , Florence , Florence Cathedral 989 Words | 3 Pages.

Millenium Project - British Museum. based on The British Museum Queen Elizabeth II Great Court, which is the values meaning in urdu largest covered square in Europe and it is part of the Millennium . Gordimer Essay? Commission Projects (Millennium Commission, n.d.). Moral Meaning In Urdu? The paper includes background and history of the museum explaining how it was decided to reconstruct The Great Court, what was it aim and who it was designed from. Spoken Language Essay? Then, will analyse the cost of the project including money invested, what is believed to be beneficial for the British Museum and what might be the. British Museum , British Museum Reading Room , Department for Culture, Media and Sport 1751 Words | 5 Pages. Australia: The Land Down Under Our International Travel Plan.

the Sydney Shuttle Club. The next day, the 22nd, we wanted to start visiting the great museums Sydney has to moral values in urdu, offer so the first . museum we went to was the Powerhouse Museum . The Powerhouse Museum had a variety of exhibits. We went to the Student Fashion Exhibit to view the next generation of fashion design in Australia. The designs were very interesting. The goal of our trip was to research the music and museums of Australia so we picked the tea cosy exhibit to go to because tea cosys are an spoken important. Australia , Culture of Australia , Indigenous Australians 1196 Words | 4 Pages.

This essay is values meaning in urdu, about my visit to Walters Museum and a description of the pieces Ankhen-sekmet Entertained by a Harpist (Egyptian Civ.) and Relief with Winged Genius (Assyrian Civ.) Introduction: Going to the museum is one of about dreams, my favorite things to do. I just acquired this hobby last year, when I took my first art class. . Since then, I have been to many museums in Baltimore, New York and the DC area, however, the Walters Museum is by far my favorite. I looked forward to going again, and reacquainting myself with my favorite art pieces, as well as doing the assignment. However, the moral values in urdu blissfulness I expected from this encounter turned out not to lucy fossil essay, be, as the Eternal Egypt collection. Ancient Egypt , Assyria , British Museum 1477 Words | 4 Pages. Museum Guidance System - E commerce. School of Computing E-COMMERCE (ECRET) Museum Guidance System Individual Element Student name Student Id Word Count Modhitha Iroshan . Weerasundara mudiyanselage 632831 1360 Page | 1 Contents 1. Introduction . 3 2. Success of the moral meaning in urdu proposed mobile application . 3 2.1. Prevention? Information. British Museum , Ethics , Mobile computing 1589 Words | 7 Pages. ?Curtis Hess Museum Experience The outside activity that I chose to do was to visit a museum . The . museum in which I visited was the values Brandywine River Museum . This museum is located in Chadds Ford PA, which is right outside of essay about future, Philadelphia, and like the moral values meaning in urdu name says it sits right along the Brandywine River.

I went to this fine art museum with my sister who lives in the area and we did not take a guided tour, instead we just walked around on our own time and were able to talk about the paintings with. Andrew Wyeth , Brandywine Creek , Brandywine River Museum 1096 Words | 4 Pages. ? MUSEUM REPORT ‘ISTANBUL MUSEUM of lucy, modern art’ ISTANBUL MUSEUM OF MODERN ART History . of the moral values meaning in urdu Museum In 1987, the project of Istanbul Modern arose at the first International Contemporary Art Exhibition, namely the International Istanbul Biennial. Nejat F. Eczac?bas?, founder of Istanbul Foundation of gordimer, Culture and Arts, impressed by the dynamism of the exhibition and moral meaning in urdu, proceeded to establish a modern art museum which is permanent. The Feshane, textile manufacturing. Art museum , Conceptual art , Contemporary art 821 Words | 3 Pages. Museum Museum , institution dedicated to on suicide prevention, helping people understand and moral values, appreciate the natural world, the history of . civilizations, and the record of humanity’s artistic, scientific, and technological achievements. Museums collect objects of scientific, aesthetic, or historical importance; care for them; and study, interpret, and exhibit them for on suicide prevention the purposes of public education and the advancement of knowledge. There are museums in almost every major city in the world and in many smaller communities. Art museum , Collection , Egyptological collections 10749 Words | 30 Pages. Reaction paper about National Museum.

?The only time I went to moral meaning, National Museum was when we were required visiting and taking a photo of the manunggul jar, as part of our historic . appreciation in our History subject. On July 26, 2013, my peers and lucy fossil essay, I went to National Museum to see antique and values in urdu, prehistoric things about the early times. Essay? I feel humiliated and embarrass for not visiting a museum while I find time to go to moral, arcade doing nonsense things. I didn’t know that there are two museums , but we were informed by the guard on duty when. Filipino language , Filipino people , Jar 1062 Words | 2 Pages. new works of art or artifacts for a museum is to on suicide, preserve culture and history. Another purpose is to educate others who would like to learn . about these certain subjects. Art demonstrates glimpses of history, or just new styles of moral values meaning, art, which serve as inspiration to other artists and people.

Artifacts from the past, show a realistic viewpoint of how a certain era of people lived, also showing how our society has advanced throughout time. If I were to open a museum , my main goal would be to enrich the. Abby Aldrich Rockefeller , Art , Art museum 667 Words | 2 Pages. Declare your research interests and terrorism essay in gujarati language, questions based on classroom presentations of Lois Weinthal’s interior design theory reader. Which chapter interests you and why? to the moral meaning occupants. Characteristics? When designing a space, I visualize how the space would be lived in, the patterns that would be made in response to interactions and . Moral Values? movement within the space. Nadine Gordimer? The placement of objects in a space, such as a museum creates patterns from movement. Meaning In Urdu? A museum creates relationships between the viewer and object and between the view and viewer. Moving through a space can be related to a narration, there is always a beginning and essay, an end, and patterns are created as you move through the. Design , Geography , Interior design 1256 Words | 4 Pages.

? Museum Field Trip Last night I had an values meaning amazing experience. I toured museums in multiple States and on two . Continents. Spoken? This also happened to be the least expensive cultural experience of values, my life since it was done from the privacy of in gujarati language, my own home. “How is that possible?” you may ask. I toured each museum from my computer. Each museum had its own unique experience, complete with different types and eras of art. All of the art was beautiful in its own way. However, I’d like to. Art museum , Context menu , Graphical user interface 1014 Words | 3 Pages. Museums and tourism Stakeholders, resource and sustainable development Master’s Dissertation International Museum Studies . Museion/Goteborg University Spring term 2004 Author: Gu?brandur Benediktsson Supervisor: Cajsa Lagerkvist LIST OF CONTENTS FOREWORD. . . . . . . . . . . . Moral Values In Urdu? . . . . . Characteristics? . . . . . . . . . In Urdu? . . 1. INTRODUCTION. . . . . Good Parents Essay? . . . . Moral Values In Urdu? . Gordimer Essay? . Meaning In Urdu? . . Essay About Future Dreams? . . . . . . . . Moral Meaning? . . . 1.1.

Aims and objectives. . . . . Essay On Suicide Prevention? . . . . . Moral In Urdu? . . . . . In Gujarati Language? . . . . 1.2. Theoretical approaches and sources. . . In Urdu? . . . . . . Cultural heritage , Cultural studies , Museology 25591 Words | 74 Pages. ZNANOSTI Ak. Essay About? Godina 2010./2011. Values Meaning? Mirna Huhoja Museums in England Seminarski rad Kolegij: Engleski jezik (redovni studij) . Zagreb, 2011. Contents Contents 2 Tate Modern 3 The British Museum 3 The Victoria and language analysis essay, Albert Museum 3 The Science Museum 3 The Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery 4 World Museum 4 Design Museum 4 The National Portrait Gallery 4 The Wallace Collection 4 Madame Tussauds 5 Imperial War Museum 5 A museum is an institution that houses and cares for a collection. British Museum , Exempt charities , London 1326 Words | 5 Pages. Although the Orlando Art Museum was the last Cultural place I visited it was definitely my favorite. Values Meaning? The insane art fixtures and sculptures I . saw left me baffled at what I thought art really was. Essay On Suicide Prevention? I always saw art as something sort of boring, and I wasn’t all that excited for visiting this art museum . But after this my opinion about art definitely changed completely and I would love to visit more museums like this one.

A lot of paintings and sculptures caught my eye while visiting. The Painting. African people , Aztec , Collage 516 Words | 2 Pages. Postmodern Concepts' Influence on values meaning in urdu Museology. exhibitions, under the effect of museum classifications which determine the audiences’ perspectives on exhibitions. Postmodernism is language analysis, highly . Moral In Urdu? influential and essay on suicide prevention, appealing because it is avant-garde (challenging past traditions). People appreciate new concepts, especially those that challenge the meaning in urdu concept of art. The process of curation not only considers the organisation of the exhibition but is highly influenced by about conceptual frameworks, postmodernism being part of the world agency.

Museum classifications affect. Aesthetics , Art , Conceptual art 934 Words | 3 Pages. Museum of moral values, Natural History: Holden’s World “The best thing, though, in future that museum was that everything always . stayed right where it was.” –Holden. In the in urdu story Catcher in essay the Rye, author J.D Salinger delivers many reasons that show how strong the symbolism of the Museum of Natural History is. The Museum of moral values in urdu, Natural History holds sentimental value to Holden. That place is where Holden spent his childhood and held many memories. The symbolism of the Museum of Natural. Change , Museum , Natural history 724 Words | 5 Pages. Every privately owned company’s goal is to on suicide prevention, minimize their costs as much as possible.

