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books in essay mla The Writing Center. Empire State College. Genesee Valley Center. GUIDE TO WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS. IN THE MLA STYLE. Campaign Research. This style sheet is intended only as an overview and does not cover all aspects of the MLA style. For more complete information, see the barber business MLA Style Manual or The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers . The Writing Center has these and other resources on hand. You can also find them at anti campaign most libraries or purchase them at all major bookstores. The MLA style refers to the method of writing research papers recommended by the Modern Language Association . Missing Report. The MLA style is used in some areas of the humanities, e.g., composition and literature.
Other humanities disciplines such as history, philosophy, and religion may require other styles for formatting your papers. Ask your Primary Mentor which style to smoking use, then come to the Writing Center for further guidance . Basic MLA Facts. Always double space, including the text of your paper, quotations, notes, and the list of thesis statement brown by, works cited. Unless otherwise instructed, use one-inch margins top, bottom, left, and right. Research Paper. Use parenthetical citations to anthology acknowledge direct quotations, indirect quotations, and/or any ideas you have borrowed from another person. Use a Works Cited page for reference to parenthetical citations. Underline (or italicize) titles of books, plays, pamphlets, periodicals (newspapers, magazines, journals), films, television programs, and record albums/CDs. Place within quotation marks newspaper/magazine articles, essays in a book, songs, poems (except long poems published as a book), book chapters, episodes of a television show, and lectures. Number pages in the upper right hand corner of the page. Smoking Campaign Research. Use present tense to introduce cited or quoted material and to make personal comments on clinical research project manager such materials.
Use past tense only when directly quoting a passage that is in past tense or when reporting historical events. As Winkleman states in the novel Diary of a Madman , I was never ignorant (293). Winkleman's purpose in Diary of smoking, a Madman is to point out the innate imperfection of humans. Moore created Winkleman not only to use as a pen name, but also to use as a semi-fictional forum through which the author could express his own opinions. Plagiarism is the use of the words and/or ideas of another person without disclosing the source. Whether deliberate or unintentional, plagiarism can lead to failure in a course and/or dismissal from missing may book report, college. To avoid plagiarism, acknowledge your sources with in-text citations and a Works Cited page. Always cite direct quotations (see below) . If you use another person's idea or paraphrase another person's words, don't simply rearrange the words. Instead, make sure to use your own style of writing and language, and use an in-text citation to acknowledge the campaign research source. Then, list on education essay the Works Cited page the publications or sources from which you obtained your citations. The Writing Center here at GVC has a separate handout on this called, Plagiarism and How to Avoid it: Guidelines for anti smoking campaign research paper Students.
I. In-text Citations. Cite the first appearance of or reference to another person's words or ideas by introducing the quotation, paraphrase, or citation with the author's full name exactly as it appears in the source, but exclude titles such as Mr., Mrs., Ms., Miss, Dr., Reverend , etc. Be sure to include the page number(s) on which the cited material can be found. You may also choose to include the title of the cited text in the first reference. Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the missing may book Short Story that, to write good fiction, authors of short fiction must master grammar and punctuation (17). The phrase Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the Short Story that, . is the signal phrase in this example. Peacey also states that today's writers must not use gender-specific language(17). Authors Name Not Used in Text.
If you don't use the author's name in the text, place only the last name within the parenthetical citation with the page number. In the parenthetical citation, don't use p. or pp. to smoking indicate page number(s), and don't include the text's title. Although many consider Lovejoy's collection titled My Art: The Stories the perfect model for writing short stories, most creative writing teachers dismiss it as pretentious, trashy, and inane (Peacey 333). More Than One Author. If a cited source has more than one author, either include all names in the parenthetical citation according to sample barber shop plan how they are listed in the source, or list the first author followed by et. al. Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and predictable twists of irony in his short stories (Newman, Banya, Benis, and Cramer 814). Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and research predictable twists of irony in his short stories (Newman, et. al. 814). Trent Lovejoy uses a variety of avian symbolism in his fiction.
Doves represent peace. Eagles stand for clinical research project manager letter self-deterministic freedom. Anti Smoking Research Paper. Ravens signify the mysterious. Vultures symbolize either death or opportunism. By doing so, he has kept alive a cliched symbolistic literature in America (Crowe 19). In comparison, the following passage clearly delineates words and ideas, and the reader of this passage can see that the student borrowed both a direct quotation and ideas from of public, Crowe's book, For the Birds . Campaign Research. In For the Birds , James Crowe explains that Trent Lovejoy uses avian symbols to critical anthology essays represent peace, freedom, mystery, death, and opportunism. In doing so, Crowe argues that Lovejoy has managed to keep alive the tradition of cliched symbolistic literature for smoking campaign paper America (189). Critical Essays. If you are citing an author who has been quoted in another book or article, use the original author's name in the text and the author of the source in which you found the smoking campaign paper quotation in the parenthetical citation. It is far more important for authors to . . .honor the semiotic tradition by using established symbolism than it is for them to create new symbols as Lovejoy asserts (qtd. in anthology Crowe: 278). Less than four typed lines of any direct quotation are placed within quotation marks. Crowe argues that Lovejoy has single-handedly kept alive a tradition that has certainly earned a long overdue demise (191).
More than four typed lines of any direct quotation must be indented. From the left margin, indent one inch on a computer or ten spaces on a typewriter. Double space the quotation, and don't use quotation marks . Insert a parenthetical citation two spaces after the research last punctuation mark of the quotation. Peacey states that many authors of contemporary short fiction have not mastered the commonly accepted set of prescriptive rules by which standard American English is defined. She argues that such a lack of proficiency is detrimental to these authors' works and may well be damaging to the language as a whole. She makes this observation: Authors of anthology, fiction have always manipulated the grammar of their respective eras. Whether writing in dialect to validate certain characters or stylistically misusing a language, fictionists have routinely broken grammatical rules. However, the anti campaign research paper misuse of language by contemporary writers is more often the result of ignorance of grammar than it is of creative design. For a variety of reasons, not the least of may book report, which is academic political correctness, many contemporary American authors simply do not know a grammar that delineates the language in smoking paper which they write. Such ignorance is problematic, for any authorial improvisation must be based on firmly ordered and in the world essay systematically gained knowledge. (198) As can be understood from this passage, Peacey clearly believes that the mastery of the smoking campaign paper rules precedes creativity.
For two or more paragraphs, indent the first line of each additional paragraph another quarter inch (or three typed spaces) beyond the original one inch or ten space indentation. Missing May Book. Two or More Works by the Same Author. If your list of works cited includes two or more works by the same author, include the title of the work either in the signal phrase or in abbreviated form in the parenthetical reference. In his article California and smoking the West, reporter T. Christian Miller asserts that from 1990 to 1997, California spent roughly $26 million on conservation lands to provide habitat for exactly 2.6 mountain lions (A3). According to T. Christian Miller. Clinical Project Letter. Mountain lions, also called pumas or cougars, range vast territories in search of food, sometimes as large as 100 square miles (Cougars 1).
The mountain lion population has been encroaching on human territory in California since 1972, when voters passed a law that banned hunting of the animal (Miller, Cougars 1). The Author Is Unknown. Anti Smoking Campaign Research. If the author is not given, either use the complete title in a signal phrase or use a short form of the title in the parentheses. In California, fish and essay game officials estimate that since 1972 lion numbers have increased from 2,400 to at least 6,000 (Lion A21). Authors With the smoking paper Same Last Name. If your list of works cited includes works by two or more authors with the same last name, include the first name of the author you are citing in the signal phrase or parenthetical reference. At least 66,665 lions were killed between 1907 and manager letter 1978 in Canada and the United States (Kevin Hansen 58). Anti Smoking Campaign Research. A Novel, a Play, or a Poem. In citing literary sources, include information that will enable readers to find the passage in various editions of the work.
For a novel, put the research project cover letter page number first and then, if possible, indicate the part or chapter in which the passage can be found. Fitzgerald's narrator captures Gatsby in a moment of isolation: A sudden emptiness seemed to flow now from the windows and the great doors, endowing with complete isolation the figure of the anti smoking campaign host(56: ch. 3). For a verse play, list the act, scene, and line numbers, separated by periods. Anthology. Use Arabic numerals unless your instructor prefers Roman numerals. In his famous advice to the players, Hamlet defines the purpose of theater, . . . whose end, both at the first and now, was and is, to hold, as 'twere, the mirror up to nature (3.2.21-23). For a poem, cite the part (if there are a number of parts) and smoking research the line numbers, separated by periods. When Homer's Odysseus comes to the hall of Circe, he finds his men . . . Thesis Goodman. mild / in her soft spell, fed on her drug of evil (10.209-11). If the book of the Bible that you are citing does not appear in the signal phrase, include it in parentheses along with the chapter and verse numbers. Consider the words of Solomon: If your enemy is hungry, give him bread to eat; and if he is thirsty, give him water to drink (Prov. 25.21).
Two or More Works. To cite more than one source to document a particular point, separate the smoking campaign research paper citations with a semicolon. The dangers of mountain lions to humans have been well documented (Rychnovsky 40; Seidensticker 114; Williams30). A Work without Page Numbers. You may omit the of public speaking page number if a work has no page numbers. Some electronic sources use paragraph numbers instead of page numbers. For such sources, use the abbreviation par. or pars. in the parentheses: (Smith, par. Anti. 4) . An Electronic Source. To cite an electronic source in the text of your paper, follow the same rules as for print sources. If the source has an author and there is critical essays a page number, provide both. Using historical writings about leprosy as an example, Demaitre argues that . . . the difference between curability and treatability is not a modern invention (29).
A clip of the film Demolition d'un mur demonstrates that cinema is all about transformation, not mere movement (Routt, sec. Anti Smoking. 1). Education In The World. Volti writes, As with all significant innovations, the history of the automobile shows that technological advance is fueled by more than economic calculation. According to a Web page sponsored by the Children's Defense Fund, fourteen American children die from gunfire each day (Child) II. Use of paper, Ellipsis Points.
When you omit a word, phrase, sentence, or paragraph from a quoted passage, you must use ellipsis points, or three spaced periods, to indicate that your quotation does not completely reproduce the original. If you omit a word or a phrase at the beginning or in sample barber shop the middle of a quoted sentence, use three periods with one space between each period to indicate the omission. Paper. Moore states that . . . a pseudonym provides . . . an invaluable tool to express one's own opinion (214). Use four ellipsis points to indicate the world essay omission of an paper, entire sentence within a quotation. In The. Peacey claims that . . . Campaign. although a living language is constantly changing . . . . It is the author's duty to education in the world essay be aware of the language's grammatical conventions as well as to be knowledgeable of its linguistic history (7). Use four spaced periods to anti smoking paper indicate an omission at the end of clinical project letter, a direct quotation. If a parenthetical reference directly follows the quotation, the last period follows the parentheses. Lovejoy argues that . . . authors are duty-bound to carry on the semiotic tradition as it is inherited from smoking paper, those authors who precede them . . . (4). If no parenthetical reference follows the critical anthology omission, end the quotation with four spaced periods enclosed by an ending quotation mark. Lovejoy argues on page four in his introduction of My Art: The Stories that . . . the author is duty-bound to carry on the semiotic tradition as presented to him by those authors who precede him . . . . III.
The Works Cited Page. The Works Cited page immediately follows the text of the paper. Alphabetize by the authors' last names. When there is no author but there is an anti smoking campaign research, editor, alphabetize by the editor's last name. If you don't know the name of an fear of public essay, author or editor, alphabetize by the first important word in the title of the work cited. Center the title Works Cited one inch from the top of the sheet. Double space between the title and the first entry. Anti Research. Place the first line of each entry flush with the left margin.
Indent succeeding lines one-half inch (computer-formatted) or five spaces (typed). Thesis Statement For Young By. Double space each entry, and double space between entries. Use two spaces after periods and one space after other punctuation marks. Remember, you must always have a Works Cited page as well as in-text citations to avoid plagiarism . Begin each reference at the left hand margin. List the author's last name first, then the first name followed by a period. Type two spaces, then list the title of the book underlined and with the first letter of all major words capitalized. A period follows (not underlined). Next list the place (city) of publication followed by a colon, one space, the publisher followed by a comma, and the year of publication followed by smoking research, a period.
Omit the words Publishing Company and Inc . May Book. from the publisher's name. If the reference is anti more than one line in length, indent one-half inch (computer formatted) or five spaces (typed) all lines following the first. Double space all lines. Business Plan. Book by one Author. Hyde, Bernard. Anti Campaign Paper. Perspectives on Literature: The New Historical Criticism in America . Peoria: Bancroft, 1992.
Britt, Ponsiby. Representation of Indigenous North American Mammalia in essay Twentieth Century American Humor . Frostbite Falls: Rockland UP, 1963. ---. Character Stereotypes in Cold War American Literature . Frostbite Falls: Rockland UP, 1967. Books by two or more authors -- list authors as they are listed in the book. Anti Smoking Research. Reverse only the first author's name. Ciccone, Eva, Lorna Smith, and Natasha Fatale. Femininity and Feminism in Literature: Two Views . Statement Goodman Brown. Boston: Singleton, 1991. If a book has more than three authors, either list all authors as shown above or list only the first author followed by a comma, a space, then et al . Jones, Sarah, Michael Williams, Charles Porter, William Mayer, and Anthony Rofollo. Scenes in a Coffee Shop . Toronto: Middleman, 1996. Jones, Sarah, et al. Scenes in a Coffee Shop . Toronto: Middleman, 1996.
List any book beyond the first edition by including the edition two spaces after the period which concludes the title. Do not underline the anti smoking campaign paper designation for education essay the edition. Young, Keith. Symbols of Morality . 4th ed. Scranton: Crowell, 1976. For an campaign, author's work cited in a textbook, anthology, or other full-length work, list according to the author of the education in the world essay cited work within the anthology. Typically, such a cited work would be an article, an essay, a short story, or a poem, so enclose the title of the cited work within quotation marks. Anti Smoking Research. However, underline the title if the work was originally published as a book. May Book. Always underline the title of the anti smoking anthology, which immediately follows the title of the work. Include the education in the page numbers of the anthology in which the cited work appears. An entry for anti smoking an editor is similar to missing that for an author except that the name is followed by a comma and the abbreviation ed. for editor.
If there is more than one editor, use the anti paper abbreviation eds. for editors. Kitchen, Judith, and Mary Paumier Jones, eds. In Short: A Collection of Brief Creative Nonfiction . New York: Norton, 1996. Author with an Editor. Begin with the author and title, followed by the name of the editor. Clinical Research Project Letter. In this case the smoking campaign abbreviation Ed. means Edited by, so it is the same for one or multiple editors.
Wells, Ida B. The Memphis Diary . Ed. Miriam DeCosta-Willis. Boston: Beacon, 1995. List the entry under the name of the author, not the translator. After the title, write Trans. (for Translated by) and report the name of the translator. Mahfouz, Naguib. Campaign Paper. Arabian Nights and Days . Statement For Young Goodman Brown By. Trans.
Denys Johnson-Davies. New York: Doubleday, 1995. Begin with the title. Alphabetize the entry by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The. Anti Smoking Research. Oxford Essential World Atlas . New York: Oxford UP, 1996. Edition Other Than the First. If you are citing an statement by, edition other than the first, include the number of the edition after the title: 2nd ed., 3rd ed., and smoking research paper so on. Boyce, David George.
The Irish Question and British Politics, 1868-1996 . 2nd ed. Critical Anthology Essays. New York: St. Campaign Research. Martin's, 1996. Include the total number of volumes before the world city and research paper publisher, using the abbreviation vols. Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by Herself . 2 vols. New York: Random, 1996.
Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by Herself . Vol. 2. New York: Random, 1996. 2 vols. Encyclopedia or Dictionary. Articles in well-known dictionaries and encyclopedias are handled in project manager cover letter abbreviated form. Simply list the author of the article (if there is one), the anti smoking paper title of the article, the title of the reference work, the edition number, if any, and thesis for young goodman brown the date of the edition. Sonata.
Encyclopaedia Britannica . Smoking Paper. 15th ed. 1997. Research Manager. The Bible is smoking research not included in the list of works cited. If you want to clinical project indicate the version of the Bible you are citing, do so in your in-text citation. Anti Smoking Campaign Research Paper. Work in an Anthology. Present the information in this order, with each item followed by a period: author of the selection; title of the selection; title of the anthology; editor of the anthology, preceded by speaking, Ed. Anti Campaign. (meaning Edited by); city, publisher, and date; page numbers on which the selection appears. Missing May Book. Malouf, David. The Kyogle Line. The Oxford Book of Travel Stories . Ed. Patricia Craig. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
390-96. Rodriguez, Richard. Late Victorians. Smoking Campaign Paper. Harper's Oct. 1990: 57-66. Rpt. in The Best American Essays 1991. Ed. Barber Shop Business. Joyce Carol Oates. New York: Ticknor, 1991. 119-34.
Two or More Works From the Same Anthology. If you wish, you may cross-reference two or more works from the anti paper same anthology. Provide a separate entry for fear of public essay the anthology with complete publication information. Craig, Patricia, ed. The Oxford Book of Travel Stories . Campaign Paper. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996. Then list each selection separately, giving the author and title of the selection followed by a cross-reference to the anthology. The cross-reference should include the last name of the editor of the anthology and the page numbers in the anthology on which the selection appears. Desai, Anita. Scholar and Gypsy. Craig 251-73.
Malouf, David. Thesis For Young. The Kyogle Line. Craig 390-96. Foreword, Introduction, Preface, or Afterword. Smoking Research. If in your paper you quote from one of these elements, begin with the name of the writer of that element. Then identify the element being cited, neither underlined nor in quotation marks, followed by the title of the sample shop business complete book, the smoking paper book's author, and the book's editor, if any. After the publication information, give the page numbers on which the foreword, introduction, preface, or afterword appears. Kennedy, Edward M. Foreword.
Make a Difference . Henry W. Education In The Essay. Foster, Jr., and Alice Greenwood. New York: Scribner, 1997. 9-15. Book with a Title within Its Title. If the book title contains a title normally underlined (or italicized), neither underline (nor italicize) the internal title nor place it in quotation marks. Smoking Campaign Research. Vanderham, Paul. James Joyce and Censorship: The Trials of Ulysses . New York: New York UP, 1997. Faulkner, Dewey R. Twentieth Century Interpretations of The Pardoner's Tale . Englewood Cliffs: Spectrum-Prentice, 1973.
Before the publication information, cite the series name as it appears on clinical research manager letter the title page followed by the series number, if any. Malena, Anne. The Dynamics of Identity in Francophone Caribbean Narrative . Francophone Cultures and Literatures Ser. 24. New York: Lang, 1998.
After the title of the book, cite the original publication date followed by the current publication information. If the republished book contains new material, such as an anti smoking research paper, introduction or afterword, include that information after the original date. McClintock, Walter. Old Indian Trails . 1926. Foreword William Least Heat Moon. Boston: Houghton, 1992. If a book was published by sample shop, an imprint of a publishing company, cite the anti paper name of the imprint followed by a hyphen and thesis for young brown the publisher's name. The name of the imprint usually precedes the publisher's name on the title page. Coles, Robert.
The Moral Intelligence of Children: How to Raise a Moral Child . Campaign Research Paper. New York: Plume-Random, 1997. Report. List the entry under the name of the anti campaign paper author, not the translator. After the title, write Trans. (for Translated by) and the name of the sample business plan translator. Mahfouz, Naguib. Smoking. Arabian Nights and Days . Trans. Denys Johnson-Davies. New York: Doubleday, 1995. Periodicals are publications such as newspapers, magazines, and thesis statement for young brown by journals. Generally, list the author(s), title of article in quotation marks, name of the journal underlined, series number (if relevant), volume number (for journals), issue number (if needed), date of publication, and campaign inclusive page numbers not preceded by p. or pp. If the clinical letter article is not published on consecutive pages, include only the page number on which the article first appears, followed by a + sign with no space in between. Many scholarly journals are paged continuously throughout the year.
The year's first issue begins on page one, and subsequent issues begin on the page where the issue preceding them ends. Therefore, listing the month of publication is unnecessary. Instead, list the volume number followed by campaign research, the year of publication in parentheses. Then include a colon followed by page number(s) on which the article appears. Missing May Book. Gregory, Norman. Australian Aboriginal Dialects. The Journal of Modern Languages 75 (1987): 74-101. However, some journals page each issue separately. In such cases, include in the bibliographic citation the anti research volume number immediately followed by a period, which is immediately followed by the issue number. Douglas, Oliver. Gentrification of Rural Lands: Migration Beyond the Suburb.
The American Quarterly 18.2 (1969): 12-24. Essay. Ziffel, Arnold. Confessions of an Overeater. Pound Watchers Weekly 8 June 1970: 14-17. Douglas, Lisa. To Live on anti Park Avenue. Urban Life Sept. 1970: 36-44.
List the author(s); title of the article in quotation marks, name of fear of public essay, newspaper as it appears on the masthead omitting any introductory article such as the, the complete date of publication -- day, month, and year, a colon, and a page number(s) (including section designation such as A and B or 1 and 2 if included) as listed in campaign the newspaper. If the newspaper does not print the article on consecutive pages, use a plus (+) sign to indicate the article is to be found on more than one page. Omit any volume or issue numbers. Charles, Raymond. School Administration Closes Middle School Library. Barber Shop Business Plan. The Chronicle of S Learning 12 Sept.
1990: A1-A6. Wilbert, Kenneth. Smoking Paper. Writer Searches America for Lost Hope. Mecklenburg Tribune 24 Aug. 1987, sec. 2: 1+. IV. Computer Sources. Include information as required below. If some of this information is not available, e.g. , author's name, include the world information which you do have.
Many research sources are now published as databases on CD-ROMS. Campaign Research Paper. Generally, the information you need to cite such sources is much the same as you need for print sources; however, there are some differences. Entire CD-ROM Database. Hughes, Keith. Exploring the Internet . 2nd ed. CD-ROM. New York: BDM, 1994. Part of a CD-ROM Database.
Cited work originally published as an essay, article, short story, poem, or other short work. Smythe, Leslie. Oh, Burden of Brittania. Cramden Anthology of Victorian Poetry . CD-ROM. London: Ivory Tower UP, 1993. Cited work originally published as a full-length work. Fox, James. Dalton's Lament . The Modern Reader's CD Library . CD-ROM. New York: Mayfield, 1996.
Franco, William. Khmer Rouge Documented Their Own Atrocities. Anthology Essays. New York Times , 17 April 1994: 1+. New York Times Ondisc . CD-ROM. UMI-Proquest, Jan. Anti. 1995. Cite an entire diskette as you would a book, but include the source medium as with CD-ROMS. Lovejoy, Trent. On Writing Short Fiction: Notes from the Master . Diskette. New York: Narcissus, 1993. If your source is a story, article, poem, or other work published as part of the diskette, indicate diskette as the source medium.
Cited work originally published as an essay, article, short story, poem, or other short work. Smythe, Leslie. Oh, Burden of Brittania. In The World Essay. Cramden Anthology of anti smoking campaign research paper, Victorian Poetry . Clinical Project Cover Letter. Diskette. London: Ivory Tower UP, 1993. Cited work originally published as a full-length work. Fox, James. Dalton's Lament . The Modern Reader's Library . Smoking Research Paper. Diskette.
New York: Mayfield, 1996. If the source cited from a diskette also has a printed source, cite the printed source first. Frank, Richard. The Four Pennies. Pacific Monthly , April 1994: 48+. New American Authors: 1994 . Diskette. New York: Clairmont, 1994. V. Online Sources. Online information is unlike published information in that it exists only in an electronic environment and is often subject to day-to-day change. The following information is adapted from: Harnack, Andrew and Eugene Kleppinger. Online!
A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources . Critical Anthology. New York: Bedford/St. Martins, 2000. For writers creating in-text citations and Works Cited lists for anti smoking campaign research paper online sources, the MLA Handbook provides the following recommendations: Download or print any online material you plan to missing report use, in case it becomes inaccessible later. Smoking Research. Don't introduce a hyphen at the break of a URL between two lines. If you must divide a URL between two lines, break it only after a slash (/). World Wide Web Site. In The World. When you document sources from the World Wide Web, the MLA suggests that your Works Cited entries contain as many items from the following list as are relevant and available: Name of the anti smoking campaign author, editor, compiler, translator, or site maintainer (if available and relevant), alphabetized by thesis statement goodman by, last name and followed by any appropriate abbreviations, such as ed. ; Title of a poem, short story, article or other short work within a book, scholarly project, database, or periodical, in quotation marks; Title of a book, in italics or underlined; Publication information for any print version; Title of a scholarly project, database, or periodical, or professional or personal site (in italics or underlined), or, for a professional or personal site with no title, a description such as home page; Name of the editor of smoking campaign paper, a scholarly project or database (if known); Version number (if not part of the title) or, for a journal, the volume, issue, or other identifying number; Name of the institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the Web site; Date you accessed the source; and URL (in angle brackets).
Although no single entry will contain all these items of information, most Works Cited entries for Web sources will include the following basic information: Author's name (last name first). Document title. Date of Internet publication. Date of access URL. Shapiro, Herbert.
Professional Communications. Fear Of Public Speaking. Spring 1999. 6 Nov. 2001 http://www1.esc.edu/personalfac/hshapiro/professional_communications/default.htm An online book may be the electronic text of part or all of a printed book, or a book-length document available only on the Internet ( e.g. , a work of hyperfiction). Bird, Isabella L. A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains . New York, 1881. Victorian Women Writers Project . Ed. Perry Willett.
27 May 1999. Indiana U. 4 Oct. 1999 http://www.indiana.edu/letrs/vwwp/bird/rocky.html. Harnack, Andrew, and Eugene Kleppinger. Smoking Paper. Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources . Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000. 5 Jan.
2000 http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online. Article in an Electronic Journal (ejournal) Joyce, Michael. On the Birthday of the Stranger (in memory of John Hawkes). Anthology. Evergreen Review 5 Mar 1999. 12 May 1999 http://evergreenreview.com/evexcite/joyce/index_ns.html. Article in smoking research an Electronic Magazine (ezine) Adler, Jerry.
Ghost of Everest. Newsweek 17 May 1999. 19 May 1999. http://newsweek.com/nwsrv/issue/20_99a/printed/us/so/so0120_1.htm. Wren, Christopher. A Body on Mt. Everest, a Mystery Half-Solved.
New York Times on the Web 5 May 1999. 13 May 1999 http://search.nytimes.com/search/daily/bin/fastweb?getdoc+site+site 33726+0+wAAA+%22George%7Emallory%22. Fear Essay. Bush, George. Principles of Ethical Conduct for Government Officers and Employees. Executive Order 12674 of April 12 1989 (as modified by E. Campaign. O. 12731). Part 1. 26 Aug 1997. Education In The Essay. 18 May 1999 http://www.usoge.gov/exorders/eo12674.html. Anti Smoking Campaign Research. Scholarly Project or Information Database. Center for Reformation and Renaissance Studies . Ed.
Laura E. Hunt and William Barek. May 1998. University of Toronto. 11 May 1999 http://CITD.SCAR.UTORONTO.CA/crrs/index.html. The Internet Movie Database . May 1999. May Book. Internet Movie Database Ltd. 11 May 1999 http://us.imbd.com. Mortimer, Gail. Anti Smoking. The William Faulkner Society Home Page . 16 Sept. In The World Essay. 1999.
William Faulkner Soc. 1 Oct. Anti Smoking Campaign Research Paper. 1999 http://utep.edu/mortimer/faulkner/mainfaulkner.htm. NAIC Online . 29 Sept. 1999. National Association of fear, Investors Corporation. Anti Research. 1 Oct. 1999. Critical Anthology. http://www.betterinvesting.org. Cite an E-Mail source as you would a memo or a personal letter. Hill, Sharon. New Directions for Education.
E-Mail to research edu.users. 4 Sept. 1997. Include the following information if your mentor requires a complete address. Hill, Sharon. New Directions for Education. E-Mail to edu.users. Internet. 4 Sept. In The Essay. 1997. Available http://firstname.lastname@example.org.
MLA format for a research paper does not require a table of paper, contents, an outline, or an for young goodman brown by, abstract. MLA format also does not require a title page. Instead, include the necessary information on the first page of the text as seen below: Your last name and page number a half-inch from the top of the page on the right side (to run continually throughout your paper). Format a one-inch margin for research paper the top, bottom, and sides of the rest of the document. Double-spacing of text is required. Place your name, mentor's name, course name, and date on clinical research manager cover the left, all in the order shown. Center your title (you may place it in smoking campaign research paper bold print). If your mentor does require a title page, ask which style she or he prefers. Mentor Tom McElroy. May Book Report. ENL 202 American Literature.
American Literature and anti campaign the Perpetuation of Stereotyping Language. The Europeans erroneously thought North American aboriginals to be Asians and consequently classified them as Indians. Since then, Euro-American society has used unflattering variations of that term, including Injuns and Injiins, to describe these indigenous peoples. However, these are the more innocuous of the sobriquets Euro-Americans have foisted upon Native Americans over the years. Considering their Christian selves to be of the chosen people, early settlers deprecated native Americans by sample business, classifying them as savages, heathens, and barbarians.
This style guide was produced with the aid of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research papers 5th ed . It is intended only as a brief guide to MLA citation methods. Complete information can be found in the above mentioned text. Always consult your mentor before you start to write .
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How to smoking paper Write a Qualifications Summary. A well-written Qualifications Summary can make your resume extremely attractive to hiring managers. Learn how to critical anthology essays write one with this comprehensive guide. Writing a Qualifications Summary is the anti smoking paper simplest way to increase your chances of critical nabbing an interview . First, let’s take a look at what they look like. How is smoking paper, it that this style of resume can improve your chances of getting an interview so dramatically? It’s true for anthology essays several reasons. Firstly, they’re fairly unusual to research paper see, giving your resume a fresh and clean appearance to critical bleary-eyed hiring managers. The reason that they’re unusual is anti paper, because most people simply haven’t heard about them — because they lacked the fear of public curiosity to find out! So congratulations, you’re now in on a secret hidden in plain sight! Secondly, writing one forces the hiring manager to pay attention to your resume because it packs a powerful punch.
The first thing the hiring manager will see are all of your greatest achievements and skills, all of which are directly related to the job posting they need filled. You can compare the anti smoking paper QS to a diamond hidden in a rock — you need to sand away the coarse edges and present the valuable gem of your work experience at the top. Finally, it gives your resume a higher chance of may book report passing through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software, which is used to screen out irrelevant candidates based on the content of their resumes. Research? Explained briefly, it allows you to put a higher concentration of relevant keywords and key phrases in critical anthology essays, your resume, ensuring that it earns a “passing grade” and actually reaches human eyes. The Qualifications Summary is anti smoking campaign research, just one piece of the puzzle. You should also know the critical 10 Commandments of Resume Writing to make sure you’re hitting the anti smoking campaign research right notes throughout your entire resume. INFOGRAPHIC: How to Write a Qualifications Summary. It should cover your greatest career achievements, presenting you as a well-rounded candidate with multifarious talents. Sample Plan? As I stated earlier, the Qualifications Summary is similar to a gem, and anti campaign research its structure is barber plan, similar. Gems have many different shining facets, and so do your skills and achievements. Presenting the best of anti campaign paper each facet, combined into a unified whole, completes the gem.
Use this as a guide for writing your own. Consider each category a facet of your gem. Critical Essays? Try to think of examples from paper, your work history that fall under each major heading. Everything you need to write an incredible Qualifications Summary. The key here is to take THE BEST examples from your work experience, and put them in the Qualifications Summary. More Qualifications Summary Examples. A Qualifications Summary is anthology essays, a list of 6 bullet points displaying a range of smoking research paper your most impressive achievements.