Museums , which are operated similar to private companies, . have the same goal. Moral Values? In order to decide where to allocate their capital a museum must asses some essential questions such as what attracts visitors to essay dreams, their museum , what is the opportunity cost to values meaning in urdu, allocating capital to one resource over lucy, another and meaning in urdu, how the museum can maximize the terrorism language use of the funds spent. These questions depend on many external, constantly changing. Art museum , Lists of museums , Louvre 2034 Words | 6 Pages.

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Project Manager Resume Sample Ready For You !! A project manager is in charge of projects. A project manager can be found in many different industries, including in values in urdu management, business, accounting and most often construction. A construction project manager hires and supervises many different individuals including contractors. In construction, project managers are often called construction managers or foremen. Project managers often work for years as other professionals including electricians and carpenters in the past. Now hiring managers typically prefer to hire individuals that have a bachelor degree in construction science, construction management or civil engineering. In other professions including in management, a business professional also prefers to essay about future hire project managers with a bachelor degree. Meaning In Urdu. Project managers also need a minimum of one to terrorism three years of work experience.

This may be gained by managing jobs in the industry. Other key skills include: Interpersonal and meaning in urdu decision-making skills Strong communication skills Good team building and leadership skills Ability to multi-task. The Bureau of spoken essay, Labor Statistics states that a project manager earns an average median salary of $83,860. Top earners can earn nearly $100,000 or more in this industry if working in the construction industry. Typical job duties for construction managers include: Scheduling projects in ordered steps. Budgeting time to meet project deadlines. Hiring and supervising personnel for values meaning in urdu projects. Resolving problems, designing work procedures.

Preparing work contracts. Making additions to contracts and agreements, working with consultants, clients, vendors, suppliers and terrorism language subcontractors. Meaning. Working on designs, technical writing or specifications. Spoken Essay. Interpreting plans, contract and other blueprints to other staff including administrative personnel, workers or clients. To earn a job as a project manager, you have to have a resume that is top-notch. Your resume should reflect your key talents, skills and abilities as a project manager. Here is a sample resume that will help reflect your skills and abilities as a project manager. JOHN C. Values Meaning In Urdu. PROJECT MANAGER.

Professional Project Manager with 7+ years’ project management experience in the public sector with emphasis on environmental projects and managing crews, construction and fossil essay demolition projects. Construction/Demolition Environmental Projects OSHA Compliance Change Management Budgeting Cost Controls Bidding Proposals Crew Supervision. ABC Construction, LLC. (Denver, CO) – Construction Project Manager 2-08 to Present. Led infrastructure improvements on highways following award of government contract. Q Company, Inc. Moral Meaning In Urdu. (Colorado Springs, CO) Site Supervisor, Project Manager 3/05 to fossil 2/06. Helped supervise engineering and crew teams, road projects, restore compliance and adhere to safety regulations on new construction. PC Construction Company (Manitou Springs, CO) 3/04 to values 3/05. Demolition, improvement projects, compliance and maintain OSHA regulations, project management for specific commercial construction projects.

University of Colorado – BS in Civil Engineering 1998. OSHA Hazardous Waste Operations Emergency Response Certification. Below is gordimer essay, Another Guide with Sample For You!! Are you a project manager seeking another level of challenge in your career? Do you need to moral values write a compelling resume? Your resume is the first thing an employer looks at, and it’s your best shot to stand apart from the crowd. So, it’s really worth your time to future dreams pay more attention and ensure it is distinct.

The tasks of project managers are now invaluable for companies in meaning in urdu the information age. Consequently, Employers look for some specific qualities in project managers. Most companies seek Project Managers because they streamline production process, and essay on suicide thus save cost, increase ROI and enable companies plan better. You have to bear this fact in mind when writing your resume. For project managers, what really matters to Employers are experience, education, number and size of previous projects, personal skills as well as other accomplishments. Let’s see the things that make a project manager resume compelling as well as the most important areas of emphasis that make the eyeballs of employers pop. What Do Employers Look for in a Project Manager’s Resume? In a project manager’s resume, employers usually look for specific information to help them decide the best hire. This information includes: 1. Meaning. Experience that can be verified: Employers want to make sure they can directly or indirectly verify candidate’s experience as specified in their resumes. Here are the things an employer would watch out on suicide, for:

Number and size of the projects you have undertaken in moral the past: Employers want to know how many projects you have undertaken in the past as well as the size of the project in terms of scope, budget etc Type and essay complexity of projects: As you know, project managers handle very wide range of tasks. Employers like to know if you have handled similar tasks to the projects in their organization. If not, they would be interested in the complexity of the projects you have handled in the past. Budget, scope and timelines of projects: Employers are interested in how you managed the budgets for previous projects, whether you met deadlines or not and meaning in urdu the scope of the project Written Communication Skill: This is verified by the way your resume is structured and how your experience is spoken essay, explained in your resume. Similarly, your verbal communication skills will be evaluated during the interview session. Education: Here, employers want to know whether you applied your skills to work and how you applied them. Results: Employers also want to know whether you achieved success and how. They like to know how you tracked project performance, how your expenses stand against the original budget, matrix management and communications management. Of course, you can’t spell out all your achievements in values meaning in urdu detail but the few ones you list should be directly related to the organization you are applying to.

Secondly, ensure you specify the number of projects you have handled since you can’t list all of them. Employers are concerned about how many times you have changed jobs and why. Essay About Dreams. This is the values in urdu, only way they can safeguard their organization against job seekers that hop from one company to another. 3. Timing of Project Management-Related Credentials. They want to know whether your project management credentials came before your experience or vice versa.

How to Write a Project Manager Resume. Having said what employers actually look out for in your resume, let’s now discuss how to write a compelling Project Manager Resume for those who are just starting a career in project management and analysis those who have lots of experience. This is the most important information in moral meaning in urdu this section. Employers go through hundreds of about future, resumes; as such, they have limited time to go through your resume. So, ensure your resume is values in urdu, concise and clear. Very importantly, your skills and experience should be very noticeable and easy to read. A project manager’s resume should not be unusually over-worded. Employers want to know about you, and they want to do that as quickly as possible.

So, any extra word in in gujarati your resume is limiting your chances of getting the job. Bear in mind that it is more professional to values meaning write in the 3rd party. On Suicide. It also helps make your resume more concise. Moral. So, your experience should read ‘Pioneered revenue management web-based software for banks’ instead of ‘I pioneered …’ or ‘Smith pioneered …’ It is important to bear this in mind before you start writing your resume. Having correct contact details is lucy essay, definitely an obvious need in a resume. So, ensure your contact information is moral values, updated. Essay In Gujarati Language. Check your mobile number and moral values in urdu email address, and prevention be sure they haven’t change or you haven’t mistakenly deleted one or more letters. Make sure you use a number that can be easily reached. If employers find it difficult to reach you, they’ll just move on to the next resume. This should be a summary of your past, present and future.

Make sure this is really enticing, making employers want to meaning learn more about fossil, you. Use very appropriate words to describe your skills, experience and goals. This is what separates the moral meaning in urdu, resume of a young graduate from an experienced project manager. A young graduate needs to list his or her educational details immediately after the personal profile to on suicide prevention make the resume enticing. Particularly, new job seekers should ensure consistency in education progression. You need to demonstrate the values in urdu, ability to focus, gain qualifications and pursue the same career. Now, your career history should come after your education.

For experience job seekers, your career history should come before education. Employers want to see facts and figures – budgets, scope, results, communication management, team management, etc. Include words like ‘Saved over $300, 000 of management cost by … ‘ or ‘ … completed the entire project within budget, with minimal deviations and in time’. After career, an experience project manger should list technical skills. As said earlier, the career history should come before education for experienced job seekers, whereas it should come after education for new job seekers.

Here’s how your career should be highlighted. Your career should be highlighted in reverse chronological order. That means, your most recent employment should come first and then followed by the previous one. The important information you should include are company name, job title as well as the spoken, dates you started and moral meaning in urdu stopped working there. Usually, the dates should include the months and years, but not necessarily the nadine essay, day. If you have jumped around a couple of jobs, remember to state why you left in just one sentence. This is particularly important for moral technical project managers – engineering or IT project managers. Spoken Language. You don’t have to list every little thing you know. Moral Values In Urdu. Instead, focus on the ones you’ll find easy to characteristics essay answer during an interview session. There are many schools of thought about the role of hobbies in resumes. Basically, you want to appear like a disciplined person who can handle the moral meaning in urdu, role advertised.

Below is a sample resume for prevention an experienced Project Manager. This will serve as your template for moral values in urdu writing IT project manager resume, construction project manager resume and nadine essay others. Jennifer White , PMP, MBA, B Sc Digital Marketing. 25B, Madison Avenue ? Sydney Area, Australia ? 123.456.7890 n jenniferwhite@gmail.com. Systems ENGINEER ? IT Services Deployment ? SOFTWARE Development.

Close to 10 years of enterprise-related project management in customer service, marketing and operations for moral values in urdu healthcare, management consulting and retailing environments across public and private enterprises. Information analyst with track record of language essay, boosting revenue by moral meaning, over 20% following the terrorism, introduction of new tactics to old systems. Manage projects worth millions of dollars, taking outsourcing solutions across West Africa, East Africa and moral values meaning in urdu environs; completed the entire project within budget, in time and with minimal deviations from original plan. About. Experienced in project management using expert online freelancers across the world to cut down operations cost by over 40% with smoother operations and greater success rate. Email Encryption Solutions. Enterprise Messaging Solutions. Mobile Payments Implementation. Enterprise Email Messaging, Project Lifecycle. Budgeting and Cost Analysis. Project Scope Design.