It is placed at the top of your resume, in place of the Career Objective. It is a powerful tool, designed to may book report satisfy Applicant Tracking System software, and grasp the attention of the hiring manager. By writing a Qualifications Summary, you can vastly improve your resume and campaign stand out critical essays, among your competition. Still can’t decide if you should use a QS? Check out our Resume Flow Chart. Here are two more examples, from different industries. One is campaign paper, written for an executive secretary, the other for a waiter.
We chose these two industries based on their popularity on this website: Example 1: Executive Secretary Qualifications Summary. EXECUTIVE SECRETARY | EFFICIENT – ORGANIZED – ATTENTIVE. Managed 4 employees in an executive office, maintaining an atmosphere of of public speaking essay exactness, efficiency, and attention to anti paper detail Designed and implemented efficiency programs aimed at streamlining direct office services, saving $150,000 per clinical cover letter year in anti smoking campaign, labor costs Analyzed and condensed incoming data from various clients and customers, writing 1,500 word reports twice a week for our CEO Organized company outings, dinners, and retreats, increasing company satisfaction by report, 9% according to our yearly employee satisfaction survey Earned the anti research 2013 “Outstanding Achievement Award” in clinical letter, a company of 200+ people. Example 2: Waiter Qualifications Summary. WAITER | CHARISMATIC – EFFICIENT – KNOWLEDGABLE. Managed a 3 table section totaling 25 seats in anti smoking paper, a fast-paced Italian diner, requiring quick thinking, efficient planning, and strong people skills Leveraged a depth and project manager cover letter breadth of wine knowledge to up-sell $150 in wine sales nightly on anti research paper, average, by business plan, explaining to customers ideal wine and entree pairings.
Consistently received 5 star reviews from an online rating system, with accompanying praising comments about my service Alleviated customer disputes throughout the restaurant with strong communication and listening skills Earned “Employee of the Month” six times in two years. Qualifications Summary vs. Career Objective – What’s the Difference? The difference between these two lies mostly in their length and anti smoking campaign form. Their purpose is the same: they are meant to give the hiring manager a quick understanding of how your skills and experience can help his/her company. The Career Objective is anthology essays, a 1-2 sentence explanation of what would make you a strong candidate for the job. It provides a very general overview of your work experience and skills. Here’s an example: Hotel Housekeeping employee with over 9 years of experience in the provision and management of timely housekeeping service.
Possesses a knock for achieving and anti campaign paper maintaining elegance and a strong ethical foundation. The problem with the of public Career Objective is campaign paper, that it’s too short to properly convey your experience and ability . The Career Objective is actually a great choice if you don’t have as much work experience. If that sounds like you, read our in-depth guide about how to write a Career Objective here. You may be wondering, “Isn’t a Qualifications Summary too long to hold the hiring manager’s attention?” The answer is no. Research Cover Letter? Despite being longer, it actually saves the smoking campaign research paper hiring manager time because they don’t have to sift through your work experience to find your true abilities. Essentially, you’ve done that work for them. They’ll show their appreciation by calling you in for report an interview . Qualifications Summary vs. Professional Experience – What’s the anti paper Difference? A common criticism of the Qualifications Summary is that it looks and feels like another Professional Experience section.
However, there are major differences that should be pointed out. Written in critical anthology, reverse-chronological order Explains finer details of each job Gives the hiring manager a deeper understanding of your experience. Presents a summary of your greatest achievements and qualifications Written in any order Does not include basic responsibilities and campaign paper tasks. Note: You should be careful not to repeat any bullet points that you used in the Qualifications Summary. I’m A Student: Should I Write a Qualifications Summary? This will be controversial, but we say go for thesis goodman it — especially if you’re a very productive and active student. If you’re a student, what are the facets that you can show to a potential employer?
Critical/relevant coursework and your GPA Greek life and club activities Student government Internship experience Volunteer experience Major academic accomplishments Awards and honors received. Generally speaking, resume experts will insist that only professionals with years of anti research experience under their belts should write a Qualifications Summary. I disagree for the following reasons: No matter who you are, and what your age is, there are aspects of your experience and skill sets that qualify you over other candidates. Fear Speaking? If that were not true, everyone would easily find employment. Therefore, you should display your qualifications prominently.
The general format of a Qualifications Summary is objectively superior to a Career Objective, because it saves the hiring manager time and anti smoking effort. There’s no point in handicapping yourself just because you’re not an fear speaking experienced professional. To be fair, there is a good reason that students are not encouraged to write a Qualifications Summary, which I’ll cover in the next section. When Should You NOT Write a Qualifications Summary? You should avoid writing one if you are lacking in skills, experience, and activity. That is the primary reason that students are discouraged from writing a them – because it’s naturally going to anti campaign paper look weak and fragile compared to a seasoned professional. If you fall into the category of unskilled, uneducated, and not active, you need not worry. There are other strategies that you can use to solidify your resume and convey your employability.
You can read them here. If you’re unclear about sample how to go about writing your Qualifications Summary, please leave a comment in anti smoking campaign research paper, the section below. We also encourage you to try Resume Genius’ Online Resume Software, which will help you write a resume in minutes, hassle free. If you want to write your own resume, consider downloading one of Resume Genius’ free and by professional resume templates, and filling in the information yourself. If you need guidance, find a specific resume sample from your industry, and take inspiration from campaign research paper, its bullet points and world formatting. Sterling College: Many more QS examples for you to research use.
how would I write a QS for a line worker at a power company? I have no experience working in that industry! HELP #128577; Since you don’t have any experience working at clinical research project manager cover letter, a power company you’re going to research paper want to focus on world essay, including easily transferrable skills in smoking paper, your QS. As we highlight in the guide above, some key attributes you can include that span all industries include authority, creativity, management, efficiency, communication and recognitions. So, try to highlight skills you’ve developed at your current or previous job such as managing people, projects or budgets. Mentioning efficiency and recognition in thesis brown by, the fields of safety will definitely be valuable in a power company as well. Let us know if you have any more questions, we’re glad to help! This article was very helpful for my most recent resume update which now includes a Summary of Qualifications. Thanks! We are really happy to hear that as well.
Best luck with your career. Paper? Just drop us a note if there is anything else regarding your resume and education in the essay cover letter. I have no idea what to smoking campaign research paper right in anthology essays, my QS. I’m applying for smoking research my first job ever as a phlebotomist. I never worked before or did any volunteering. Should i just not write a QS line?? Yes, you may just want to start with a “Profile” or “Career Objective.” You can read our article about anthology how to write a Career Objective here: https://resumegenius.com/resume/career-objective-writing-guide. That will allow you to write some of your credentials (such as your degree / very relevant skills and abilities) and make a good initial impression. Hope you get the anti smoking campaign paper job! This is Very helpful!!
I have never had a job in anything ever. So I will concentrate on my profile and statement for young goodman Career Objectives. Glad we could help! Good luck on the job hunt! I have worked on several types of jobs that different from the one I am applying for.
Should I write a qualification summary in my resume? If you have other relevant job experiences then you shouldn’t waste space on your resume with none-relevant experiences. That said, if you have over 10 years of experience and the skills from your other jobs are transferable then yes, you could include a qualifications summary at the top of your resume. I am applying for graduate programs in smoking campaign paper, US.I have a work experience of of nearly 1.5 years.I am not able to clinical research manager cover letter frame my qualification summary due to inadequate work experience.How do I go about it? I have had good acads in high school and under-grad. If you feel that your work experience is inadequate to write a qualification summary, we suggest that you take a look at our career objective writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/career-objective-writing-guide) In most cases, a career objective is more suitable for candidates with little work experience.
We hope this helps! Good luck with grad school! I am a Registered Nurse finishing my Masters of Nursing and will graduate as a Family Nurse Practitioner. What format is best since I have experience as a nurse as well as 780 hrs of clinical experience as a Family Nurse Practitioner student? ALso, how do you recommend me write my clinical experience/locations etc.?
The best format for you to use is a Reverse Chronological Style resume. In your case the order and anti smoking research paper kinds of sections to include, would be the following: 1. Contact Information. 2. Career Summary or Career Objective. 3. Sample Barber Business? Education Certification (We usually put this after your professional experience, but since you are still in school and about to graduate, you would want to anti smoking paper put this at the forefront of barber shop business plan your resume) 4. Smoking Paper? Clinical Experience or Clinical Trials or Clinical Rotations (You can just include the Clinic/Hospital/Institution you did your Clinical Trials, Dates, as well as location.
If you have notable achievements, then include them as well) 5. Professional Experience (Include all of your experiences as a nurse. Include your Job Title, Organization, Dates, and Location. World? Include your most Notable Achievements as well) ** If you are seeking a position as a Family Nurse Practitioner then have the Clinical Experience above the Professional Experience section. But if you are thinking of working as a General Nurse again, then put your Professional Experience before your Clinical Experience Section. I hope this helps, and please don’t hesitate to contact us again with further questions. Please visit https://resumegenius.com/resume/nursing-resume-sample for more detail information.
Hi, I have been a stay at anti paper, home mom for quite some years due to my husband job. I am now ready to for young goodman brown by go out into the job market and not sure how to write a resume. I had previous work experience and smoking research is also a final year student in sample shop business, college. Please help. I am trying to anti paper get a job in healthcare administration and I am redoing my summary of qualifications and speaking I have no clue how to write that I received many letters of anti campaign recommendation and that I am computer savvy. Please help by giving a written sample. Critical Anthology? thanks. Saying you are computer savvy is not enough. Point out your expertise with a specific piece of software that is relevant to the job instead.
Although you don’t have professional experience, you can still mention your personal experience in your qualifications summary. Your bullet points should include any accomplishments or impressive responsibilities you had during your personal or volunteer experience. Make sure to word each bullet point in a way that sounds professional and anti campaign less like it was a hobby. Good luck on thesis goodman, the job hunt! Are there writing services that will take my resume and job duties and create a summary of anti smoking research paper qualifications for essay ne? You could use a professional resume writer, but that can get expensive. If you follow the guidelines and examples above, you should be able to write a convincing qualifications summary.
Best of anti campaign paper luck! I’ve only had one part time job outside of research letter college, so far.(I was active in college though) Although I worked more hours than an average part time employee(the store had no manager), I have no stats or data to back up any claims on my resume because the owner will not share this info with me and I no longer have access to it. Should I just write a career objective instead? Yes, we recommend you go with a career objective. Anti Smoking Campaign? Good luck! I have been at my job for over 14 years. I have worked for sample barber business 2 other places before this, but not for a long period of time.
I’m not currently happy at my job and I’m looking to try something different but I’m not sure as to what that is. I just need a job before I leave this one. Should I use a reverse chronological or functional resume. It depends on if the job you are applying for anti smoking is in a completely new industry. If it is, you may want to of public speaking essay consider a functional format. Check out anti smoking research, our resume formatting guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. I am returning to the job market after a very long break (17 years) during which I have been a full-time mom to five children. I have homeschooled them, so I have no volunteering activities at clinical project manager letter, the public schools.
I worked briefly (one year) after completing my MBA studies(before I became a mom), at a start-up cellular communications company, which was later purchased by T-Mobile, so I have really no work references because the company no longer exists. But I have a degree in Industrial Engineering, an MBA, and I am currently pursuing a Master in Information Technology Management (with all As so far) at my local university in Boca Raton, Florida. I have spotted some career opportunities that I would like to apply to in the area of business analytics, business intelligence, UX. I frankly do not know how to write my resume in a way that my lack of work experience, and the very long gap of unemployment do not put me at research paper, a great disadvantage when applying for career opportunities. I will greatly appreciate your assistance.
Thank you! People looking for ways to cover up their work gaps often find a functional resume format helpful. Check out our guide: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Thank you very much for your prompt response! The resume sample of Office Assistant does not have dates labeled on the work history. Do you suggest leaving out of public speaking, dates if there are gaps in employment or include temp jobs lasting a few months? When else would we want to leave out employment date ranges? Thank you. The Office Assistant resume above uses a functional format because the applicant has a few work gaps. Anti Smoking Campaign Paper? Therefore, they highlight their relevant skills over their past experience. Thesis Statement By? Good luck on the job hunt!
The difference is that the qualifications sections includes a range of information including achievements, awards, and skills. If you have several relevant skills (with 8 years experience you probably do), then you should definitely consider adding a skills section to your resume. The Summary of anti campaign research Qualifications is meant to focus on your relevant skills rather than your job titles. Share How to Write a Qualifications Summary Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to thesis brown help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to smoking choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF.
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Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to campaign research unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for thesis for young goodman a man or woman, or do most people simply look for smoking research paper a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the fear speaking major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and anti campaign paper career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and world offline publications including:
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La guerre des historiens israeliens. Anti Campaign Paper? Pages : 266 Affiliation : Numeros anterieurs disponibles sur www.persee.fr. Essays? Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Campaign Research? ALERTES EMAIL - REVUE Annales. Barber? Histoire, Sciences Sociales.
Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Anti Campaign Research Paper? Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Education Essay? Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Research? Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. Thesis Statement For Young Goodman Brown? « Une nation, disait le philosophe francais Ernest Renan, est un groupe de personnes unies par une vision erronee de leur passe et par une haine commune pour leurs voisins. Anti Research? » Les mythes ont toujours ete des instruments particulierement efficaces pour forger l’identite des nations. Missing May Book Report? Le mouvement sioniste qui presida a la naissance de l’Etat d’Israel parvint, en termes de relations publiques, a des resultats rarement egales au XX e siecle. Anti Campaign Research Paper? Pourtant, ce mouvement n’avait rien d’unique dans sa volonte de repandre une version simplifiee et redoree du passe afin de promouvoir ses objectifs nationalistes. May Book? Bien au contraire, a l’instar de tous les autres recits nationalistes de l’histoire, la version sioniste etait selective, simpliste et orientee. Anti Smoking Campaign Research Paper? Elle visait a la fois a faire naitre un sentiment d’appartenance nationale chez des Juifs d’origines differentes et a susciter la compassion et le soutien des autres pays a l’egard du tout nouvel Etat d’Israel. Sample Barber Shop Business Plan? A l’inverse, elle desservait de maniere notoire tout effort de comprehension mutuelle ou de reconciliation entre Juifs et Arabes.
Les annees 1990 furent le theatre des soubresauts et des lenteurs du processus de paix entre Israel et ses ennemis de toujours, mais elles virent aussi apparaitre un nouveau type d’affrontement : celui des historiens israeliens. Il oppose les historiens israeliens traditionnels et les « nouveaux historiens » qui ont entrepris de mettre en question la theorie sioniste sur la naissance de l’Etat d’Israel et sur les cinquante annees de conflits et de confrontations qui suivirent. Anti Smoking Campaign Paper? « Les conquerants, mon fils, ne reconnaissent que les faits historiques qu’ils ont eux-memes fabriques », fait remarquer, dans le roman tragi-comique d’Emile 1 Habiby   Al-Waqa’ic al-Ghariba fi Ikhtifa’ Sa’id Abi al-Nahs. Missing? , le vieux proviseur arabe au jeune Said, a son retour a Haifa pendant l’ete 1948. Anti Research Paper? Le proviseur parlait des Israeliens sur un ton qui revelait plus de tristesse que de colere : « Il est vrai qu’ils ont detruit ces villages [. Thesis Statement For Young Goodman Brown? ] et chasse leurs habitants. Anti Campaign Paper? Mais, mon fils, ils ont bien plus de pitie que les conquerants auxquels nos ancetres etaient confrontes autrefois. Education? » Cette citation suggere qu’il ne peut y avoir d’entente sur ce qui s’est reellement produit en 1948. Anti Smoking Campaign? Chaque parti adhere a une version differente des evenements. Statement Brown By? Les Palestiniens voient les Israeliens comme des conquerants et se considerent comme les veritables victimes de la premiere guerre israelo-arabe qu’ils nomment al-Nakba , « la catastrophe ». Anti Smoking Research Paper? L’historiographie palestinienne reflete cette opinion. May Book? Les Israeliens, vainqueurs incontestes de la guerre de 1948, l’ont appelee la guerre d’Independance. Smoking Research Paper? Et c’est, notamment, en tant que tels qu’ils sont parvenus, mieux que leurs ennemis, a faire circuler leur version de cette guerre fatidique. Clinical Research Project Cover? L’histoire n’est-elle pas, en un sens, la propagande des vainqueurs ? La version sioniste conventionnelle de la guerre de 1948 est la suivante : le conflit israelo-arabe en Palestine atteignit un seuil critique apres le vote, le 29 novembre 1947, de la resolution des Nations unies demandant la partition du territoire et l’etablissement de deux Etats, l’un juif et l’autre arabe. Anti Smoking Campaign Research? Les Juifs accepterent le plan de l’ONU en depit des douloureux sacrifices qu’il exigeait, mais les Palestiniens, les Etats arabes voisins et la Ligue arabe le rejeterent. La Grande-Bretagne s’employa, a la fin de son mandat en Palestine, a faire echouer la creation d’un Etat juif conforme aux decisions arretees.
Au terme de ce mandat et avant que l’Etat d’Israel ne fut proclame, sept Etats arabes envoyerent leurs troupes en Palestine avec la ferme intention d’etouffer l’Etat juif avant qu’il ne vit le jour. Sample Barber Shop Business? Il s’ensuivit une lutte inegale entre « un David juif » et « un Goliath arabe ». Smoking? Le jeune Etat juif mena un combat desespere mais heroique et, contre toute attente, couronne de succes. For Young Goodman Brown By? Pendant la guerre, des centaines de milliers de Palestiniens auraient fui dans les Etats arabes voisins, principalement en reponse aux ordres de leurs chefs et en depit des efforts entrepris par les Juifs pour les convaincre de rester et montrer qu’une coexistence pacifique etait possible. Anti Smoking Research Paper? Apres la guerre, les dirigeants israeliens ont appele la paix de leurs v?ux mais n’ont trouve aucun interlocuteur dans le camp adverse. Clinical Project Manager Cover? L’intransigeance des Arabes fut la cause de l’impasse politique dans laquelle le Moyen-Orient se trouva. Campaign? Et la situation ne put etre debloquee avant la visite du president Anouar El-Sadate a Jerusalem, trente ans plus tard. Missing May Book Report? Pendant de nombreuses annees, cette version des evenements prevalut a l’exterieur du monde arabe. Smoking Research? La vision que l’on avait des causes, de la nature et du deroulement du conflit arabo-israelien etait celle des sionistes. In The World? Le quarantieme anniversaire de la creation de l’Etat d’Israel fut pourtant marque par la publication de quatre ouvrages, ecrits par des chercheurs israeliens qui remettaient en question l’historiographie traditionnelle de la naissance de l’Etat d’Israel et de la premiere guerre israelo-arabe   Il s’agit de SIMHA FLAPAN, The birth of campaign research paper, Israel : myths. Education? . Smoking Campaign Research Paper? Leurs auteurs furent appeles les revisionnistes israeliens, ou nouveaux historiens. Essays? Deux facteurs expliquent l’apparition de cette nouvelle historiographie : l’ouverture des archives officielles de 1948 par le gouvernement israelien et le changement de climat politique en Israel au lendemain de la guerre du Liban de 1982. Israel suivit l’exemple anglais en autorisant l’ouverture des archives concernant la politique etrangere, trente ans apres les faits.
Un grand nombre de sources primaires devinrent ainsi accessibles a la recherche dans les archives centrales sionistes, dans celles de l’Etat d’Israel, de la Haganah, des Forces de defense israeliennes (FDI), du parti travailliste et dans les archives Ben Gourion. Smoking Research Paper? Les pays arabes n’ont aucune legislation qui ressemble de pres ou de loin a la loi des trente ans. Statement By? Lorsqu’ils permettent l’acces a leurs documents, ce n’est que d’une maniere limitee, imprevisible et arbitraire. Anti Campaign Research Paper? Israel a le merite d’autoriser aux chercheurs la consultation de ses documents internes et de rendre ainsi possible des etudes critiques. Statement For Young Goodman By? Si la mise a disposition de nouvelles et tres riches sources d’information favorisa le revisionnisme historique, le changement dans le climat politique general y contribua egalement. Smoking Research? Pour de nombreux Israeliens, et en particulier pour les Israeliens de gauche, la desastreuse invasion du Liban, (mal) preparee par le Likoud en 1982, constitua un moment decisif. Missing? Jusqu’alors, les dirigeants sionistes s’etaient employes a cultiver une image de pacifistes qui ne combattaient que sur la defensive. La notion d’ einbreira (aucune alternative) justifiait a elle seule les entrees en guerre d’Israel et legitimait sa participation aux combats.
Mais tandis qu’un debat divisait partisans et opposants a la guerre du Liban, le Premier ministre Menahem Begin fit une allocution devant l’academie du personnel des FDI sur les guerres voulues et les guerres subies. Anti Campaign? Il expliqua que la guerre du Liban comme celle du Sinai en 1956 avaient ete planifiees a des fins nationales. Sample Barber? Cette affirmation sans precedent dans l’histoire du mouvement sioniste provoqua l’effondrement du consensus national sur la notion d’ einbreira , et crea un espace politique qui permettait un reexamen critique de l’histoire du pays. Anti Smoking Campaign Research Paper? La premiere vague d’etudes revisionnistes sur la guerre de 1948 suscita un vif interet et de violentes controverses sur la scene politique, ainsi que dans les milieux universitaires et les medias. May Book Report? Les premieres reactions laissaient apparaitre un certain malaise, voire une sorte de consternation, face a ce qui semblait mettre en question tout ce que les ecoliers israeliens avaient appris a respecter et a reverer. Campaign Paper? Certains journalistes pensaient meme que ces ouvrages constituaient une attaque orchestree pour compromettre la reputation d’Israel, et qui ne pouvait rester impunie. Thesis For Young By? D’autres se montraient plus favorables a cette tentative qui tendait a reexaminer, a la lumiere de nouveaux indices, des verites sanctifiees par le temps.
Et alors meme que les effets du premier choc se dissipaient, l’opinion demeurait tres partagee quant aux merites de cette nouvelle historiographie. Campaign Research? Veterans de la guerre de 1948 ou membres de la vieille garde sioniste, en particulier au parti travailliste, beaucoup nourrissaient des reactions d’une hostilite extreme a l’egard de ces nouvelles interpretations. Parmi les detracteurs des nouveaux historiens, le plus bruyant et le plus acharne etait Shabtai Teveh, journaliste et biographe de David Ben Gourion, le fondateur et premier chef du gouvernement d’Israel. Of Public? Son attaque, intitulee « Les nouveaux historiens », fut livree en quatre articles successifs dans le quotidien independant Ha’aretz , en mai 1989. Anti Research Paper? En septembre 1989, S. Cover? Teveh en publiait une version abregee : « Accuser Israel du peche originel », dans le mensuel juifamericain Commentary   SHABTAI TEVEH, « Changing Israel with original sin ». Smoking Campaign Paper? . Critical? Il y decrivait la nouvelle histoire comme « un meli-melo de distorsions, d’omissions, de lectures tendancieuses et de completes falsifications ». Campaign Paper? Il vituperait les nouveaux historiens, affirmant que cette nouvelle approche historique « s’appuy[ait] en partie sur des preuves defectueuses et se caracterisait par une incompetence professionnelle grave », puis accusait la nouvelle historiographie de servir des fins politiques pro-palestiniennes qui ne visaient qu’a mettre en cause la legitimite du sionisme et de l’Etat d’Israel. Statement For Young Goodman By? La droite israelienne, qu’il s’agisse ou non d’universitaires, s’est montree plus ouverte a l’egard des decouvertes des nouveaux historiens. Smoking Campaign? Elle reconnait aisement, par exemple, qu’Israel a effectivement expulse les Palestiniens, regrettant cependant de n’en avoir pas renvoye davantage puisqu’ils etaient a l’origine de cette guerre. Education Essay? Les representants de la droite ont tendance a aborder la guerre de 1948 avec pragmatisme plutot que d’un point de vue moral. La vieille garde travailliste, pour sa part, attache tant de prix au fait qu’Israel ait une conduite moralement juste qu’elle refuse d’envisager la duplicite cynique des Israeliens en certaines occasions, la brutalite des expulsions ou des expropriations que subirent les Palestiniens. Anti Smoking Campaign? Le fait qu’Israel soit une victime innocente est un des axiomes de leur recit, et ils redoutent les consequences politiques d’une reecriture de l’histoire, d’ou la virulence de leurs attaques contre la nouvelle historiographie.
Alors que le debat initial s’articulait autour des methodes, des sources et des motivations politiques presumees des nouveaux historiens, celui qui a suivi touchait a certaines de leurs conclusions. Sample Barber Business Plan? Cinq points d’achoppement principaux peuvent etre identifies dans cette controverse entre historiens traditionnels et nouveaux historiens : la politique des Britanniques a la fin de leur mandat en Palestine; le rapport de force militaire entre Israeliens et Arabes en 1948; les causes de l’exode palestinien; les objectifs militaires des Arabes; et la persistance de l’impasse politique a l’issue de chacun des conflits armes. Campaign Research? La version sioniste traditionnelle affirme qu’au crepuscule de leur mandat en Palestine les Britanniques chercherent a empecher la creation d’un Etat d’Israel; que les Juifs etaient nettement moins nombreux et moins bien armes que leurs rivaux; que les Palestiniens partirent de leur propre chef et dans l’espoir d’un retour triomphal; qu’il existait une collusion entre les Etats arabes dont le but etait de detruire le nouvel Etat juif a peine proclame; et que seule l’intransigeance des Arabes a rendu impossibles les negociations apres la guerre. Missing May Book? La version revisionniste, pour faire court, explique que ce n’est pas la creation d’un Etat juif mais d’un Etat palestinien que les Britanniques chercherent a empecher; que les Juifs surpassaient en nombre les forces arabes reunies, regulieres ou non, qui operaient en Palestine, et qu’apres la premiere treve ils etaient, qui plus est, mieux armes qu’eux; que les Palestiniens, dans leur grande majorite, n’avaient pas choisi de partir mais avaient ete expulses; que les pays arabes n’avaient pas d’objectif de guerre precis, car il existait des dissensions entre leurs dirigeants, et que les efforts pour aboutir a un reglement politique du conflit se heurterent davantage a l’inflexibilite des Israeliens qu’a celle des Arabes. Anti Smoking Research Paper? C’est le dernier point du debat qui est le plus sensible puisqu’il porte sur la responsabilite de l’echec du processus de paix. Anthology? Les preuves a l’appui de cette interpretation proviennent principalement des dossiers du ministere des Affaires etrangeres israelien.
Elles mettent en evidence un desir de paix de la part des Arabes et leur volonte de negocier avec Israel des septembre 1948. Smoking Campaign Research Paper? La question des frontieres et celle des droits des refugies palestiniens etaient prioritaires. Speaking? Chacun des chefs d’Etats arabes voisins se montrait pret a negocier directement avec Israel dans l’espoir d’obtenir quelque avantage, territorial ou politique, en echange de la paix. Research? Que ce soit avec l’Egypte, la Transjordanie ou la Syrie, bien que pour des raisons legerement differentes, David Ben Gourion considera que le prix a payer pour la paix etait trop eleve. Anthology? Il etait pret a la conciliation en s’en tenant au statu quo et se refusait a toutes concessions, sauf infimes, concernant les refugies et le trace des frontieres. Il pensait, comme le revele son journal intime, que les armistices avec les Etats arabes voisins satisfaisaient pleinement les besoins d’Israel en matiere de reconnaissance, de securite et de stabilite. Smoking? Mais, pour obtenir des accords de paix officiels, il lui fallait ceder d’importantes portions de territoire et accepter le retour d’un nombre considerable de refugies palestiniens; que Ben Gourion ait ou non fait le bon choix releve du jugement de chacun. Project Manager Cover? Ce qui est indeniable, c’est qu’il avait le choix. Anti Smoking Campaign Research Paper? L’opinion publique israelienne s’est interessee a la guerre des historiens israeliens. Research Manager Cover Letter? Ce n’est donc pas une simple poignee de chercheurs mais toute une nation qui fait aujourd’hui face a son passe. Campaign? Un tel degre d’implication de la population, dans une polemique dont les principaux protagonistes sont des professeurs d’universite, est rare dans la plupart des pays, mais n’est pas pour surprendre s’agissant d’Israel.
Car ce debat sur la guerre d’Independance renvoie aux Israeliens l’image meme de l’identite de leur pays. Critical Essays? Durant les annees qui suivirent la publication des premiers livres revisionnistes, la guerre des historiens se focalisa sur la naissance d’Israel ainsi que sur les origines du conflit israelo-arabe. Anti Smoking Campaign Paper? Elle s’etendit par la suite a d’autres fronts. Critical Anthology Essays? L’ouvrage que Benny Morris publia en 1993 etait le prolongement naturel de ses travaux 1 anterieurs   BENNY MORRIS, Israel’s border wars, 1949-1956 : Arab. Smoking Campaign Research? , qui remettaient en question l’orthodoxie sioniste sur les causes de l’exode palestinien   B. World Essay? MORRIS, The birth of the campaign research paper, Palestinian. In The World Essay? op. Campaign? cit. Education In The World? . Anti Smoking Paper? Israel’s border wars traitait de la periode fondatrice qui s’acheva par la guerre de Suez; B. Clinical? Morris y contestait la these selon laquelle l’entiere responsabilite de l’escalade qui aboutit au conflit incombait aux Arabes   B. Research? MORRIS, Israel’s border wars, 1949-1956. Missing? op. Anti Smoking Campaign Paper? . Sample Barber Business Plan? A la fin de l’annee 1999, la guerre des historiens prit un nouveau tour, marque par deux publications couvrant une vaste periode   BENNY MORRIS, Righteous victims : a history of anti smoking campaign research, the. Clinical Project Manager Cover Letter? : Righteous victims retrace l’histoire turbulente du conflit depuis ses origines, a la fin du XIX e siecle, jusqu’a la fin du XX e , tandis que The Iron wall analyse la politique d’Israel vis-a-vis du monde arabe au cours des cinquante premieres annees de l’histoire du pays. Son titre renvoie a une strategie qui fut d’abord enoncee par Ze’ev Jabotinsky, fondateur du sionisme revisionniste. Anti Smoking Research Paper? En 1923, Z. Fear Of Public Speaking? Jabotinsky publiait un article intitule « Sur le mur d’acier »   ZE’EV JABOTINSKY, Writings : on smoking campaign paper the road to shop, statehood. Smoking Campaign? . Manager? Il expliquait quelle naivete il y avait a croire que les nationalistes arabes accepteraient un Etat juif en Palestine. Anti Smoking Campaign Paper? Toute negociation initiale avec les Arabes etait vaine. Fear? Le seul moyen de realiser le projet sioniste etait de dresser un mur d’acier a l’aide des forces militaires juives. Anti Smoking Campaign Paper? En d’autres termes, le projet sioniste ne pouvait etre mene a bien que de facon unilaterale et en faisant usage de la force. Thesis Statement Goodman Brown By? La strategie de Jabotinsky etait de traiter avec les Arabes seulement apres s’etre assure une superiorite militaire completement dissuasive. Mais son article faisait l’hypothese d’un changement dans l’attitude des Arabes envers l’Etat juif.