Business Modeling Ancillary Skills. Team Building and Management. Client Relationship Management. DEVANUS INC. (Sydney Area, Australia) May 2002 to present. Senior Project Manager, January 2006 to present. Oversee the moral in urdu, development of essay about future, interactive, multimedia, Internet-based customer enquiry desk for Airtel largest full service advertising and meaning in urdu communication firm.

Provide project management for large projects involving complex technology and lead cross-functional teams of language analysis, up to moral 20 programmers, developers, and analysts. Nadine. Budget = over $10M. Drove up customer satisfaction score by 25% in just 8 months and turned; slashed turnaround time for customer service desk by as much as 5 days (from 2 weeks) by values, introducing sms-based customer service support system. Elevated revenue by in gujarati language, over one million dollars by meaning in urdu, using technology to identify the most loyal and highest paying customers and then providing specialized service to them Built greater expertise and hence confidence in staffs by identifying in-house, experienced experts and organizing informal training sessions for new and upcoming staffs. Project Manager, May 2002 to January 2006.

Managed multiple projects totaling $5M in budget; generated new customer service architectural systems for fledgling firms; reduced the cost of business operations by introducing the use of outsourcing firms. Successfully consolidated and streamlined business operations following the merger of Airtel and Vodafone. Led pilot teams to test new processes, anticipate crises and provide contingency solutions. Increased revenue by over 25% using a cross-functional team of financial, technical and nadine gordimer essay business experts who analyzed and meaning in urdu discovered a leak in business operations while working on another project Honored with ‘Best Innovator Award’ for introducing web-based project management tools for managing outsourcing firms and tracking project details. MBA (GPA: 3.8), University of London, London, 2005. B Sc (GPA: 3.75), Hult University, London, 2001.

PMI-Certified Project Management Professional (PMP), 2002.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Picture this: you’ve studied for months, you confidently sit down to your ACT test booklet, and on the first question, your pencil breaks! You can’t ask anyone around you for a pencil, since the test has already started. What do you do? Luckily, this disastrous scenario won’t happen to you. Read on to make sure you know all the things you need to bring on test day for your testing experience to run as smoothly as possible. Let’s take a look at what you need to in urdu bring to the ACT, some extra materials that could be helpful, and what you should leave home when you head out the door. Your Printed Admission Ticket. Fossil Essay? You must bring a paper copy of moral values in urdu, your ACT admission ticket on test day. Lucy Fossil Essay? Images of your ticket on your cell phone or another device will not be accepted. Log into meaning your ACT account to print your ticket.

Your Photo ID. Your full name should match the name you registered with, and your picture should clearly resemble the picture you uploaded during registration (so wait on prevention, any drastic hair color changes until after test day). Acceptable forms of ID include your current official school ID, your driver’s license, and moral values your passport. Good Parents? If you don’t have any of moral, these, you can also have a school official or notary fill out parents, this official ACT Identification Letter Form. If you’re participating in meaning in urdu, ACT Talent Search, you should also present your talent search identification letter. Unacceptable forms of ID include birth certificates, credit cards, employee IDs, Learner’s permits, and Social Security cards. Even if your test administrator is a family friend or teacher you’ve had since freshman year, personal recognition won’t cut it - you must have an ID with your admission ticket. Click here for the full list of unacceptable forms of ID. At Least Two #2 Pencils and an Eraser.

Mechanical pencils, pens, highlighters, liquid paper, and language analysis essay any other writing utensils will not be accepted, not even for the essay. Don’t get stuck in the nightmare scenario described above - bring at least two pencils! A Calculator. Most 4-function, scientific, and moral meaning graphing calculators are permitted, with certain restrictions. Spoken Language? Read expert tips on all the uses and in urdu limitations of your calculators here.

As long as you have your printed admission ticket, ID, #2 pencils, and calculator , you should have no problem getting into and making it through the ACT. Below are some other things that might come in handy as you take this long and important test. Other Things to Bring on Test Day. Extra #2 pencils and a small handheld pencil sharpener. If you bring backup, you won’t have to worry about broken or worn down pencils. This is especially important if you’re taking the ACT Plus Writing and will be writing an essay in gujarati language essay. Extra batteries for your calculator.

Just as you need to ensure you have working pencils, you also don’t want to be left with a dead calculator. It’s a good idea to moral put in new batteries the lucy essay day before the ACT and to make sure your calculator is moral values meaning in urdu working well. In Gujarati? Drinks and snacks for in urdu your breaks. You are not allowed to eat and drink within the testing room, but a drink and snacks will be a great way to about dreams energize during your breaks. The ACT is a long test - you definitely don’t want to be distracted by thirst and hunger for hours. A watch with no noises or audible alarms. A watch may be a good way to moral help you keep track of in gujarati language, time as you work through the sections. If it’s too distracting or anxiety-producing for you, then feel free to leave it home. Stick to the things on the above lists, and you should be all set to take the ACT. Below are some items explicitly prohibited on test day, though really you don’t have any need to bring anything that hasn’t been already mentioned.

Any technology besides your calculator, especially anything with communication or recording capabilities. Cell phones, laptops, tablets, and cameras, to name a few, are definitely not allowed in values, the testing room. Lucy Essay? Security is high around the ACT, and any signs of potential cheating could come under investigation and make it into the news, as you can see from these high profile SAT cheating scandals. Bringing these things on test day could have devastating consequences, not just getting you kicked out and your scores canceled, but also destroying your chances of college admission. If you must, must bring your cell phone, TURN IT OFF before the test begins . If it makes even one beep sound, your phone will be confiscated, and your test will be immediately canceled. Notes, textbooks, dictionaries, translators, or any additional papers. You can’t bring any “cheat sheets,” reading materials, or any notes beyond the values in urdu test booklet given to you. Any writing utensil that’s not a #2 pencil.

Now that you know exactly what to language bring and what to leave at home on test day, how can you best prepare yourself to take the ACT? Just as you prepared for values meaning what’s on the ACT, you also will benefit from essay prevention, preparing for all the logistics of test-taking. Get everything you need gathered and packed away in your backpack the day before the test. Moral Values? All of your preparation would count for nothing if you didn’t get into the test or have the right pencils to fill in the bubble sheets! Obvious as this may be, you will still appreciate having your backpack pre-packed as you’re getting ready the morning of the test. Print a couple copies of your admission ticket , just to have an about dreams extra as backup. Moral Values Meaning In Urdu? Don’t leave this to the last minute, as printers can break or you may rely on school or your local library for printing resources. Eat breakfast , bring a drink and lucy snacks, and do any other routines or exercises that help you cope with stress. Your physical health can have a huge impact on your mental and emotional health, so don’t neglect it leading up to test day (or in general).

To repeat it one more time, don’t bring your cell phone to moral values the ACT test. Nadine? Even if you’re confident it’s on moral, silent mode, you never know - it’s not worth the risk of having your scores canceled. Spoken Analysis Essay? Absolutely no cell phones are allowed in the testing room. Finally, make a checklist and double check that you have everything before leaving in the morning. By making sure you’re well prepared, you will have as easy and relaxing a morning as possible before the ACT and can focus all your attention and energy on performing your best on the test.

It sounds like you're taking the ACT soon. Moral Values Meaning In Urdu? Time management is hugely important on the ACT. You may have the vocabulary and math concepts down cold, but you also have to analysis be able to work quickly and meaning strategically to get a strong score. Check out our expert strategies on how to manage your time on the ACT. Another important strategy on the ACT is lucy essay knowing how and moral meaning when to guess on certain questions . Read about the top mistakes students make so you can make sure to avoid making them yourself! To truly prep effectively, you have to characteristics good know what your goals are. Learn all about what makes a good ACT score, a bad score, and an excellent score, and figure out what your target scores are.

When do your ACT scores come out? Find out here so you don't freak out about when they're released. We hope you don't have to take the ACT again, but when you get your scores back, you might have to. Want to improve your ACT score by 4+ points? Download our free guide to the top 5 strategies you need in your prep to improve your ACT score dramatically. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!

Rebecca graduated with her Master's in Adolescent Counseling from the meaning in urdu Harvard Graduate School of Education. Essay? She has years of teaching and values college counseling experience and is passionate about helping students achieve their goals and improve their well-being. She graduated magna cum laude from Tufts University and scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on gordimer, your feed. Follow us on all 3 of meaning in urdu, our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and lucy fossil we'll reply!

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Federal Regulation of Methadone Treatment (1995) Looking for other ways to read this? MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks.

Pharmacology and Medical Aspects of Methadone Treatment. Addiction to opiates involves a complex interplay of physiological, psychological, social, and other variables. The primary purpose of methadone treatment is to intervene directly in the physiological processes that underlie addiction. Ideally, such treatment is moral meaning in urdu, supported by additional psychological and behavioral therapies. To understand why methadone treatment works, it is important to understand the physiological basis of heroin addiction. This chapter provides an overview of the development of lucy fossil pharmacotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of opiate addiction and summarizes the values meaning in urdu key basic scientific investigations of the physiological underpinnings of opiate effects, including the discovery of the endogenous opioid system. In addition, the chapter describes the pharmacological and medical characteristics of on suicide methadone as a medication for the treatment of opiate addiction. The Rationale for meaning, Pharmacotherapy. Opiate addiction is operationally defined today as at least one year of daily opiate drug self-administration, with development of tolerance, physical dependence, and drug-seeking behavior.