Il envisageait deux phases. Smoking Campaign Research? La premiere devait, selon lui, forcer les Arabes a abandonner tout espoir de detruire l’Etat juif. Research Project Letter? Les Arabes finiraient par devenir plus moderes ou plus realistes et l’on aboutirait alors a la phase deux, c’est-a-dire aux negociations avec les Palestiniens arabes a propos de leur statut et de leurs droits nationaux en Palestine. Smoking Research? L’article de Jabotinsky declencha un debat houleux au sein du mouvement sioniste. Of Public? Des porte-parole du courant majoritaire l’accuserent de militarisme et de trahison envers les valeurs du mouvement sioniste. Jabotinsky afficha son mepris pour ses detracteurs de gauche qu’il appelait les « vegetariens ». Anti Smoking Research? Il les traita d’hypocrites et considerait comme son devoir sacre (mitzvah) de les denoncer comme tels. Missing May Book Report? Il s’en prit a ses opposants dans un article intitule « La moralite du mur d’acier »   ID., « The morality of the smoking research paper, Iron wall », in in the essay ibid., . Paper? . Fear Speaking Essay? D’un point de vue moral, il y avait selon lui deux possibilites : le sionisme etait soit une bonne, soit une mauvaise chose.
Dans le dernier cas, il fallait l’abandonner; dans le premier, si c’etait une cause juste, alors il fallait qu’elle triomphe, en depit de la volonte des autres parties en presence. Anti Campaign Research? L’analyse de Jabotinsky etait surement correcte : il s’agissait d’un conflit entre deux mouvements nationaux, qui ne pourrait etre resolu par la negociation ou le compromis tant que les Arabes pensaient qu’ils avaient une chance de gagner. Thesis Brown By? Un accord librement consenti etait impensable. Smoking Campaign Paper? La strategie de Jabotinsky fut reprise de maniere inavouee par ses detracteurs du parti travailliste, dirige par David Ben Gourion. Essays? Elle devint la pierre de touche de la strategie sioniste dans le conflit. Et, plus important encore, cette strategie a fonctionne. Anti Smoking? L’histoire de l’Etat d’Israel tout entiere est une justification de la strategie du mur d’acier. Essay? Les Arabes – les Egyptiens d’abord, les Palestiniens ensuite, les Jordaniens enfin – reconnurent l’invincibilite d’Israel et furent contraints de negocier avec lui alors qu’ils etaient dans une position de faiblesse evidente.
Ils apprirent de maniere douloureuse qu’Israel ne pouvait etre vaincu sur un champ de bataille. Smoking Campaign Paper? Le vrai danger pour Israel etait de s’eprendre eperdument du mur d’acier et de refuser de passer a la phase deux, celle des negociations et des compromis, c’est-a-dire le partage de la Palestine avec les Palestiniens. Project Manager Cover? Paradoxalement, ce sont les politiciens de droite, plus que ceux de gauche (les heritiers de Jabotinsky), qui semblent les plus enclins a adopter la premiere phase de la strategie du mur d’acier comme mode de vie permanent. Anti Smoking Campaign Research? Yitzhak Shamir, qui succeda a Menahem Begin en tant que leader du Likoud et Premier ministre en 1983, voyait le mur d’acier comme un rempart contre le changement et comme un moyen de maintenir les Palestiniens dans une situation de soumission permanente a Israel. Sample Barber Shop Business? Pour lui les negociations ne presentaient aucun interet.
Son but etait de preserver l’integrite de la terre de ses ancetres, de laisser le territoire d’Israel dans son entier, y compris la Judee et Samarie (la Cisjordanie) aux mains des Juifs. Anti Smoking Research? Ce fut le leader du parti travailliste, Yitzhak Rabin, qui sauta le pas et opera la transition vers la phase deux en negociant les accords d’Oslo avec l’OLP en 1993. May Book? L’election de Benyamin Netanyahou en 1996 provoqua un retour a la phase I du mur d’acier. Campaign Research? Netanyahou n’acceptait pas les accords d’Oslo. In The World Essay? Il s’evertua pendant trois ans a stopper, retarder et miner le processus entame a Oslo pour finir par decouvrir qu’il etait irreversible. Campaign Research? L’election de mai 1999 constitua un tournant majeur dans l’histoire des relations d’Israel avec ses voisins. Of Public Speaking? Les Israeliens sanctionnerent lourdement Netanyahou et donnerent clairement a Ehoud Barak pour mission de continuer le processus d’Oslo et de chercher une issue vers une paix globale au Moyen-Orient. Anti Smoking Paper? L’alternance politique en Israel contribua a creer un climat dans lequel la nouvelle histoire pouvait encore progresser. Critical Anthology? Cette evolution vers des attitudes plus moderees sur la scene politique s’accompagnait d’une meilleure prise de conscience quant a la complexite des racines historiques du conflit et d’une compassion accrue pour les souffrances du peuple palestinien.
Ces deux phenomenes paralleles se renforcaient mutuellement. Anti Smoking Research? Ils etaient le fruit d’une maturite et d’une confiance en soi plus grandes de la population israelienne et de ses dirigeants. 1 L’idee selon laquelle les Israeliens sont toujours dans leur bon droit et que les Palestiniens sont responsables de leur propre malheur commencait a faire place a une meilleure comprehension du role qu’avait joue Israel dans le conflit et a de plus grands efforts pour en refermer les plaies toujours ouvertes. Manager Cover? L’ouvrage de B. Anti Paper? Morris et le mien parurent pendant cette periode relativement porteuse d’espoir dans l’evolution du processus de paix. Clinical Project Letter? Ces deux livres furent d’abord publies aux Etats-Unis ou ils retinrent l’attention des medias, suscitant de nombreux articles. Anti Smoking Campaign Research Paper? Les opinions etaient partagees mais la majorite des critiques affichaient leur bienveillance, voire leur soutien, ce qui temoignait d’un changement general en Amerique en faveur d’une attitude plus critique a l’egard de la politique d’Israel. Critical Anthology Essays? Ce que l’on considerait dix ans plus tot comme un revisionnisme dangereux etait presque devenu une approche sinon conventionnelle, du moins admise   ETHAN BRONNER, « Israel : the smoking campaign research, revised edition », The. Thesis Statement For Young Goodman By? . Anti Smoking Paper? Meme ceux qui prenaient la defense du sionisme consideraient comme close l’affaire des nouveaux historiens contre l’Etat d’Israel, constatant que les critiques n’etaient pas aussi dures qu’ils le craignaient   HILLEL HALKIN, « Was Zionist unjust ? », Commentary. Thesis Statement? . Campaign Paper? Les conservateurs n’en continuaient pas moins de penser que la nouvelle histoire etait animee d’une volonte inavouee de saper les bases de la legitimite du sionisme et de l’Etat d’Israel. Anthology Essays? Contre les faits, l’enjeu est, a leurs yeux, de preserver les mythes fondateurs et, pour les nouvelles generations, de sauvegarder la version heroique de la creation d’Israel afin de ne pas miner les valeurs patriotiques et la confiance en la justesse de la cause sioniste. La rupture du processus de paix, le declenchement de l’ Intifada « al-Aqsa » et l’arrivee au pouvoir d’Ariel Sharon a la tete d’un gouvernement domine par le Likoud en fevrier 2001 ont pousse l’opinion publique a se detourner de la nouvelle histoire au profit de l’histoire traditionnelle.
Le retour au pouvoir du Likoud entraina une regression vers des positions fondamentalistes a l’egard des Palestiniens et la reaffirmation d’une perspective etroitement nationaliste de l’histoire d’Israel. Anti Campaign Research Paper? Dans un article de janvier 2001, la ministre de l’Education du gouvernement d’Ariel Sharon declarait : « Il est temps qu’Israel reconstruise le “mur d’acier” qui, une fois encore, convaincra les Arabes que ni les menaces militaires ni le terrorisme n’affaibliront la determination d’Israel a pratiquer les droits et la liberte du peuple juif   LIMOR LIVNAT, « Back to missing may book, the Iron wall », Jerusalem. Anti Research? . Statement For Young Goodman? » Pourtant, pour Ze’ev Jabotinsky, le « mur d’acier » n’etait pas une fin en soi, mais un moyen pour atteindre une solution satisfaisante au conflit entre le sionisme et le nationalisme palestinien. Smoking Campaign Paper? Or, l’un des obstacles a une reconciliation avec les Palestiniens dans le cadre d’une paix armee est precisement cette theorie, qui fait la part (trop) belle a la force militaire aux depens de l’exigence negociatrice, s’il faut en effet qu’elle soit partagee par la partie adverse pour qu’elle aboutisse. Education World Essay? En ce sens, les nouveaux historiens israeliens pretendent contribuer a cette solution. Traduit par Emilie Souyri.
Al-Waqa’ic al-Ghariba fi Ikhtifa’ Sa’id Abi al-Nahs al-Mutasha’il (La vie secrete de Saeed, l’infortune pessoptimiste), Beyrouth, Dar Ibn Khaldun, 1974, pp. Smoking Campaign Research? 35-37. Anthology Essays? Il s’agit de SIMHA FLAPAN, The birth of campaign research paper, Israel : myths realities , New York, Pantheon, 1987; BENNY MORRIS, The birth of the thesis brown by, Palestinian refugee problem, 1947-1949 , Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1988; ILAN PAPPE, Britain and anti research paper, the Arab-Israeli conflict, 1948-1951 , Londres, McMillan/St. Statement Brown By? Anthony’s, 1988, et AVI SHLAIM, Collusion across the anti smoking paper, Jordan : king Abdullah, the clinical research project, Zionist movement and anti research, the partition of anthology, Palestine , Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1988.1. Anti Smoking Paper? SHABTAI TEVEH, « Changing Israel with original sin », Commentary , novembre 1999.
BENNY MORRIS, Israel’s border wars, 1949-1956 : Arab infiltration, Israeli retaliation and sample barber plan, the countdown to anti campaign paper, the Suez war , Oxford, Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press, 1993. Thesis Statement For Young Goodman? B. Anti Campaign Paper? MORRIS, The birth of the thesis goodman, Palestinian . Anti Campaign Research Paper? op. Essay? cit. Smoking Paper? , et ID ., 1948 and goodman by, after : Israel and research, the Palestinians , Oxford, Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press, 1990. May Book? B. Campaign Research? MORRIS, Israel’s border wars, 1949-1956 . Project Manager Cover? op. Smoking Research Paper? cit. Critical? BENNY MORRIS, Righteous victims : a history of the smoking research paper, Zionist-Arab conflict, 1881-1999 , New York, Knopf, 1999, et AVI SHLAIM, The Iron wall : Israel and business plan, the Arab world , New York, W. Anti Smoking Research? W. Education? Norton, 2000. Anti Smoking Campaign? ZE’EV JABOTINSKY, Writings : on fear speaking essay the road to anti, statehood , Jerusalem, Avi Jabotinsky, 1959, pp. 251-260 (en hebreu). May Book? ID ., « The morality of the research paper, Iron wall », in critical essays ibid. Anti Campaign Research? , pp. Statement For Young By? 260-266. Paper? ETHAN BRONNER, « Israel : the fear speaking essay, revised edition », The New York Times book review , 14 novembre 1999.
HILLEL HALKIN, « Was Zionist unjust ? », Commentary , novembre 1999; ANITA SHAPIRA, « The Past is paper, not another country », The New Republic , 29 novembre 1999. Project Manager Letter? LIMOR LIVNAT, « Back to smoking campaign research paper, the Iron wall », Jerusalem Post , 26 janvier 2001. Clinical Research Project Manager Cover Letter? L’article retrace l’emergence a la fin des annees 1980 d’une nouvelle ecole historiographique israelienne critiquant les universitaires de l’ecole traditionaliste. Anti Campaign Research? Il pointe cinq axes principaux de discussion dans le debat entre « nouveaux » et « anciens » historiens a propos du conflit de 1948. Fear Speaking Essay? En un second temps, sont examines deux livres recents sur le sujet, l’un par Benny Morris, l’autre de la plume de l’auteur, ainsi que les reponses critiques qui leur furent adresses. Anti Campaign Research Paper? Enfin, l’auteur tente d’apprecier l’impact de cette nouvelle histoire sur les politiques, l’opinion publique et l’enseignement de l’histoire dans les ecoles israeliennes. Missing Report? The war between Israelian historians This essay deals with the anti campaign research, emergence of the essay, new school of smoking research paper, revisionist Israeli historiography in shop business plan the late 1980s and smoking research paper, with the speaking essay, critique of the anti smoking campaign research, traditionalist school. It identifies five main bones of fear of public, contention in anti smoking the debate between the in the essay, new and smoking, the “old” historians about education in the world, 1948. Anti Paper? The second part deals with two more recent books on critical anthology essays the conflict, one by anti campaign Benny Morris, one by anthology the author, and anti smoking research, with some critical responses to barber shop plan, these books.
The third part assesses the anti campaign, impact of the fear of public speaking, new history on anti research politics, public opinion, and business plan, the teaching of anti campaign, history in missing may book report Israeli schools. Smoking Paper? Cairn.info utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques. Missing? Ces donnees anonymes nous permettent ainsi de vous offrir une experience de navigation optimale. Smoking? En continuant votre visite vous acceptez de recevoir ces cookies. Manager? Vous pouvez toutefois les desactiver dans les parametres de votre navigateur web.
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charles beard essay Why Charles Beard Lied. Britain's War on the Constitution. by Kathleen Murphy. In 1913, an aspiring historian by the name of Charles Austin Beard published a savage assault on American republicanism in the form of an economic interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. Timed to coincide with the smoking research paper, presidential inauguration of that shameless Anglo-Ameriphile Woodrow Wilson, the publication of Beard's lying account of the clinical, Constitution's origins quickly accomplished what it had set out to do: to trigger a demoralizing national controversy over the spurious question, Is the Constitution 'democratic' enough to meet the needs of a modern 'mass society'? -- a debate which would pave the way for the wholesale subversion of the smoking campaign paper, American System. An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution bore as much similarity to honest historiography as today's soap operas to real life.
Stripped of its flimsy academic pretenses, Beard's book was an hysterical diatribe against the great men who brought the United States into existence. Overflowing with distortions, innuendo, and education essay, outright fabrications, manifesting no concern whatever for historical accuracy, An Economic Interpretation nevertheless self-righteously insisted that the Founding Fathers had been a clique of greedy, self-interested proto-aristocrats who had secretly drawn up the Constitution and then conspired to impose it illegally upon the rest of the population for the sole purpose of consolidating political and economic control over the new nation in their own money-grubbing hands. It should come as no surprise, then, to anti smoking paper, learn that the statement brown by, young Columbia University professor who penned this prize specimen of black propaganda was consciously acting on behalf of a power hostile to smoking paper, the United States. Despite his hypocritical protests of nonpartisanship, Charles Beard was serving the missing, interests of the British oligarchy when he wrote this most infamous of his many books had served them, in fact, since at least 1900 and continued to smoking campaign research, do so until his death in 1948. Beard's deliberate distortion of sample barber shop one of the most decisive turning points in America's development as a sovereign republic represented a significant escalation in an ambitious campaign, launched by London in the early nineteenth century, to rob the U.S. of its sense of moral purpose by systematically rewriting, revising and reinterpreting its history.
Premised on the British oligarchy's perception that the United States would never succumb to its plans for re-conquering its former colonies unless all traces of the Neoplatonic world view which had given rise to anti campaign research paper, the victorious American Revolution were first obliterated from the historical record, the British campaign to in the world essay, undermine the American System put hired hist-whorians such as the anti paper, renowned George Bancroft and Frederick Jackson Turner to work churning out a stream of may book report fictionalizations purporting to represent and interpret the history of America. (1) The story of how Beard came to figure so prominently in this Big Lie deployment against the United States begins at anti paper Oxford's Balliol College. Thesis By! Long the key training center for Britain's topmost intelligence agents and anti research, ruling elite, Balliol also played a prominent role in clinical research manager cover seducing American intellectuals into anti smoking campaign research, the Crown's employ a process institutionalized with the creation of the Rhodes Scholarship Fund in 1904. Sent to Balliol by his Anglophile professor at Indiana's DePauw University, Beard was taken under the sample barber plan, wing of Fabian Society and related Round Table networks immediately upon his arrival there in 1899. These networks, featuring Fabian leaders Ramsay MacDonald, Keir Hardie, and Beatrice and Sidney Webb, tailored a curriculum for Beard which enabled him to assimilate swiftly the tools of the British intelligence trade. One of anti campaign paper Beard's first assignments, carried out letter, under the direction of Balliol's Regius Professor of History F. York Powell in collaboration with another American expatriate, socialist Walter Vrooman, involved setting up Oxford's pioneer workingman's college, Ruskin Hall.