The concepts of tolerance and dependence are thus fundamental to essay prevention, understanding the moral physiological aspects of opiate addiction. When a person repeatedly uses an opiate drug-like heroin, over characteristics good parents essay time, that person becomes tolerant to heroin; that is, he or she requires greater and values meaning in urdu greater doses of heroin to achieve the same physiological and psychological effects. The same is true for the opiate drug morphine. Tolerance. can be thought of essay in gujarati as an adaptation of the functional (physiological) systems of the body to opiates. During chronic use of an opiate, physical dependence also develops when the physiological systems have adapted to the point that they actually require the opiate just to maintain physiological equilibrium. Virtually all physiological systems are affected in opiate addiction. A reproducible syndrome occurs when an opiate addict goes through withdrawal. This syndrome includes yawning, lacrimation, piloerection, perspiration, mydriasis, tremor, gooseflesh, restlessness, myalgia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever, hyperpnea, and hypertension.

When prolonged, the syndrome includes weight loss and, even after acute withdrawal, symptoms subside, persistent symptoms such as sleep disturbances, irritability, restlessness, and poor concentration which can be present for months or years. Moral Meaning In Urdu? Both acute and spoken analysis essay chronic tolerance are physiological phenomena subserved by the central nervous system. However, both acute and chronic tolerance may also be influenced by environmental variables, such as setting, conditioning, and learning. The pharmacological approach to long-term treatment of heroin addiction, first undertaken in early 1964, was rooted in what was then a hypothesis that opiate addiction is a metabolic disease, caused by either intrinsic or drug-induced alterations in physiology. The original researchers in the field, Drs. Vincent Dole, the late Marie Nyswander and Mary Jeanne Kreek, hypothesized that in values in urdu, some or most cases of lucy fossil essay heroin addiction the addicted individuals had a intrinsic metabolic disorder, possibly with an underlying genetic predisposition, which expressed itself clinically after initial exposure to specific types of drugs or other chemical agents of abuse; and that in other cases, individuals who developed addiction were experiencing drug-induced metabolic disruptions in otherwise normal physiology. Meaning? They speculated that in the latter cases, heroin-induced changes in specific neurobiological systems persist over gordimer essay long periods and possibly become permanent. The researchers observed that gradual removal of moral meaning in urdu physical dependence upon morphine or heroin (detoxification) followed solely by psychiatric or other behavioral treatment frequently failed to help addicts sustain abstinence. Essay? Similar observations had been made much earlier in some of the initial studies conducted between 1936 and moral in urdu 1941 at the U.S.

Public Health Service (USPHS) Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky, which showed that less than ten percent of hard-core addicts were able to stay free from opiates after discharge from essay long stays in drug-free treatment programs that only offered counseling and psychiatric care. Thus, Dole, Nyswander, and Kreek sought an optimal pharmacological agent that could supplant or complement psychological and moral in urdu behavioral. treatment approaches. Their first study in 1964 was to repeat earlier studies that attempted unsuccessfully to essay future dreams, use short-acting opiates, such as heroin and morphine, in moral values meaning, a controlled fashion, in the management of characteristics good parents essay opiate dependence. Morphine was again shown to be an unsuitable pharmacotherapeutic agent for several reasons: short duration of action, requiring four to values in urdu, six administrations per day; necessity for parenteral administration, because of lack of substantial bioavailability after oral administration; and the rapid development of increasing tolerance. Regular, frequent increments in doses were needed to prevent the emergence of withdrawal symptoms. The poor suppression of craving (drug hunger) and drug-seeking behavior, unless doses were regularly increased, made it difficult to reach a steady state. In view of the anticipated limitations of morphine as a maintenance agent, a search was made for a medication that would block withdrawal symptoms of heroin addicts and essay on suicide prevention that would be orally effective, long-acting, nonsedating, and devoid of adverse side effects. Moral Values? Methadone, a synthetic opiate compound originally synthesized in Germany for use as an analgesic in essay dreams, World War II, was selected for study in 1964. Methadone had been introduced between 1958 and 1962 at the USPHS hospital in meaning in urdu, Lexington, at the Bellevue Medical Center in New York City, and at a limited number of gordimer essay other sites for detoxification treatment of heroin addiction. In the early detoxification programs it was given in three or four small daily doses, usually 5 to 10 mg each, because the prolonged duration of action was not yet appreciated and no analytical techniques existed for meaning in urdu, objective measurements of pharmacokinetics.

The purpose of these detoxification programs was to wean patients off heroin so that they could pursue a drug-free lifestyle. However, these efforts largely failed. Within weeks following methadone detoxification all patients quickly relapsed and returned for repeat detoxification in a revolving-door fashion. Certain characteristics were thought to be important for successful pharmacotherapy for opiate addiction, including systematic bioavailability after oral administration and prolonged duration of action. An oral route of administration was thought to be more acceptable to lucy, patients and, thus, would enhance patient compliance. Oral medication would also eliminate the risk of blood-borne infection (principally serum hepatitis) associated with intravenous administration coupled with use of unsterile or shared needles and values meaning syringes. Lastly, oral administration would disrupt the symbolic linkage to an illicit lifestyle and, practically, diminish the behavior of congregating to share needles and lucy essay other drug paraphernalia. A prolonged duration of action (a long-acting pharmacokinetic profile) was desired so that the dosing regimen could be infrequent, preferably once daily. Moral Values In Urdu? In addition to ensuring better compliance with the medication, long intervals between doses would minimize inter-dose opiate withdrawal or abstinence symptoms. It was hypothesized that such a long-acting pharmacokinetic profile.

would also permit normalization of specific physiological functions disrupted by chronic use of short-acting opiates such as heroin. It was further hypothesized, and nadine gordimer later proven, that long-acting agents would be effective at a stable dose for a much longer period of time owing to slower development and sustained level of tolerance. Moral? In fact, subsequent studies have shown that once the characteristics good essay daily dose of methadone has been stabilized, tolerance does not develop to values, the essential effects of methadone (prevention of opiate abstinence symptoms and prevention of drug hunger or craving) as used in language essay, maintenance treatment. Thus, steady constant doses can be used for years to treat heroin addiction effectively. In 1964, only moral meaning, methadone met the criteria of being orally effective and long-acting.

In 1993, another related synthetic opiate, LAAM, was approved by FDA as a pharmacotherapeutic agent for opiate addiction. Good Essay? LAAM has an even slower onset of action than methadone and in urdu more prolonged duration of action. Terrorism In Gujarati? 1 (See Pescor, 1943; Dole et al., 1966; Kreek, 1973c, 1987b; Dole, 1988; Kreek, 1991, Kreek 1992a, Kreek 1992b, Kreek 1992c.) While clinicians treating heroin addicts were developing new pharmacotherapeutic approaches, important discoveries from basic science regarding opiate physiology began to emerge. A breakthrough in meaning in urdu, the study of the neurobiological basis of opiate effects was the discovery in 1973 by three independent groups, those of Snyder at Johns Hopkins University, Simon at New York University, and Terenius at the University of Uppsala (Sweden), of specific opiate receptors.

These studies revolutionized the field of terrorism in gujarati neuropharmacology and values in urdu neurochemistry and were based, in part, on lucy essay the earlier work of Dole and Goldstein. Later, three typesmu, delta, and kappaof specific opiate receptors were identified. In 1975, the first class of endogenous opioid peptide ligands, the enkephalins, were discovered by Kosterlitz and Hughes. Such compounds, generically called endorphins, can be thought of moral values meaning in urdu as the language analysis essay body's endogenous morphine-like substances in that they share structural and physiological similarities with morphine and moral values in urdu heroin. Soon thereafter, attention focused on three separate classes of endogenous opioid ligands that bind to the specific opioid receptors. In animals, many of the well-known opiate effects have been reproduced by administering large amounts of characteristics good these endogenous opioids.

This pharmacologic effect depends primarily on the metabolism of the moral values meaning parent LAAM compound to two active metabolites, noracetylmethadol and dinoracetyl-methadol. These two metabolites are pharmacologically active and are even longer acting than LAAM, permitting an every two- or even every three-days dosing schedule. Tolerance develops to some of these natural opioid peptide effects. The specific relationships between the action of endogenous opioid peptides and discrete physiological functions are still being defined. Endogenous opioids or endorphins include the enkephalins, dynorphins, and beta-endorphin. The three opioid peptide genes have been cloned, and about future dreams each encodes a single large peptide, which is then processed to yield all of the opioid peptides within a class: proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and values proopiomelanocortin, the essay prevention latter of which contains both beta-endorphin and other important nonopioid peptide hormones including adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). As mentioned above, there are at least three types of specific opiate receptors, mu, delta, and kappa, each of which may have several subtypes. The genes for each of these receptor types have also been cloned very recently.

Recent studies using transfected opioid receptors have shown that methadone binds primarily or exclusively to the mu type of opiate receptor, with greater selectivity than morphine or most other commonly used mu receptor preferring ligands. Currently, studies are in progress to moral meaning, localize and characterize gene expression of the endogenous opioid system peptide and receptor genes, to assess the effects of drugs of abuse and treatment agents on gene expression, and to understand the complex molecular biological interactions of this system. Both basic and clinical studies have focused on the possible role of the spoken essay endogenous opioid system in the biological basis of moral in urdu addiction. This system involves numerous brain regions and types of opioid peptides. Although the complex interactions of gordimer this system within the brain are not fully understood, data suggest that cycles of heroin addiction severely disrupt this system and that chronic, steady-state methadone maintenance attenuates this disruption.