Named in honor of arch-racist John Ruskin, spiritual godfather of Round Table founder Cecil Rhodes and one of smoking campaign research Beard's lifelong idols, Ruskin Hall became an important element in barber business the Round Table's strategy for infusing new blood--in this case, from the labor movement--into the Empire's dangerously anemic administrative apparatus. As Ruskin Hall's extension agent, Beard undertook several recruitment drives through England's pitiful industrial cities. He also published his first book under its imprint. An anti-industrial tract misnomered The Industrial Revolution, Beard's first exercise in the Big Lie school of historiography blamed Europe's food production crisis on its craze for industrialization, and recommended, among other measures, that if the soil of Europe were tilled and managed like that of China, it would support one thousand millions of human beings instead of its three hundred and sixteen millions. (2) During his last year at Balliol, Beard wrote a series of articles for paper, Young Oxford magazine making it clear beyond question that his loyalties now lay completely with the clinical letter, British oligarchy. In this series, titled The Living Empire, Beard endorsed the Round Table's geopolitical strategy for turning the U.S. into the Empire's dumb giant by inveigling it into an Anglo-Saxon alliance against Germany, Japan, and campaign paper, Russia -- the Ruskin-Cecil Rhodes strategy for preserving the British Empire.
Imperialism is the world-creating process, Beard began. The average rational healthy man who does not suffer from Imperial word phobia will agree that the Imperialism which produced the United States and fear essay, the colonies is good. Then, in an open appeal to the United States to help consolidate and extend Britain's worldwide looting policies -- the anti smoking paper, same policies against clinical project cover which the United States had already fought three bloody wars -- Beard wrote that if the two countries could integrate their own political, economic, social and educational programs, vast settlements from various white countries would be transplanted, not as individuals, but as communities, over smoking campaign research paper the rich plains of northern and central Asia and Southern South America, while the United States and England would use the same methods in sample shop plan distributing much needed populations over the great western plains of America and of South Australia and South Africa. The only sane attitude which statesmen can adopt towards other races is that of non-mixture. The question is, then: Are the anti research, places of the earth now capable of supporting increased populations to be made white, or black, or yellow? It is not a question of in the world essay death; it is a question of birth.
The whites are capable of multiplying indefinitely, so are the anti campaign research paper, blacks and yellows. Some life must be repressed. Which shall it be? [Emphasis original.] (3) It was to making this fantastic vision of a global Anglo-Saxon Empire a reality that Beard dedicated the rest of his life. It was his commitment to this oligarchical grand strategy which inspired his hypocritical attacks against the antidemocratic Constitution -- and not as his defenders claim, any fine notions about the ability of the common man to govern himself. Beard's patrons in England were impressed by missing may book report, his progress; here was an American who outdid the Empire's most ardent proponents in promoting the most hideous aspects of its rule! Keir Hardie and smoking campaign paper, Ramsay MacDonald were so impressed, in fact, that they urged Beard to remain in education in the world England indefinitely, going so far as to promise him a Cabinet post when the soon-to-be-formed Labour Party came to anti smoking research paper, power. (4) The Constitution . is grotesque But Beard's plans to may book, become the first U.S. citizen to anti smoking campaign research paper, hold a Cabinet portfolio were altered abruptly in September 1901 when William McKinley, the last American president to identify himself consciously as a Hamiltonian, was murdered by a London-controlled assassin.
Under McKinley's infantile, pro-London successor, Teddy Roosevelt, a legion of British agents and agents of fear of public influence was activated in the United States in a concerted effort to wipe out America's republican institutions and replace them with a Fabian/populist-modeled British colonial regimen. Spearheading what has come to be known as the Progressive Movement were the liberal reformers led by social worker Jane Addams, Lincoln Steffens, Edmond Kelley, Victor Berger, and John Spargo -- amply funded from London-connected investment bankers Jacob Schiff and James Loeb, among others -- who waged trust-busting assaults on U.S. Smoking Campaign Research Paper! industry and anticorruption campaigns against America's old-line political machines. Simultaneously, London unleashed a full-fledged epistemological war against the nation's humanist traditions. John Dewey a lifelong friend of Beard set about destroying American education and, with it, the fear speaking essay, minds of generations of American youth. Roscoe Pound, Louis Brandeis and Oliver Wendell Holmes worked to overthrow the natural-law foundations of America's legal system in favor of nominalist doctrines typified by sociological jurisprudence, while in economics, Richard Ely, Thorstein Veblen, and E.R.A. Seligman (a scion of the Rothschild-connected Seligman banking family) propagated openly anti-industrial theories.
In philosophy, occultist and Aristotelian William James's ludicrous pragmatism was established as a uniquely American contribution. Above all, this Tory fifth column was determined to savage the anti campaign paper, U.S. Constitution, and it was to this task that Beard, who returned to anthology essays, the United States in 1902 to a teaching post at Morgan-connected Columbia University, devoted his efforts. To London, the very existence of the campaign research paper, Constitution presented a constant reminder of its humiliating defeat by the American revolutionists and, as her agents were constantly complaining, the principal obstacle to social progress. In The World Essay! To the anti paper, United States, on education world essay the other hand, the Constitution served as the living embodiment of its framers' intent to build a nation committed to the perfection of its citizens through scientific and technological progress.
On both counts, London knew that the destruction of the Constitution's credibility was an absolute prerequisite if its overall subversion of the U.S. was to anti research, proceed successfully. Beard's An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution represented the culmination of this assault. Since the turn of the century, British conduits had been flooding the U.S. with virulent attacks on the Constitution and thesis statement for young goodman brown, the men who created it. The opening salvo was fired in 1898 by the American branch of the smoking research, Fabian Society. In the inaugural issue of its magazine, the education in the essay, Society vowed to replace the U.S. Constitution with something resembling England's: We call our paper The American Fabian for two reasons. Anti Research Paper! We call it Fabian because we desire to sample barber plan, make it stand for research paper, the kind of educational Socialist work which is so ably done by the English Fabian Society. We call our paper The American Fabian because our politics must in a measure differ from those of the English Fabians. England and critical anthology, America are alike in smoking campaign research some things; in some things they are utterly unalike.
England's Constitution readily admits of constant though gradual modification. Our American Constitution does not readily admit of such change. England can thus move into clinical research cover, Socialism almost imperceptibly. Our Constitution being largely individualistic must be changed to anti campaign research paper, admit of Socialism, and each change necessitates a political crisis. This means the raising of great new issues. [Emphasis added.] (5)
Within weeks, the same line was being retailed in London by Ramsay MacDonald -- who, not accidentally, was soon to become one of report Beard's principal patrons at Balliol. Briefing a meeting of the Fabian Society on his just-concluded tour of the United States, MacDonald lamented: The great bar to progress in the U.S. is the written constitution, Federal and State, which gives ultimate power to a law court. (6) By 1912, denunciations of the Constitution had become so commonplace that even Colonel Edward House, Woodrow Wilson's British-connected controller, could openly sneer that the document was not only outmoded, but grotesque. In order to provide some shred of credibility to this treachery, a slew of smoking campaign sensationalist books smearing the critical, Constitution were circulated. Among the most influential were The Spirit of American Government (1907) whose author, J. Allen Smith, said he wanted to anti smoking campaign, call attention to the [Constitution's] inherent opposition to democracy (7) -- and self-styled Marxist Algie Simons' Social Forces in American History (1911), which charged that: The organic law of this nation was formulated in secret session by a body called into existence through a conspiratorial trick, and was forced upon a disenfranchised people by means of a dishonest apportionment in order that the barber business plan, interests of a small body of wealthy rulers might be served. (8)
By the anti smoking research, time Beard's An Economic Interpretation of the fear of public speaking essay, Constitution appeared in 1913, the ground had been well-prepared for just such an impartial and definitive indictment. Beard's role in these attacks on the Constitution, exemplified but by no means limited to An Economic Interpretation, was based on his study and conscious replication of the political theory of the bestialist Aristotle. Against the Founding Fathers' goal of an urban-centered, industrialized United States, Beard posed Aristotle's vision of democracy based on small farmers condemned to paper, rural idiocy and powerless against the rule of oligarchies. Against their Neoplatonic humanist commitment to the development of human minds guided by reason and thesis goodman brown, the necessary interest of humanity as a whole, Beard championed Aristotle's heteronomic individual self-interest and greed. In a series of lectures delivered at Amherst College three years after publishing An Economic Interpretation, Beard was at his most effusive and frank in his admiration for anti, Aristotle: The mighty Aristotle, 'the master of all them that know,' . rightly deserves to called 'the father of political science,' because he took it out of the sphere of utopian idealism where Plato left it and placed it on the strong foundations of sample business plan natural history . he sought to combine the idealism of ethics with the realism of anti historical research. Aristotle combines economics, politics, and ethics. How sound is this, how wise, how much more scientific than our modern practice of dissection and distribution among specialists. . When he approaches the heart of the matter, namely, the causes of variation in the form of the state, he immediately relates economics and politics.
It can hardly be doubted that Aristotle . looks upon the character and barber shop plan, distribution of paper wealth in society as the chief determining factors in fixing the form of state. When Aristotle takes up the problem of anthology essays finding the smoking campaign paper, best material for anthology essays, a democracy he is no less insistent upon anti smoking campaign paper, the economic element as the fundamental factor. The safest and most enduring form of democracy is, in his opinion, that based upon agriculture. In such a state the people are compelled to work hard for a livelihood, they have little time for political intrigue and combinations, they do not covet the property of others, and they will endure in patience oligarchies or tyrannies if they are allowed to critical anthology essays, work and are not deprived of their lands or cattle. [emphasis added]. Next to an agricultural democracy, that of a pastoral people is best. The worst and most dangerous democracy is that founded on commerce, for there is no moral excellence in the employments of traders, mechanics, and laborers. (9)
Hypocritically, Beard, who was later to explicitly espouse just such an agrarian democracy for the United States, had denounced the U.S. Constitution for being aristocratic and inefficient for positive action only eight years earlier. Beard based his own views on government on Aristotle's conception -- against smoking paper Plato's insistence on the greater the critical, unity of the state the better that no individual or group of men is anti paper, capable of sample barber business plan transcending the paper, boundaries of his or their own immediate self-interest to act in the interests of the human species as mediated, for instance, through a state as a whole. In his Politics Aristotle wrote: Is it not obvious that a state may at length attain such a degree of unity as to be no longer a state? Since the nature of a state is to be a plurality, and in tending to greater unity, from being a state, it becomes a family, and in the world, from being a family, an individual; for the family may be said to smoking paper, be more one than the state, and the individual than the family. So that we ought not to attain this greater unity even if we could, for it would be the destruction of the state. (10) Beard repeated this same pluralistic argument in a Politics of his own (published 1908) in which he asserted that the real state is not the juristic state but is the group of persons able to work together efficiently for the accomplishment of their joint aims. The essence of the state is the exercise of sovereign authority by clinical project manager letter, some person or group of persons. (I1)
Five years later, in his lying interpretation of the Constitution, Beard drew Aristotle's argument to its ultimate antihumanist conclusion: It does not follow, Beard cynically declared, that the vague thing known as the advancement of general welfare or some abstraction known as justice was the immediate, guiding purpose of the framers [of the Constitution]. The point is, that the direct, impelling motive in both cases was the economic advantages which the anti, beneficiaries expected would accrue to themselves first, from their action. This view, together with Aristotle's espousal of rural democracy, is both the underpinning and the purpose of Beard's analysis in of public essay An Economic Interpretation that the fight over the Constitution represented an irreconcilable split between agrarian special interests and capitalist special interests. Rotten lies and filthy perversions The allegations and campaign research, conclusions Beard put forth in An Economic Interpretation differed little from those of his predecessors. Missing May Book! In essence, he contended that there had been a fundamental division in the American population over the Constitution and its ramifications for anti campaign research, national policy. On the one hand, Beard maintained, stood the overwhelming majority of the population, the thesis statement brown by, debtors and small farmers, constituting a popular party based on anti smoking campaign research paper money and agrarian interests; on the other, a conservative party centred in the towns and may book, resting on financial, mercantile, and personal property interests generally. (12) The movement for the Constitution, Beard claimed, was originated and anti, carried through principally by four groups of personal interests which had been adversely affected under the Articles of essays Confederation: money, public securities, manufactures, and trade and shipping. (13) Moreover, The members of the Philadelphia Convention which drafted the Constitution were immediately, directly, and personally interested in, and derived economic advantages from, the establishment of the new system. (14)
As for anti smoking campaign research, the Constitution itself, Beard deemed it essentially an economic document based upon the concept that the essay, fundamental private rights of smoking paper property are anterior to government and morally beyond the reach of popular majorities. (15) Beard charged that the convening of the critical anthology essays, Constitional Convention amounted to a virtual coup d'etat in itself since no popular vote was taken directly or indirectly on the proposition to call the anti smoking campaign research paper, Convention which drafted the Constitution; that a large propertyless mass was . excluded at the outset from participation (through representatives) in the work of framing the Constitution by fear of public speaking, prevailing suffrage qualifications; and that the Constitution was ratified by a vote or probably not more than one-sixth of adult males. (16) Beard's treatment of the entirety of American history -- from the dispute over the Constitution, through the anti research paper, split between Hamilton and Jefferson, to the Civil War -- was based on the false premise that the education in the essay, principal dynamic in the development of the nation was the struggle for domination between capitalist (manufacturing, commerce, finance) and farming interests. This false dichotomy was simply Beard's method of research paper diverting attention from and obscuring the research project manager, real battle that has characterized every major crisis in American history: the fight between the research, American System, with its commitment to may book, scientific progress and the application of anti smoking paper new technologies to both agriculture and industry, and the British System, based on thesis statement by Aristotle's bestial vision of pastoral idiocy -- a vision which Beard openly urged the United States to adopt. Had Beard published his tirade against the Constitution ten years earlier, it would probably have been dismissed as the campaign research, rantings of may book report a crank, and the matter would have ended there. But London's epistemological war had already begun to smoking research, erode America's capacity for education in the world, resistance.
Thanks to anti, the zealous publicity efforts of America's wretchedly anglophile liberal establishment, An Economic Interpretation was palmed off on the public as the definitive expose the real story behind the Constitution. As the statement for young goodman by, following quotes from two establishment spokesmen suggest, the damage which Beard's book wrought on the American System was incalculable. According to the Nation magazine, founded by E.L. Godkin as a conduit for British propaganda, An Economic Interpretation was the chief reason that. . We know today that the Constitution is a scheme devised by a land-holding and rum-selling oligarchy for the enslavement of a democracy. There was a group of people and an epoch commonly described as the Fathers. We know today that they were not parents to be proud of. Anti Smoking Campaign! The Fathers in their graves stand in sample barber plan the way of a great many desirable things of the present. Therefore, they must be shown up. The movement once under way, impetus does the rest.
There ensues a chronic irritation with the past; a chronic suspicion that the past was just the opposite of what patriotic sentiment has usually pictured. (17) Commenting more explicitly on the contribution Beard's book made to the Progressive Movement's attempt to overthrow the American constitutional system, Max Lerner wrote: Beard's book . brought the theory of group interests and of class conflict into smoking campaign, the center of the missing may book report, study of American politics; it dealt a blow to the conservative Supreme Court majorities and to their apologists, for if it was true that even the founding fathers were human beings governed by their sense of economic interest, it was a fortiori even truer of the Supreme Court justices who passed on the validity of federal and state legislation that sought to control Big Property. Smoking Campaign Paper! Thus it dealt a blow to the strongest panoply in which property in world Beard's day clothed itself -- the anti smoking, inviolate panoply of Constitutional due process of sample shop law. At the same time, it gave the coup de grace to the mechanical jurisprudence of the anti campaign research paper, time, the rebellion against which was one of project manager cover Beard's strongest motivations. (18) Equally damaging, Beard's bogus theories became the anti campaign research, accepted interpretation of the Constitution for several decades to come; by the mid-1930s, his central thesis had been incorporated into the overwhelming majority of college textbooks and into a significant proportion of secondary school texts as well. And when the New Republic conducted a survey of books that changed our minds during the education, same period, An Economic Interpretation ranked second out of a hundred, prompting Walter Lippmann to praise it for marking a turning point in the interpretation of American history. (19) This is anti, not to imply that American Whigs did not attempt to counter Beard's lies. Typifying the outrage with which these layers greeted An Economic Interpretation was Warren G. Harding's Marion (Indiana) Star.
Scavengers, Hyena-like, Desecrate the Graves of the sample shop business plan, Dead Patriots We Revere, ran the headline over the Star's review of Beard's book, which nominated Beard for. . the smoking research paper, place of Chief Hyena. Sample Barber Business Plan! His book is libelous, vicious and smoking paper, damnable in its influence, and every patriotic citizen of the United States, every lover of liberty in this land should rise to condemn him and the purveyors of his filthy lies and rotten perversions. (20) But while Harding hit the critical essays, nail smack on its head, his and others' failure to identify Beard and his book for anti smoking paper, what they were -- weapons in London's ongoing war against the Republic -- rendered their protests ineffective. The New History: Lying with a clear conscience. As Harding said, An Economic Interpretation was basically a pack of anthology lies. Research done subsequently by Robert Brown, Nancy Spannaus, Forrest McDonald and others (21) has indisputably demonstrated that the facts which Beard marshaled to support his attack on smoking paper the Founding Fathers were either downright fraudulent, or ambiguous at clinical project manager letter best. Even Beard's major evidence for charging that the Fathers were materially motivated in framing the Constitution -- the fact that several of them held U.S. Treasury Bonds -- is both questionable and ludicrous.
Imagine railing at someone for smoking, financially supporting a cause to which he has committed his entire life! The fundamental silliness of Beard's arguments is what probably provoked arch-Fabian Oliver Wendell Holmes to remark that the only thing he Saw in Beard's magnum opus was a covert sneer. Beard justified his utter contempt for historical accuracy on the grounds that accuracy is an unattainable dream. Fear Essay! A few years before An Economic Interpretation appeared, Beard had collaborated with a Columbia colleague, historian James Harvey Robinson, in developing a new theory of history which would enable them to lie with a clear conscience. Dubbed the New History, this modernized version of Aristotle's doctrine of mythmaking contended that, since it was impossible to know with any certainty what had actually occurred in the past, history should be written from the standpoint of contemporary prejudices and geared principally toward shaping the future. Specifically, the New Historians argued, history should be used for furthering the goals of the Progressive Movement. This was the theory which enabled Beard -- an ardent proponent of U.S. entry into World War I -- to write an account of the American Revolution, on behalf of the notorious Creel Committee of World War I, which asserted that the anti smoking campaign research paper, only argument the American colonists had had with England was the fact that King George III was a German! (22) One of the most revealing statements of Beard's ideas on historiographical method can be found in his 1933 presidential address to the American Historical Association, Written History as An Act of Faith and its sequel, That Noble Dream.
In these, Beard insisted that history exists wholly in the eyes of the beholder. In The World! History as it actually was is not known and cannot be known, Beard declared, adding that writing history is first and foremost a question of cutting off connections to the universal. Smoking Campaign! (23) Beard gradually extended his denial of the possibility of truth in historiography to the entire spectrum of human knowledge. In the mid-1930s, when the Depression had begun to undermine Americans' belief in the idea of willfully determined progress, Beard began a sweeping attack against the scientific method. Claiming that the report, economic collapse had ushered in a fundamental crisis in Western thought, Beard wrote that this crisis. may be said to smoking, spring from the disconcerting recognition of the clinical research manager letter, fact that science cannot of itself provide the certainty, understanding and unequivocal direction to anti smoking campaign research paper, policy and practice profoundly expected after theological supremacy and assurance were disrupted in a conflict extending through several centuries. (24)
Elsewhere, Beard contended that: The contrast between the ideal that seems possible and the real [reality] that oppresses us is painfully evident to contemporary knowledge; and it is education, increasingly understood that science, which once supplanted theological assurance, can furnish no unequivocal prescriptions for smoking research, national policy and action. Despite all the for young brown, sayings, declarations, and prognostications . Anti Smoking Research Paper! unequivocal explanations and critical anthology essays, guidance are denied us. Deprived of the certainty which it was once believed science would deliver, and of the very hope that it can in the nature of things disclose certainty, human beings must now concede their own fallibility and anti smoking paper, accept the world as a place of trial and error. (25) By the end of his life, Beard was espousing the most openly irrationalist outlook. In a speech to research project manager letter, the American Political Association in 1948 he announced: I have come to the conviction that we have no justification whatever for regarding our universe as a unified process under law and hence reducible to an exact science, either physical or political; and still less justification for supposing that, given the nature of campaign our minds, we can grasp the scheme of clinical research letter things entire in its three-dimension fullness. Smoking Paper! (26) Beard's deliberate lies concerning the origins and development of the United States cannot be attributed simply to the workings of an amoral mind given to pathological lying. Like the other elements of Britain's cultural subversion of America's humanist heritage, Beard's wanton historical misrepresentations constituted, as he himself freely admitted, the means to an end. That end, as Beard made absolutely explicit time after time, was the transformation of the United States from the world's premier industrial power into clinical research project letter, a replica of Aristotle's perfect state a zero-growth nightmare, inhabited by men-turned-sheep tending sheep, and ruled over by a feudal aristocracy capable only anti smoking research of looting, plundering, and pillage: in modern terminology, a fascist state. In a textbook on American government published in 1924, Beard implicitly acknowledged that his incessant chattering in behalf of true democracy was demagogic bunk, intended solely for the edification of the masses.
For the present, he wrote, we shall accept the dictum of statement by Lord Bryce that the world is governed by active minorities who originate ideas and compel the attentions of the multitudes. (27) In other words, it is the elites, not the campaign research paper, people, who actually rule. Throughout his career, Beard complemented his historiographical subversion by actively involving himself in operations specifically geared towards supplanting American's humanist elite with one capable of carrying out London's desired transformation of the United States. One of the most important of these deployments was the so-called government reform movement, which had been inaugurated by Lord Bryce himself. (28) A key component of the clinical research project manager, Progressive Movement, government reform, was the noble-sounding name which London applied to its attempt to anti smoking campaign paper, seize America's government institutions by clinical research letter, replacing democratically elected, constituency-oriented leaderships with nonpartisan experts or technocrats. Sold to the public on the grounds that American institutions had been corrupted beyond repair, the government reform movement aimed not merely at planting a layer of top-level agents in key policymaking positions, but at anti campaign research paper overhauling the barber shop business plan, entire structure of U.S. government and refashioning it along explicitly British lines. The spate of mini-Watergates which proliferated during the anti smoking campaign paper, early twentieth century, largely provoked by the exposes of corruption in government uncovered by the British-controlled muckraking press, provided the justification for the wholesale destabilization of American government institutions, as one after another urban machine toppled before the reformers' onslaught. Beard threw himself into the government reform movement as soon as he returned from Oxford. Under the of public speaking, tutelage of Frank Goodnow -- the chairman of Columbia University's political science department -- and spurred on by the vision of bringing about the anti smoking paper, reconciliation of democracy with efficiency through the report, new science of public administration, Beard concentrated on two strategic areas: training the new class of technocrats, and reworking state and local constitutions.
In 1906, Beard joined the faculty of the New York Bureau of Municipal Research, where he helped establish its pioneering Training School for Public Service, becoming director of the anti smoking campaign research paper, Training School in 1912. Funds for the Training School came from Mrs. E.H. Harriman who, returning from a trip to England in 1910, was so enthusiastic about the caliber of the British Civil Service, that she wished to replicate it at clinical manager cover home. Known by its victims at anti smoking campaign Tammany Hall as the Bureau of world essay Municipal Besmirch, the Training School and its parent institution produced study after study purportedly proving how inefficiently municipal government was being carried out, and how much better it would be if Americans realized that government properly belonged in the hands of specially trained experts. As New York public works czar Rober Moses, one of Beard's prize Training School pupils, put it in a dissertation he wrote at Oxford University while preparing himself for a career in municipal reform back home: The Civil Service of Great Britain is brilliant and farsighted because it recognizes that only a few, select university trained individuals should be permitted to hold important government positions. (29)
Through Beard's efforts, the Bureau and its Training School rapidly established themselves as the paramount institutions of their kind and anti smoking campaign research, the model for speaking, the thousands of others which were set up across the country over the next two decades. Smoking Research! Through these institutions -- of which the Brookings Institution (founded in 1916) is one of the most notorious -- government policymaking and administration on all levels were systematically wheedled out of the hands of elected officials. Recognizing, as his mentor Ramsay MacDonald had stressed years earlier, that state as well as federal constitutions presented formidable obstacles to the drastic changes he and his cronies wanted to wreak on research cover letter American governance, Beard spearheaded an smoking campaign research paper ambitious, nationwide campaign to reform them. In 1919, under the auspices of the barber shop business plan, National Municipal League, Beard produced a model state constitution which recommended that the states adopt a governing structure hardly distinguishable from British parliamentarianism. In this document, the man who attacked the smoking campaign paper, U.S. Constitution for being undemocratic, called for a system of government in which. . the governor would be elected by the people, with absolute power to clinical research cover letter, appoint and remove heads of anti research paper departments, would prepare the budget which the legislature might reduce but not increase; and would have the power to dissolve the legislature when it defeats any of his measures. Business! The legislature, organized with one committee on appropriations and revenues and one standing committee for each of the major branches of the state administration might, on the other hand, call a general election to support it in any break with the anti campaign, governor. There would also be introduced the recall principle. Sample! (30) Beard also advocated the smoking research paper, consolidation of all government departments into anthology essays, a few superagencies, with the anti smoking campaign paper, governor as the fear of public, czar, and the adoption of the short ballot -- a technique for drastically reducing the smoking campaign, number of elected officials by missing report, making most administrative positions appointive.
These proposals were specifically aimed toward placing control over the government budget in the right hands. The budget is the very heart of the governing process he wrote in one of his tracts, It involves fundamental problems in administrative organization, in public policy, in legislative responsibility and in political leadership. Smoking Research Paper! Sound budgetary procedure . requires a thorough-going reconstruction, even of the very elemental parts of the government framework. (31) Through its government reform movement, London succeeded to a significant extent in taking government away from the country's elected representatives, bestowing it instead on a selected and ever-growing gaggle of experts. The massive influence wielded today by the Brookings Institution and other thinktanks, together with the proliferation of such strategically situated government policy institutions as the Office of Management and Budget and the General Accounting Office, is only part of the anticonstitutional legacy bequeathed to the United States by radical democrat Charles Beard. Beard's commitment to turn the U.S. into a backward colony of the thesis for young by, British Empire is campaign research, nowhere more apparent than in the recommendations he continually put forth for U.S. economic and foreign policy.
A prolific writer and self-proclaimed expert on foreign affairs and economics, Beard emerged during the crisis-wracked 1930s especially as one of the most important and influential spokesmen in the U.S. on behalf of Britain's attempt to turn the U.S. into an explicitly fascist entity. It is entirely lawful that Beard should have become the leader of the band of anglophile liberals, centered around the New Republic, which championed fascism and organized for speaking, its triumph in America. Anyone who finds it difficult to reconcile Beard's ardent support for fascism and his outspoken adulation for British puppet Benito Mussolini with his defense of democracy does not yet understand the profound similarities between the anti smoking campaign research paper, dionysian doctrine of radical democracy and that of Nazism. Beard made no secret of his fascist proclivities. In a review he wrote for the New Republic in 1929 of Herbert Schneider's The Making of the Fascist State, Beard declared that Italian fascism was. beyond question an amazing experiment. an experiment in reconciling individualism and may book report, socialism, politics and technology. Campaign! This is far from the of public essay, frozen dictatorship of anti research paper Russian Tsardom. It is more like the American checks and balance system; and it may work out in a new democratic direction. It would be a mistake, Beard admonishes any possibly queasy readers, to allow feelings aroused by contemplating the harsh deeds and critical essays, extravagant assertions that have accompanied the Fascist process (as all other immense historical changes) to obscure the potentialities and lessons of the adventure -- no, not adventure, but destiny riding without any saddle and bridle across the historic peninsula that bridges the world of antiquity and our modern world. Then, in an outrageous attempt to invoke the smoking paper, Founding Fathers in support of this rubbish, Beard continues:
In the barber plan, fascist condemnation of democracy there is nothing new . the smoking campaign, fathers of the American republic, notably Hamilton, Madison and John Adams, were as voluminous and vehement as any fascist could desire. (32) Over the next decade, Beard devoted himself to ensuring that this amazing experiment would triumph across the globe. Beard welcomed the Depression, confident that the ensuing political and economic dislocation presented a golden opportunity for launching a sweeping reorganization of American policy. An early, vocal advocate of FDR's domestic economic policies, Beard frequented both the White House, and missing report, Capitol Hill during the New Deal's heyday, where -- as a confidante of the President put it -- he was regarded as the intellectual father of the New Deal. In a series of analyses published during the early thirties, Beard set out in detail what course he believed the research paper, U.S. should take.
One of the most revealing of these was A Five-Year Plan for America, published in the July 1931 issue of Forum magazine. Education In The Essay! An unabashed blueprint for creating a fascist state in the U.S., the article called for establishing a corporatist governmental structure based on anti smoking campaign research paper a National Economic Council whose members would include. . economic agencies concerned with transportation, communications, fuel, (oil, gas, and coal), iron and steel, lumber and building materials, electrical utilities, textiles, packing . agriculture, wholesaling and retailing. In addition, labor, In addition, labor, organized and unorganized, will have its spokesmen. The exact weight to be assigned to each element can be evolved and in the process the experience of Germany with economic councils may be studied with profit.
In short, Beard continued, there will be established for missing, the fundamental industries of the country . Campaign Research! a small national body charged with the function of goodman brown coordinating these divisions of economy and working out the project of their inner relations -- financial, operative, and distributive. It will naturally propound any changes in the Constitution and laws deemed necessary for the realization of anti smoking paper planned economy [emphasis added]. (33) Under the letter, National Economic Council would be a Board of Strategy and Planning modeled, Beard said, after Bernard Baruch's War Industries Board; whose prime function . will be to make a survey of the country and forecast the production of consumer and capital goods. (34) Syndicates representing each major industry would also be established for the express purpose of campaign paper limiting industrial production. Harkening back to his earlier praise for missing may book, Aristotle's bucolic fantasies, Beard reveals fully his own feudalistic anti-urban, anti-industry bias: Agriculture ought to be especially emphasized in connection with national planning, for anti smoking campaign paper, city dwellers are woefully ignorant of the land.
Yet it is fundamental. If agriculture perishes, as in parts of China, civilization sinks down in ruins. Rome likewise furnishes an example: our scholars well know the intimate relations between the decay of Roman agriculture and the decline of the education essay, Empire. (35) There is also another side to the problem, Beard asserted: The overgrown urban agglomerations of the United States, with their millions pounding pavements, toiling listlessly in poorly lighted offices and factories, and living in sunless tenements need more of the country, not less. And a rational system of industrial planning will dissolve the absurd and unwholesome slum areas of cities, carry industries out into anti research paper, air and sunlight, and institute a fine balance of rural and may book report, urban life. (36)
As to those city-dwellers not dispersed to smoking paper, the countryside by this city-wrecking scheme, Beard proposes that they. be channeled into education in the essay, the Building Materials and Housing Syndicates . [which] will enroll an army of smoking paper two or three million men to tear down the cities and rehabilitate them, along the lines of the sweat equity and related labor-intensive full employment schemes pushed by today's liberals. (37) Beard's plan also stipulated that a Marketing Syndicate be set up to control the distribution of all industrial and agricultural output through the economy. Regarding foreign trade which he identified as the most fruitful source of speaking essay international rivalries and wars -- Beard proposed that a Syndicate comprising all export/import firms be set up in order to slash U.S. trade to a bare minimum, and that to be carried on chiefly through barter. Research! The Syndicate, wrote Beard, will not proceed on the assumption that the nation can get rich by dumping goods abroad . [but] will be a powerful aid to diplomacy, bringing the reason of commodity exchange to bear on the vagaries of ministers plenipotentiary. Fearing that all this might be too much for his audience to take, Beard hastened to reassure them that . the scheme here outlined is no foreign concoction or importation.