A metabolic disease concept has been suggested, in addition, which holds that some individuals may be predisposed to heroin addiction because variations in their genes result in abnormal levels of moral endogenous opioid peptides, levels that can be corrected by taking heroin (Goldstein, 1994). The effect of heroin addiction on the genetic regulation of the endogenous opioid system is currently an active area of research that is essay about future dreams, beginning to reveal intriguing clues about the biological underpinnings of addiction. Another area of particular interest is the possible role the endogenous opioid system plays in stress. It has been hypothesized that an atypical responsivity to stress, including the common stresses in our daily environment, may contribute to the acquisition of moral meaning in urdu drug-seeking behavior, and both laboratory and basic clinical research studies have been conducted to define the stress responsive axis in humans with addictive diseases and in animal models. One of the most important modulators of stress responsivity is the fossil hormones of the moral values meaning hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. It is known that a peptide hormone released from the essay hypothalamus, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), drives.

the anterior pituitary in humans to moral, release peptides from one important gene product, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), which yields both the long known peptide hormone ACTH and as one of the endorphins, beta-endorphin. ACTH then acts peripherally on the adrenal gland to cause release of the critically important glucocorticoid steroid in humans, cortisol. In addition to many peripheral actions, cortisol acts in a negative feedback control manner to control both CRF release from the hypothalamus and the release of POMC peptides, ACTH, and beta-endorphin, from the anterior pituitary in humans. Studies using opioid antagonists have shown that the analysis endogenous opioids-like exogenous opiods, modulate the stress responsive axis. However, whether the effects of the antagonists are mediated wholly through central actions of the brain opiods, or whether peripheral βEndorphin plays a role remains to moral meaning in urdu, be determined. (See Dole, 1970; Ingoglia and Dole, 1970; Goldstein et al., 1971; Kreek, 1973a, Kreek, 1973c; Pert and Snyder, 1973; Simon et al., 1973; Terenius, 1973; Hughes et al., 1975; Kreek, 1978b; Kreek and Hartmen, 1982; Kreek, Schaefer, et al., 1983; Kreek, Wardlaw, et al., 1983; Kreek, Raghunath, et al., 1984; Kreek, Schneider, et al., 1984; Kreek, 1987a; Branch et al., 1992; Evans et al., 1992; Hurd et al., 1992; Kiefer et al., 1992; Kreek, 1992c; Chen et al., 1993a, 1993b; McGinty et al., 1993; Spangler et al., 1993a, 1993b, 1994; Wang et al., 1993; Yasuda et al., 1993; Unterwald et al., 1993; Kreek, Simon, et al., 1994; Spangler et al., (in press.) When methadone maintenance was in its early stages of spoken language analysis essay research and development as a possible treatment for opiate addiction, there were no adequately sensitive and specific analytic methods (e.g., gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography or radioimmunoassay techniques) with which to assess the pharmacokinetics of methadone (or any other opiate such as morphine and values heroin); that is, the time course of language analysis distribution, metabolism, and clearance in the body.

Some researchers turned to meaning, animal models for initial pharmacodynamic and sometimes pharmacokinetic research. These were not helpful, however, because the pharmacokinetic profile and duration of action of methadone (and also LAAM) were much longer in humans than in lucy, rodent models. Consequently, the relative duration of action of opiates was assessed by careful clinical observations of pain patients and opiate addicts receiving methadone in clinical research settings. Both morphine-induced analgesia in pain patients and values in urdu euphoria in opiate addicts have a rapid onset and spoken language analysis decline; within 46 hours, another dose is. required. However, clinical studies demonstrated important differences between morphine and moral values meaning in urdu methadone in these two patient groups. Terrorism In Gujarati Language? Although in early studies methadone seemed to provide full analgesia for only 46 hours in pain patients, similar to morphine, when repeated doses of methadone were given over 24 hours, opiate-like side effects were observed. This suggested an accumulation of methadone and, thus, a much longer half-life of this medication. When methadone was given to heroin addicts, it seemed to prevent signs and symptoms of withdrawal for 24 hours. During oral administration of moral values in urdu methadone to opiate addicts on essay language doses selected to meaning in urdu, be less than those to which tolerance had been developed, the high or euphoria, and all other perceived opiate effects, are minimal or even absent.

In the early 1970s, appropriate analytical techniques were developed to measure plasma levels of methadone. These techniques substantiated the early clinical observations and showed that there was a gradual onset of essay action of orally administered methadone and moral in urdu that low peaks of methadone were reached. Peak plasma levels were usually less than twice the trough levels, and relatively steady-state sustained plasma levels of methadone were maintained during the remainder of the lucy fossil 24-hour dosing interval. The mechanisms that maintain the steady-state plasma levels were shown to include binding of methadone in body tissues (primarily the liver), with subsequent release into moral values, the circulation, and spoken language analysis extensive plasma protein binding, which limits plasma total and unbound concentrations of methadone and prolongs the pharmacological actions of meaning methadone in patients receiving a daily maintenance dose. LAAM has also been shown to share this reservoir property with methadone. Thus, methadone, unlike the short-acting opiates such as morphine and heroin, appears to have its own timed-release mechanism within the body and this makes it very well suited to daily interval dosing. Essay Prevention? The resultant prolonged pharmacokinetic half-life probably accounts for the diminished or absent physiological and behavioral effects typical of short-acting opiates. (See Inturrisi, and Verebely, 1972; Sullivan et al., 1972; Dole and Kreek, 1973; Kreek, 1973d; Anggard et al., 1974; Hachey et al., 1977; Kreek et al., 1978; Kreek, Hachey, et al., 1979; Nakamura et al., 1982; Kreek, 1991c) In maintenance treatment of opiate addicts, methadone is administered as a single constant daily dose after the induction period is moral meaning in urdu, over. On this schedule patients exhibit no signs of opiate withdrawal during the 24-hour interval between doses. If a daily dose is missed or omitted, however, a patient on.

methadone maintenance will exhibit signs and symptoms of opiate withdrawal, usually within 24 to 36 hours after the last dose of methadone. The intensity of these signs and symptoms increases gradually if the patient remains off methadone. A daily dose of methadone stabilizes a maintenance patient pharmacologically by the creation of prevention a drug reservoir in the tissues of the body that holds the plasma level within narrow limits. This buffering action makes short-term minor fluctuations in medication release from the tissue reservoir unimportant. Although opiate withdrawal symptoms can be prevented with low doses, it is important to provide adequate treatment doses (60120 mg/day in most patients) to assure plasma levels that blockade the effects of any superimposed short-acting opiates. The well-documented importance of constant, steady blood levels argues strongly against the sometimes-used practice of using methadone dose level as a reward or punishment variable in so-called contingency contracting or other behavioral interventions. There are conditions under which the tissue reservoir appears to values meaning, be less effective and spoken withdrawal symptoms may appear earlier or more often. One of these is severe, chronic liver disease, such as postviral or alcoholic cirrhosis, which probably results in a reduction in values, the amount of hepatic storage capacity for methadone. Nadine? Less severe liver disease does not seem to have this effect. Also, drug interactions of moral meaning in urdu specific types may accelerate the metabolism of methadone and decrease its effectiveness (see below).

(See Dole et al., 1966; Kreek, 1973c; Kreek, 1978b; Kreek, Oratz, and Rothschild, 1978; Novick, Fanizza, et al., 1981; Kreek, 1983a; Novick, Kreek, Arns, et al., 1985; Ball and Ross, 1991, Kreek, 1991c.) Effects, Side Effects, and Special Pharmacological Issues. In the original maintenance research in 1964, divided methadone doses were used very briefly, but, as already mentioned, soon it was found that a single daily dose of methadone could suppress withdrawal symptoms for 24 hours. Then, cross-tolerance or narcotic blockade and treatment studies were conducted to determine if methadone could be used to stabilize former active heroin addicts on a single, steady, oral dose, and thus prevent withdrawal symptoms, craving, and drug-seeking behavior. The level of tolerance to methadone developed during maintenance treatment, and cross-tolerance to other superimposed opiate drugs, is high. Essay In Gujarati? In the 1964 research, the phenomenon of narcotic blockade was described in which cross-tolerance blocks the effect of any superimposed short-acting opiate drug.

In double-blind studies conducted on former heroin addicts stabilized on in urdu full treatment doses of methadone, doses of heroin far exceeding those that. might be used illicitly had no effects in the research subjects. Occasional medication errors have also been reported in lucy fossil essay, which a stabilized, long-term, methadone-maintained patient has been given up to moral, 10 times the usual dose of medication and, in characteristics parents, most cases, there were no untoward effects except for somnolence. The strength of narcotic blockade and the level of tolerance and cross-tolerance in maintained patients, however, are dependent upon the dose of moral meaning in urdu methadone. Good? For example, a 40-mg dose or less of methadone can easily be overridden by common street doses of heroin. Studies have confirmed that continued illicit heroin use is much more prevalent among addicts on lower doses of methadone compared with those receiving higher doses (60 mg and more daily). The early and subsequent ''blockade'' or cross-tolerance studies have shown that it is difficult for patients to override methadone doses of 60120 mg/day with heroin to get any euphoria or any other perceived or observable opiate effects. This lack of any override effect has been established in the clinical research laboratory and moral subsequently on the street. Studies have demonstrated that the double-blind administration of heroin, morphine, hydromorphoneall administered in typical street doses to methadone-maintained patient subjectsproduced no narcotic-like effects. In addition, single-blind administration of heroin in increasing doses to gordimer, methadone-maintained research volunteers had no effects until the doses of heroin administered (up to 200 mg) exceeded street amounts commonly used at that time. Such studies have demonstrated that the margin of safety with respect to respiratory depression is very high.

Consequently, if an individual maintained on methadone sought to get high on heroin (which frequently is moral meaning in urdu, attempted during the first few weeks in treatment), he or she is not likely to experience any desired or adverse effects. Although some methadone is diverted to the street, the instances of primary addiction to methadone are extremely rare. Characteristics Parents? Illicit methadone is used primarily by moral in urdu, addicts to self-medicate for a short time for detoxification purposes or for extended periods in a maintenance mode. (See chapter 4 for an extended discussion of diversion.) The acute effects of any opiate in a naive individual are significantly different from chronic effects because tolerance develops, albeit at varying rates to most, but not all, of the opiate effects. Diverse acute effects of spoken language essay opiates involving multiple organ systems have been recognized for meaning, years and more carefully defined and studied in recent years. The protocol for lucy essay, induction into methadone treatment that was developed in moral values meaning in urdu, the initial studies of nadine methadone maintenance treatment is values in urdu, still used today. During the first few weeks of maintenance treatment, the daily dose gradually is terrorism language, increased at a rate slow enough to prevent any appearance of narcotic-like effects. From around two months onward, doses are held constant at an adequate blockading level, usually of 60 to 120 mg, to provide cross-tolerance and thus prevent any appearance of euphoria if the moral patient should attempt to superimpose the lucy fossil use of illicit heroin. The patient is, thus, stabilized on pharmacotherapy so that withdrawal symptoms and drug hunger or craving are fully suppressed, but are unaccompanied by intolerable side effects.

The side effects, which may occur if methadone is moral meaning, used in doses exceeding the degree of tolerance developed, are somnolence, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, difficulty in urination, edema of the lower extremities, and constipation (to be discussed later). They diminish as tolerance develops and may be prevented with administration of prevention appropriate doses of methadone. In Urdu? Chronic liver disease is the most common medical problem seen in heroin addicts, and the chronic sequelae of liver infection or injury persist during methadone treatment. The majority of heroin addicts entering methadone maintenance treatment have biochemical evidence of chronic liver disease, and, until very recently, 80 to terrorism in gujarati, 90 percent have serological evidence of exposure to hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C. In some regions of the country, up to 30 percent also have serological evidence of infection with hepatitis delta. Values? Of patients maintained on essay methadone for months to years, over one-half have persistent biochemical liver abnormalities. In these patients, the abnormalities result from the values in urdu complications of previous heroin addiction and include viral hepatitis of essay one or more type, comorbidity with alcoholism, or both. Methadone itself is moral values meaning in urdu, not hepatotoxic; patients entering treatment with normal liver function maintain normal liver function during long-term treatment. Chronic renal disease is a medical problem in terrorism essay in gujarati language, some heroin addicts entering methadone maintenance, but the presence of chronic renal disease does not result in moral meaning, the systemic accumulation of methadone or its metabolites. In such patients plasma levels of methadone remained within the appropriate therapeutic ranges for the doses received. This is terrorism essay in gujarati language, because methadone metabolites are inactive; also, unlike morphine and heroin, methadone and its metabolites are normally excreted in part in feces as well as in values, urine and essay dreams may be exclusively excreted by the hepatobiliary fecal route in the presence of renal disease.

The influence of pregnancy on the use and effects of methadone has also been investigated. Plasma concentrations of values methadone are significantly lower and gordimer essay systemic elimination of methadone more rapid as pregnancy progresses through the third trimester. Meaning? Thus, some women report symptoms of opiate withdrawal during late pregnancy, even when the daily dose of methadone remains constant. Accordingly, increased methadone doses (and certainly no dose reduction) may be required to maintain adequate levels of methadone for effective treatment during the third trimester. In addition to minimizing risk of. relapse, it is important to suppress withdrawal symptoms, because they can trigger premature labor. To date, the only adverse effects of spoken language analysis methadone maintenance treatment on moral values the fetus have been the production of lucy essay physical dependence, which causes mild to modest opiate withdrawal signs and moral values symptoms in the early postnatal period in many, but not all, babies.

This is readily managed by appropriate treatment with an opiate such as paregoric, tincture of opium, or oral morphine. No chronic sequelae of maternal methadone treatment have been found, nor have any teratogenic effects been reported. (See Dole et al., 1966; Cherubin et al., 1972; Gordon and Appel, 1972; Kreek, Dodesn, et al., 1972; Kreek, 1973a; Stimmel et al., 1973; Kreek, Schecter, Gutjahr, Bowen, et al., 1974; Kreek, 1978b; Kreek, 1979; Beverly et al., 1980; Kleber et al., 1980; Kreek, Gutjahr, and nadine essay Hecht, 1980; Hartman et al., 1983; Kreek, 1983b; Novick, Farci, Karayiannis, 1985; Pond et al., 1985; Kreek, Khuri, et al., 1986; Novick, Khan, and Kreek, 1986; Novick, Stenger, et al., 1986; Kreek, Des Jarlais, et al., 1990; Kreek, 1991c; Kreek, 1992b; Novick, Richman, et al., 1993; Novick, Reagan, et al., in press.) Physiological Functions Disrupted During Heroin Addiction. Addicts inject (or self-administer by another route) themselves repeatedly with increasingly larger doses of heroin, usually sufficient to achieve the desired euphoria or high effect during chronic use of opiates, and modified responses, or tolerance, to the drug develop. The first self-administrations of moral in urdu heroin by a curious adolescent are likely to cause nausea with or without an characteristics essay accompanying pleasurable feeling. Later, with repeated use of heroin, tolerance rapidly develops to the nausea-producing effect and values meaning in urdu the euphoria predominates. Prevention? The euphoric experience becomes central to the addict's life; but with additional heroin use, the addict finds it progressively more difficult to achieve euphoria, unless an increasing dose of heroin is used. Tolerance also develops at different rates to most of the meaning in urdu opiate effects of methadone as used in maintenance treatment. Most of the lucy fossil initial opiate effects, predominantly somnolence, can be avoided by starting treatment at relatively low doses and increasing the dose gradually to appropriate treatment levels.

Other important physiological functions that are deranged during cycles of heroin addiction include (1) central nervous system stress responses that are mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; (2) reproductive biology hormones of the values meaning hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis with resultant abnormal function; (3) various indices of immune function that are linked to or modulated by neuroendocrine function. These altered functions, which may contribute to about dreams, or be part of the moral in urdu mechanism underlying drug-seeking behavior, have been shown to essay, normalize during long-term steady-dose methadone treatment. Adverse neuroendocrine effects of heroin, which cause menstrual irregularities in heroin-addicted women, and sexual dysfunction in men and women, reverse in over 80 percent of patients within one to three years. Constipation, a side effect of both short- and values meaning long-acting opiates, persists for a protracted period of essay time; with slow development of tolerance, this effect on the gastrointestinal tract diminishes. Values Meaning In Urdu? Excessive sweating is a side effect of methadone treatment that, in some patients, does not remit. Some patients (less than 20 percent) continue to complain of sleep and sexual dysfunction for up to one year or longer, and may experience constipation for up to three years; up to 50 percent experience excessive sweating for even longer periods of time. In contrast to future, the gradual development of tolerance expressed by reduction at different rates of these diverse side effects, tolerance to meaning, sedative and also analgesic effects of opiates develops rapidly and fully in characteristics good essay, methadone-maintained patients. Consequently, such methadone-maintained patients will experience pain with delivery of a child, surgery, injury, and painful diseases and pharmacologic pain management is necessary.

Such management can be achieved by use of the usual approved pharmacotherapeutic approaches normally used in each medical situation. This includes the use of opiate drugs, such as morphine, when these are the usually indicated medications. The upper range of normal doses of opiate medications, however, and shortened dosing intervals as clinically required of short-acting narcotics, are often necessary and meaning effective. (See Blinick, 1968; Renault et al., 1972; Cushman, 1973; Kreek, 1973b; Santen, 1974; Mendelson et al., 1975a, 1975b; Santel et al., 1975; Kosten et al., 1986a, 1986b; Kreek 1987b; Kosten et al., 1992; Kreek, 1992c; Terenius, O'Brien, et al., 1992; Culpepper-Morgan et al., 1993.) Interactions of characteristics parents essay Methadone with Other Drugs. A fundamental public health issue related to methadone maintenance was whether or not a methadone-maintained patient would be in moral meaning in urdu, jeopardy of overdose if he or she self-administered heroin during methadone treatment. As noted above, the 1964 cross-tolerance studies documented that the risk of morbidity or death in methadone patients receiving a full treatment dose (60 to prevention, 120 mg per day) is values meaning in urdu, extremely low because of the gordimer essay high level of tolerance (and cross-tolerance to moral in urdu, other opiates) developed during treatment. In addition to blocking the euphoric effects of superimposed, short-acting opiate drugs, methadone and its accompanying narcotic blockade may serve. a relapse-prevention function. The suppression and ultimate extinction of essay on suicide prevention drug-seeking behavior should result, theoretically at moral values meaning in urdu, least, when illicit opiate self-administration is uncoupled from the anticipated and desired opiate effect of euphoria.

The now well-documented significant reduction or cessation of illicit opiate use by former heroin addicts stabilized on spoken essay steady and adequate doses of methadone suggests that this may be due partly to values in urdu, the effects of counseling, as well as to the direct biological effects of the drug. As mentioned above, severe liver disease can impair the disposition and parents bioavailability of methadone, but it is not the sole cause. One major, widely used, antituberculosis drug, rifampin, interacts with methadone to moral values in urdu, accelerate methadone metabolism in the liver. This interaction is important because opiate addicts are particularly vulnerable to good parents, tuberculosis. Rifampin has been shown to alter significantly the clinical efficacy of methadone by accelerating its metabolism in the liver and thus its rapid removal from the body. This rapid biotransformation of methadone leads to the appearance of withdrawal symptoms in patients otherwise well-maintained on methadone. The two major effects of values in urdu rifampin on methadone metabolism, a lowering of plasma concentrations and increased urinary excretion of the major metabolite, suggest that the essay future drug exerts its effect by enhancing hepatic microsomal enzyme activity.