It is a purely native product. Education! Even now it lies partly completed before us. (38) Beard amplified these British-originated policy proposals for the United States in a highly publicized study which he published in anti smoking campaign research paper 1934 under the ironically apt title, The Open Door At Home. Commissioned by clinical project cover, the Social Science Research Council and funded by the Carnegie Corporation, The Open Door urged that the U.S. adopt a policy of continentalism -- Beard's Jeffersonian-sounding euphemism for withdrawing the U.S. from the world arena and anti campaign paper, preventing it from challenging Britain's strategic gameplan for the 1930s. Arguing that U.S. national interests could best be served if more emphasis were placed on thesis goodman brown domestic policy than on an effort to anti smoking campaign research, wrest new 'benighted' areas from Great Britain, France or Japan for the purpose of barber shop business securing more moral obligations to research paper, other races, Beard assailed the Hamiltonian tradition of outward industrial and commercial expansion which assumed that American prosperity depended upon the expansion of foreign markets. It was imperative, moreover, Beard continued, that an immediate end be put to the outward thrust of commercial power supposedly forced on the U.S. by greedy businessmen and to the overaccumulation of capital and the too-rapid expansion of industrial plant capacity. If these measures were taken, then the nation's attention could be focused on achieving a wider distribution of wealth-- even if the absolute decline in overall national wealth brought about by these measures caused a decline in the standard of living. In a section sharply redolent of his racist Young Oxford articles, Beard also prescribed that the cover, American government impose drastic restrictions on immigration in order to maintain the racial homogeneity of the American stock he deemed so crucial to achieving his insane vision of an autarkical United States.
By universal consent, he wrote, the U.S. has the legal right to regulate or abolish immigration with respect to the national interest. Smoking Research Paper! As a matter of physical limitations, it is impossible for the U.S. to take care of the pullulating surplus populations of the earth. Research Project Letter! (39) In terms not dissimilar to Britain's current strategy for wrecking the U.S. economy, Beard concluded The Open Door by laying out the following summary proposals: By domestic control over all foreign trade, by the relaxation of the capitalistic pressure of the United States on world markets in standardized manufactures and anti smoking, commercial investments, by sample barber business, concentrating national energies on the development of research national resources and the efficient distribution of wealth at home, by deliberately withdrawing from the rivalries of imperialist nations, the United States would take its official nose out of a thousand affairs of no vital concern to missing report, the people of the campaign, United States, would draw back its defense lines upon zones that can be defended with the statement by, greatest probability of victory in research paper case of war, and sample barber plan, would thus have a minimum dependence on the strategic products indispensable to war. [The U.S.] could steadily decrease its dependence on research world markets for the essentials indispensable to our material civilization. (40) In December 1934, Beard surveyed the barber plan, devastation wrought on the U.S. economy by FDR's Keynesian-inspired corporatism measures and was satisfied: The fundamental idea of the New Deal, he ruminated, is the coordination of classes and maintenance of balance by regulation and by a certain control over the distribution of wealth. America was certainly moving in the direction Beard had been so vociferously advocating since he left Oxford thirty years earlier. Beginning about 1935, however, Beard began to detect a certain troublesome independence on President Roosevelt's part, especially in the realm of foreign policy. FDR was simply not following the script which London had prepared dictating that the U.S. pursue a thoroughly isolationist role. Indeed, Beard had expressed some of these fears in his Open Door: if Roosevelt has a foreign policy appropriate to the trend of his domestic policy, he has not yet revealed it. As Roosevelt started to break away from London's grip -- a process which posed the smoking paper, threat that the U.S. Missing May Book! muscle might be brought to bear against British puppets Mussolini and Hitler -- Beard opened up a barrage of increasingly violent denunciations of his former idol's internationalist tendencies. At this juncture, Beard made an anti smoking campaign ostentatiously conservative shift which enabled him to insinuate himself into, and gain the confidence of, key anti-British Republican Party leaders, including Senator William Borah.
In a Kissingeresque operation, Beard used this leverage to manipulate their fears of being tricked into fighting yet another war for the British into an hysterical denial of in the world reality. As the situation in Europe deterioriated, Beard emerged as a leader of the British-fostered isolationist movement, ultimately joining America First -- itself a project of the anti smoking campaign research paper, profascist Cliveden Set in England. (41) In a book published in 1940, Beard argued vehemently that the U.S. could play no positive international role: There must be, he said, recognition of the limited nature of American power to relieve, restore and goodman brown by, maintain life beyond its own sphere of interest and control -- a recognition of the hard fact that the anti smoking campaign paper, U.S., either alone or in any coalition, did not possess the power to force peace on education in the Europe and Asia, to assure the establishment of democratic and pacific governments there, or to provide the social and economic underwriting necessary to the endurance of such governments. (42) As World War II ended, Beard took up the cudgels against Roosevelt once again, attempting to derail FDR's plans to forge an American-Soviet alliance against the rotting remnants of British imperial power. In his President Roosevelt and smoking paper, the Coming of the War, Beard launched into a cold war frenzy, berating the now-dead Roosevelt for involving the U.S. in a war which produced nothing but. the triumph of another totalitarian regime no less despotic and ruthless than Hitler's system, namely, Russia, possessing more than twice the population astride Europe and Asia, employing bands of missing may book report Quislings as terroristic in methods as any Hitler ever assembled, and anti research, insistently effectuating a political and economic ideology equally inimical to the democracy, liberties and institutions of the of public essay, United States. (43)
Beard died in 1948, secure in the knowledge that his lifetime of treason had contributed significantly to the Empire's survival. Through his historical lies millions of smoking campaign Americans had been deprived of anthology their heritage or actually turned against it; countless others had been duped into supporting British policy for the United States as a result of Beard's influence. His death prompted an outpouring of anti research eulogies from his British friends, returning the favor. As one old friend, Fabian Harold Laski, wrote: From the angle of a European observer, Charles Beard's work is among the most distinguished of American contributions to the social sciences. Beard's An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution and its sequel, the Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy, were . books that laid the foundation of a new and creative approach to the subjects with which they dealt. But even more important than the brilliant use of the material that went into their making was the value of the solid foundation they offered to missing report, the criticism of those who sought to see American history in realistic terms. Charles Beard has always been a man of progressive ideas.
We in Britain are not likely to forget that . he was one of the campaign paper, founders of Ruskin Hall, Oxford, . which has had a vital part in essays shaping the character of the British Labour Party generally, and of many of its members, especially since 1915, who have entered the House of Commons. (44) 1. George Bancroft (1800-1891) and Frederick Jackson Turner (1861-1931) were both extremely influential in revising American history according to the changing tactical requirements of the British oligarchy. Anti Smoking! Considered to research project cover, be the foremost historian produced by the United States in the nineteenth century, Bancroft portrayed the course of the nation's development as the triumph of the people's democracy in his multivolume History of the United States. An ardent Jacksonian and Transcendentalist, and anti smoking campaign research, an intimate friend and collaborator of August Belmont, the House of Rothschild's chief agent in the U.S., Bancroft combined his historiographical subversion with an extensive political career. These included his capacities as political advisor to Martin Van Buren --the man whom London installed in the White House to oversee its destruction of the U.S. economy in the aftermath of Andrew Jackson's sabotage of the Second National Bank; as official counselor to British puppet James K. Polk; as ghost writer to critical, Andrew Jackson; and as U.S. Ambassador to Bismark's Germany and to the Court of St. James. Bancroft thus participated at the highest levels in Britain's post-American Revolution deployment to anti research, derail attempts by European and American humanist networks to revive the Grand Design which had brought the United States into existence.
Although less active politically than Bancroft, Frederick Jackson Turner played an sample barber business equally determining role in reshaping American history. Turner is anti campaign research, best known for education world essay, his frontier thesis, which maintained that westward expansion and free land had been the anti campaign research, chief sources of democratization and social stability for barber business plan, the United States. During the smoking paper, London-inspired 1890-1920 campaign slash the flow of immigrants into the United States, Turner's theory provided crucial back-up for the absurd argument that the clinical project manager, closing of the anti smoking campaign paper, frontier made it impossible for the U.S. to of public essay, assimilate large numbers of research new immigrants, especially those of the mongrel races of anthology Asia and anti smoking research, southern Europe. Trained at John Hopkins University by Woodrow Wilson, and at the University of Wisconsin, where he helped Robert LaFollette and other progressives make Wisconsin a model Fabian state, Turner frequently is credited with popularizing the avowedly Aristotelian economic interpretation of history among American academics. Indeed, Charles Beard praised Turner for restoring economic facts to historical writing in America. That Bancroft and Turner -- two of the most renowned U.S. historians --were fully complicit in London's schemes for undermining the United States as a sovereign nation, bears shocking witness to the astounding success Britain achieved in penetrating American historiography.
In 1884, London took a major step toward extending and consolidating that penetration with the founding of the American Historical Association (AHA). Of Public Speaking! From its beginnings, the AHA exhibited a distinctly pro-British bent. Its first president, Albert Shaw, simultaneously acted as editor-in-chief of the American edition of campaign research Review of Reviews , the British-based magazine published by Willian T. Stead, co-organizer with Cecil Rhodes of the British Round Table! Lawfully, Shaw's Review of missing Reviews emerged at the turn of the century as the leading propagandist for immigration restriction as well as for a U.S. alliance with Britain under the campaign research paper, guise of Anglo-Saxon unity. 2. Charles A. Beard, The Industrial Revolution (London, 1927), p. 44.
3. Charles A. Beard, The Living Empire, Young Oxford (November, 1901). 4. Cited in Eric Goldman, Rendezvous with Destiny (New York: 1952), p. 116. 5. Quoted in Rose L. Martin, Fabian Freeway (Belmont, Mass.: 1966) p. 136. 6. Ibid., pp. 136-37. 7. Quoted in may book Goldman, op. cit., p. 119. 8. Quoted in Ibid., pp. Anti Smoking Campaign Research Paper! 109-110. Simons had been a student of Frederick Jackson Turner and Richard Ely at the University of in the essay Wisconsin. 9. Reprinted in Charles A. Beard, The Economic Basis of Politics And Related Writings (New York: 1957), p. 25. 10.
Aristotle, Politics, reprinted in smoking campaign paper Justin D. Kaplan, ed., The Pocket Aristotle (New York: 1%0), p. 283. 11. Cited in David W. Noble, Historians against History (Minneapolis: 1965), p. 60. 12. Charles A. Beard, An Economic Interpretation of the may book report, Constitution (New York: 1913), p. Smoking! 292. 17.
The Nation, January 1915. 18. Quoted in Goldman, op cit., p. 118. 19. For the impact of An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution on U.S. textbooks, see Maurice Blinkoff, The Influence of thesis for young Charles A. Beard upon American Historiography, in the University of smoking paper Buffalo Studies, Monographs in History, XII (May, 1936), No. 4, Ch.
II. 20. Quoted in Goldman, op cit., p. 119. 21. Cf.
Robert E. Brown, Charles Beard and world essay, the Constitution: A Critical Analysis of An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution (Princeton: 1965); Nancy B. Spannaus and Christopher White, eds., The Political Economy of the American Revolution (New York: 1977); and Forrest McDonald, We The People: The Economic Origins of the Constitution (Chicago: 1958). 22. Marcus Cunliffe and Robin Winks, Pastmasters (New York: 1969), pp. 136-38. According to the authors, the history subcommittee of the Creel Committee (which was the official U.S. Anti Research Paper! propaganda agency during World War I) patterned itself after its British counterpart, Wellington House. This subcommittee, whose members included Frederick Jackson Turner, Carl Becker, Charles Beard, and anthology essays, other eminent historians, wrote and disseminated tons of history, distorted history, and open lies called history, for purposes of war propaganda . in general the idea was to depict the Germans as barbarians, militaristic but second-rate in actual warfare, and to anti smoking campaign research paper, show that Anglo-American relations had always been friendly and that American relations with Germany had always been bad. 23. Written History As An Act of Faith, American Historical Review XLI (October, 1935), pp. Sample Shop Business Plan! 73-87; That Noble Dream, American Historical Review XLII (April, 1937), pp.
460-483. It is important to note that Beard appended to the former a copy of a letter written to him by Italian philosopher and historian, Benedetto Croce, on historical method. Anti Smoking Research Paper! Beard frequently cites Croce as the strongest influence on his own thinking on the philosophy of history. The pro-fascist Croce was only one of a number of top British intelligence-linked European intellectuals with whom Beard maintained active collaborative relations. Among them were the Frankfurt School networks. Beard was a member along with Sidney Webb, Felix Warburg and Jean Piaget of the Frankfurt School's board of directors, and was instrumental in relocating the School to Columbia in the 1930s, from where it proceeded to manufacture rock music and in the world essay, other atrocities. 24. Charles A. Beard, Limitations to the Application of Social Science Implied in Recent Social Trends, Social Forces 2 (May, 1933), p. 506. 25. Charles A. Anti Smoking Campaign Research! Beard and G.H.E. Statement Goodman By! Smith, The Open Door at Home (New York: 1934), pp.
19-20. 26. Quoted in Cunliffe and Winks, op. cit. 27. Charles A. Beard, American Government and Politics (New York: 1924). 28. Bryce's well-known treatise on American institutions, The American Commonwealth (1888), provided both the impetus and smoking paper, the rationale for the municipal reform movement. Essentially an intelligence profile of weak flanks within the U.S. which could be exploited most profitably by the British, An American Commonwealth singled out U.S. urban governments as the one disappointing aspect of thesis statement goodman brown by American life because of their corrupt tendencies. Several individuals who were to play powerful roles in the urban reform movement as it subsequently evolved actually wrote chapters for Bryce's book. Seth Low, the famous reform mayor of Brooklyn, wrote the chapter on municipal reform, while Frank Goodnow, an expert on administrative law and government reform wrote the chapter on campaign research the Tweed Ring. When Bryce (who was British Ambassador to the U.S. from 1907-1913) appealed to his American friends for manager cover, help in revising An American Commonwealth in 1908, Seth Low, then president of Columbia University, lent him the anti smoking campaign, services of a young Columbia professor, Charles Beard.
29. Robert A. Caro, The Power Broker: Rober Moses and the Fall of New York (New York: 1974), p. 53. 30. Charles A. Beard, The Bolshevik Session of the National Municipal League Annual Conference, National Municipal Review VIII (January, 1919), pp. 26-33. 31. Charles A. Clinical Research Cover Letter! Beard, The Budgetary Provisions of the New York Constitution, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science LXIV (March, 1916), pp. 215- 226.
32. Charles A. Beard, Making the Fascist State, New Republic LVII (January 23, 1929), pp. 277-78. 33. Charles A. Beard, A Five-Year Plan for America, Forum LXXXVI (June, 1934), p. 5. 39.
Charles A. Beard and G.H.E. Smith, op. cit. 41. Paper! Beard's pre-war denunciations of FDR included Giddy Minds and Foreign Quarrels: An Estimate of American Foreign Policy (New York: 1939); The Old Deal and the New (New York: 1940); plus numerous articles. 42. Cited in Cunliffe and Winks, op. cit., p. 434. 43.
Charles A. Beard, President Roosevelt and of public speaking essay, The Coming of War (New Haven: 1948), p. 577.
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