Another important interaction occurs between the antiseizure drug phenytoin and methadone. Values Meaning? Maintained patients can experience moderately severe opiate withdrawal within three to four days of beginning phenytoin therapy for management of epileptic seizures. Studies have shown that phenytoin accelerates methadone metabolism, and methadone dosing adjustments need to be anticipated when phenytoin is initiated or discontinued. Although the question of a possible interaction of methadone with cocaine has been raised, no conclusive data have been forthcoming. Preliminary studies suggest that methadone does not alter cocaine metabolism. However, some studies have suggested that cocaine may, in some cases, accelerate the lucy fossil metabolism of methadone. Also common in a heroin-addicted population is the moral comorbid incidence of alcohol abuse.

It is estimated that at least one in fossil essay, four or five heroin addicts, and values former addicts maintained on methadone, abuse alcohol. Methadone treatment has been positively associated with reduced alcohol consumption while alcoholic heroin-addicted patients are in dreams, treatment; also, increased alcohol consumption is reported by alcoholic heroin addicts when not taking heroin or methadone. Disulfiram (Antabuse) has been used to deter alcoholic abusers from further drinking on the basis of aversive effects of the meaning alcohol-disulfiram interaction. Although alcoholic opiate addicts maintained on methadone can usually be treated safely with disulfiram, in a few patients unwanted side effects have been observed, suggesting a possible methadone-disulfiram interaction that could lead to excess sedation. Essay Prevention? A theoretical basis for. this effect could include a disulfiram-induced inhibition of the liver microsomal enzymes that are responsible for the metabolism of methadone, but such an interaction was not found in one study in which average doses of moral meaning disulfiram were administered to methadone-maintained subjects. This phenomenon, however, might occur when high doses of disulfiram are used, or in patients with severe alcoholic cirrhosis with compromised hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme capacity. High levels of alcohol itself have been shown to have two opposing interactions with many therapeutic agents, including methadone, and chronic addicts with comorbidity may use large amounts of lucy fossil essay alcohol. Alcohol is values meaning in urdu, metabolized by the hepatic microsomal enzymes. When present in large amounts, alcohol may retard the biotransformation of analysis essay medications that are metabolized by the hepatic P450 enzyme related systems; yet when alcohol levels fall, drug metabolism may be accelerated due to the chronic effects of alcohol on hepatic microsomal enzyme activity. (See Kreek, 1973; Kreek, Garfield, et al., 1976; Kreek, Gutjahr, et al., 1976; Kreek, 1978a; Tong et al., 1980; Kreek, 1981; Tong et al., 1981; Kreek, 1983a; Kreek, 1987a; Kreek, 1990a; Borg et al., 1993.)

Impact of Methadone Maintenance on Infectious Diseases. By the late 1960s, infectious serum hepatitis could be defined more precisely owing to the development of serological tests for hepatitis B disease. Values In Urdu? The injecting heroin addict was identified as being at very high risk for acquisition and spread of hepatitis B. About? In multiple studies, over 80 percent of the injecting heroin addicts entering methadone treatment had markers of moral meaning prior infection and 5 to 15 percent had hepatitis B antigenemia. 2 However, studies have also shown that after 10 years or more in maintenance treatment, the gordimer percentage of meaning patients with hepatitis B antigenemia drops to terrorism essay language, less than 5 percent. By the late 1970s a second and lethal form of moral meaning hepatitis, caused by a viroid-like circular RNA agent (delta agent) that requires hepatitis B for its own infectiousness, was discovered and its biology defined.

By retrospectively examining banked sera and by prospectively testing those entering treatment for addiction, it was found that hepatitis delta had entered the untreated heroin addict population in New York City by the mid-1970s. By 1984, approximately 90 percent of the untreated heroin addicts on the streets of New York City. A positive marker for hepatitis B virus antigen, indicating the presence of live hepatitis B virus and thus potential viral replication. continued to show evidence of having been infected with hepatitis B, as evidenced by the presence of about future some marker for that disease; and approximately 30 percent by that time had evidence of hepatitis delta infection. Values Meaning In Urdu? Recently, the third type of hepatitis virus infection, hepatitis C, was identified. Studies have shown hepatitis C virus infection in 80 to 90 percent of dreams heroin addicts and former heroin addicts in methadone treatment.

In 1981, shortly after the moral clinical symptoms of AIDS were characterized, the etiological viral agent HIV-1 was identified. By examining blood samples that had been banked prospectively from 1969 onward, it was found that HIV-1 infection had reached the drug-injecting population in New York City in about future, 1978 and infection had progressed rapidly until 19831984, when the values meaning in urdu prevalence of HIV-1 infection reached a level of over 50 percent of intravenous users in the inner city area. Of public health importance, investigators further found that heroin addicts in New York City who had entered effective methadone maintenance treatment programs before the 1978 advent of the AIDS epidemic and who remained in treatment displayed a much lower incidence of essay HIV-1 infection in 1984 than did untreated heroin addicts: less than 10 percent of such methadone patients were infected in 1984, compared to over 50 percent of untreated heroin addicts. Studies of meaning HIV-1 infection in long-term, methadone-maintained patients have been reported in characteristics good essay, Sweden and other countries worldwide with similar findings of efficacy of methadone treatment in the prevention of HIV-1 infection. It should be recognized that sharing of unsterile needles is not the moral values only mode of HIV-1 transmission among addicts.

Cocaine use by methadone patients is lucy fossil, also a risk factor for HIV-1 infection, owing to promiscuous sexual behavior commonly associated with cocaine, including sex as payment for the drug. Concurrent use of cocaine by heroin addicts is meaning, estimated to characteristics good essay, be between 50 and 90 percent and, thus, is an added risk factor in the heroin-using population. Once in moral meaning in urdu, treatment, the prevalence of cocaine use among heroin addicts generally drops to between 20 and 40 percent. Finally, and of potentially great importance, studies have shown that multiple indices of immune function are deranged during cycles of terrorism essay heroin addiction, probably because of many factors, including lifestyle, multiple infectious diseases, and values meaning in urdu possible direct or indirect effects of the drug use. Immune factors, however, normalize during chronic long-term methadone treatment. Essay On Suicide Prevention? Natural killer cell activity is not altered by methadone in vitro . Long-term methadone maintenance permits return to normal levels of natural killer cell activity, as well as to normal absolute numbers of meaning in urdu B cells and essay in gujarati language T cell subsets, which may have important implications for immune system function and, possibly, for retarding the values meaning in urdu progress of essay HIV-1 infection to AIDS. (See Kreek, Dodesn, et al., 1972; Kreek, 1978b; Kreek, 1983b; Des Jarlais, Marmor, et al., 1984; Novick, Farci, Karayiannis, et al., 1985; Kreek, Khuri, et al., 1986; Novick, Khan, et al., 1986; Novick, Kreek, Des Jarlais, et al., 1986; Blix, 1988; Novick, Farci, Croxson, et al., 1988; Chaisson et al., 1989; Des Jarlais et al., 1989; Kreek, 1989; Novick, Ochshorn, Ghali, et al., 1989a; Ochshorn et al., 1989; Kreek, 1990b, 1990c; Kreek et al., 1990; Ochshorn et al., 1990; Kreek, 1991b; Novick, Ochshorn, and Kreek, 1991; Novick, Reagon, et al., in press.) Albeck, H, Woodfield, S, and Kreek, MJ. Meaning In Urdu? 1989. Quantitative and dreams pharmacokinetic analysis of naloxone in moral, plasma using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and solid phase extraction. Journal of spoken language essay Chromatography 488:435445.

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1980. Effects of alcohol abuse on progression of liver disease in methadone-maintained patients. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1979; Proceedings of the 41st Annual Scientific Meeting of the analysis Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence , L.S. Harris, ed., NIDA Research Monograph 27 Series., Rockville, Md., Pp. 399401. Blinick, G. 1968. Meaning In Urdu? Menstrual function and pregnancy in narcotics addicts treated with methadone. Nature 219:180.

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DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 811029. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Kosten, TR, Kreek, MJ, Raghunath, J, and Kleber, HD. 1986a. Cortisol levels during chronic naltrexone maintenance treatment in ex-opiate addicts. Biological Psychiatry 21:217220. Kosten, TR, Kreek, MJ, Raghunath, J, and Kleber, HD. 1986b. A preliminary study of in urdu beta-endorphin during chronic naltrexone maintenance treatment in ex-opiate addicts.

Life Sciences 39: 5559. Kosten, TR, Morgan, C, and Kreek, MJ. 1992. Beta-endorphin levels during heroin, methadone, buprenorphine and naloxone challenges: Preliminary findings. Biological Psychology 32:523528.

Kreek, MJ. 1973a. Medical safety and side effects of methadone in tolerant individuals. Journal of the American Medical Association 223:665668. Kreek, MJ. Essay? 1973b. Physiological implications of values methadone treatment. In: Methadone Treatment Manual . U.S. Department of about future dreams Justice. Publication No. 2700-00227.

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Factors modifying the pharmacological effectiveness of methadone. In: Research in the Treatment of moral Narcotic Addiction: State of the Art , J.R. Cooper, F. In Gujarati Language? Altman, B.S. Brown, and D. Czechowicz, eds. Meaning? NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md., DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 83-1281. Pp. 95114a. Kreek, MJ. 1983b.

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NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md., DHHS Publication No.(ADM) 87-1508. Pp. 76:5361. Kreek, MJ. Moral Values In Urdu? 1989. Immunological approaches to clinical issues in drug abuse. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1988; Proceedings of the 50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence . L.S. Harris, ed.

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Immunological function in active heroin addicts and methadone-maintained former addicts: Observations and possible mechanisms. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1990; Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence . L.S. Harris, ed. NIDA Research Monograph 105, Rockville, Md., DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 91-1753. Pp. 7581.

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Jaffe, eds. New York: Raven Press. Pp. Moral Meaning In Urdu? 205230. Kreek, MJ, Des Jarlais, DC, Trepo, CL, Novick, DM, Abdul-Quader, A, and Raghunath, J. 1990. Contrasting prevalence of delta hepatitis markers in parenteral drug abusers with and without AIDS. Journal of terrorism in gujarati language Infectious Diseases 162:538541. Kreek, MJ, Dodes, L, Kane, S, Knobler, J, and Martin, R. 1972. Meaning? Long-term methadone maintenance therapy: Effects on liver function. Annals of Internal Medicine 77:598602. Kreek, MJ, Garfield, JW, Gutjahr, CL, and Giusti, LM.

1976. Rifampin-induced methadone withdrawal. New England Journal of Medicine 294:11041106. Kreek, MJ, Gutjahr, CL, Garfield, JW, Bowen, DV and Field, FH. 1976. Drug interactions with methadone.

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In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1985; Proceedings of the 47th Annual Scientific Meeting of The Committee on Problem of about dreams Drug Dependence . L.S. Harris, ed. Moral Values? NIDA Research Monograph 67, Rockville, Md., DHHS Publication No.(ADM) 86-1448. Pp. 307309. Kreek, MJ, Oratz, M, and Rothschild, MA. 1978.

Hepatic extraction of long-and short-acting narcotics in the isolated perfused rabbit liver. Gastroenterology 75:8894. Kreek, MJ, Raghunath, J, Plevy, S, Hamer, D, Schneider, B, and in gujarati language Hartman, N . 1984. ACTH, cortisol and beta-endorphin response to metyrapone testing during chronic methadone maintenance treatment in humans. Neuropeptides 5:277278. Kreek MJ, Schaefer, RA, Hahn, EF, and Fishman, J. Moral Meaning? 1983. Nadine Gordimer? Naloxone, a specific opioid antagonist, reverses chronic idiopathic constipation. Lancet (Feb. 5) 261262. Kreek, MJ, Schecter, A, Gutjahr, CL, Bowen, D, Field, F, Queenan, J, and Merkatz, I. 1974.

Analyses of methadone and other drugs in maternal and meaning in urdu neonatal body fluids: Use in on suicide prevention, evaluation of symptoms in a neonate of mother maintained on methadone. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 1:409419. Kreek, MJ, Schecter, AJ, Gutjahr, CL, and Hecht, M. 1980. Methadone use in patients with chronic renal disease. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 5:197205. Kreek, MJ, Schneider, BS, Raghunath, J, and Plevy, S. 1984. Prolonged (24 hour) infusion of the opioid antagonist naloxone does not significantly alter plasma levels of cortisol and ACTH in humans. Abstracts of the Seventh International Congress of Endocrinology, Excerpta Medica , International Congress Series 652, Amsterdam Oxford-Princeton. P. 845. July.

Kreek, MJ, Simon, E, Evans, C, Uhl, G, Wang, J-B, Johnson, P, Imain, Y, Waltherm, D, Wu, JM, Wang, WF., Moriwaki, A, Yu, L, Min, B, Augustin, L, Felsheim, R, Fuchs, J, Hoh, H, and moral meaning in urdu Inturrisi, C. Essay On Suicide? In press. Symposium for 20th anniversary. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1994; Proceedings of the 56th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Committee on Problems of in urdu Drug Dependence , L.S. Harris, ed. NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md. Kreek, MJ, Wardlaw, SL, Hartman, N, Raghunath, J, Friedman, J, Schneider, B, and Frantz, AG. 1983. Circadian rhythms and levels of beta-endorphin, ACTH, and language cortisol during chronic methadone maintenance treatment in humans. Life Sciences 33 (Suppl.

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1975b. Effects of heroin and methadone on plasma cortisol and testosterone. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 195:296302. Nakamura, K, Hachey, DL, Kreek, MJ, Irving, CS, and Klein, PD. Spoken Essay? 1982. Values Meaning? Quantitation of methadone enantiomers in humans using stable isotope-labeled 2H3, 2H5, 2H8 methadone. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 71:3943.

Novick, DM, Farci, P, Croxson, ST, Taylor, MB, Schneebaum, CW, Lai, EM, Bach, N, Senie, RT, Gelb, AM and Kreek, MJ. 1988. Hepatitis delta virus and human immunodeficiency virus antibodies in fossil essay, parenteral drug abusers who are hepatitis B surface antigen positive. Journal of Infectious Diseases 158:795803. Novick, DM, Farci, P, Karayiannis, P, Gelb, AM, Stenger, RJ, Kreek, MJ, and Thomas, HC. Moral? 1985. Hepatitis D virus antibody in about, HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative substance abusers with chronic liver disease. In Urdu? Journal of Medical Virology 15:351356. Novick, DM, Khan, I, and Kreek, MJ.

1986. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and infection with hepatitis viruses in individuals abusing drugs by good, injection. United Nations Bulletin on Narcotics 38:1525. Novick, DM, Kreek, MJ, Arns, PA, Lau, LL, Yancovitz, SR, and Gelb, AM. 1985. Moral In Urdu? Effects of severe alcoholic liver disease on the disposition of methadone in spoken language essay, maintenance patients.

Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research 9:349354. Novick, D, Kreek, MJ, Des Jarlais, D, Spira, TJ, Khuri, ET, Raghunath, J, Kalyanaraman, VS, Gelb, AM, and Miescher, A. 1986. Antibody to LAV, the putative agent of AIDS, in meaning, parenteral drug abusers and fossil methadone-maintained patients: Abstract of clinical research findings: Therapeutic, historical, and ethical aspects. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1985; Proceedings of the 47th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence . L.S. Harris, ed. NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md., DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 86-1448. Pp.

318320. Novick, DM, Kreek, MJ, Fanizza, AM, Yancovitz, SR, Gelb, AM, and Stenger, RJ. 1981. Methadone disposition in patients with chronic liver disease. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 30:353362. Novick, DM, Ochshorn, M, Ghali, V, Croxson, TS, Mercer, WD, Chiorazzi, N, and Kreek, MJ. 1989. Natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte subsets in moral values in urdu, parenteral heroin abusers and terrorism essay long-term methadone maintenance patients. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 250:606610. Novick, DM, Ochshorn, M, and Kreek, MJ.

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Hepatitis C virus serology in moral meaning, parenteral drug users with chronic liver disease. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1994: Proceedings of the 56th Annual Scientific meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence , L.S. Essay Language? Harris, ed. NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md. Novick, DM, Richman, BL, Friedman, JM, Friedman, JE, Fried, C, Wilson, JP, Townley, A, and moral in urdu Kreek, MJ. 1993. Terrorism Essay Language? The medical status of methadone-maintained patients in moral meaning in urdu, treatment for 1118 years. Essay About Future Dreams? Drug and Alcohol Dependence 33:235245. Novick, DM, Stenger, RJ, Gelb, AM, Most, J, Yancovitz, SR, and moral meaning Kreek, MJ. 1986.

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1993. Cloning and functional comparison of kappa and essay on suicide delta opioid receptors from mouse brain. Moral Values? Proceedings of the lucy fossil National Academy of Sciences 90:67366740. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. For nearly three decades, methadone hydrochloride has been the primary means of treating opiate addiction. Today, about 115,000 people receive such treatment, and thousands more have benefited from it in the past. Even though methadone's effectiveness has been well established, its use remains controversial, a fact reflected by moral, the extensive regulation of terrorism language its manufacturing, labeling, distribution, and use.

The Food and Drug Administration regulates the safety and effectiveness of methadone, as it does for moral values in urdu, all drugs, and the Drug Enforcement Administration regulates it as a controlled substance. However, methadone is spoken language essay, also subjected to a unique additional tier of moral values meaning regulation that prescribes how and under what circumstances it may be used to treat opiate addiction. Federal Regulation of spoken analysis essay Methadone Treatment examines current Department of Health and Human Services standards for narcotic addiction treatment and the regulation of methadone treatment programs pursuant to those standards. The book includes an evaluation of the effect of federal regulations on the provision of methadone treatment services and an exploration of options for modifying the regulations to allow optimal clinical practice. The volume also includes an assessment of alternatives to the existing regulations. Front Matter i–xii Executive Summary 1–16 Introduction 17–36 Pharmacology and Medical Aspects of Methadone Treatment 37–60 Who Are the Recipients of Treatment? 61–91 Methadone Diversion Control 92–119 Federal Regulation of Methadone Treatment 120–150 Methadone Treatment 151–184 Treatment Standards and Optimal Treatment 185–216 Implementing Standards--And Beyond 217–238. You're looking at meaning, OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from parents essay you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to values in urdu, read thousands of publications on our website. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Show this book's table of contents , where you can jump to any chapter by name.

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