Research paper herbal medicine
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business plan write Writing a business plan is a good way to solidify your thinking. By the time your document is complete, your objectives and strategies will become specific and herbal, concrete. The process of essay help writing the document will force you to carefully review all the risks and rewards before you launch. The finished business plan will convince others of your potential and paper herbal, guide your team as you implement the oj simpson essay help, plan. Click on any topic in the outline to see a detailed explanation of research paper herbal what is required and essay selling a product, a sample of that topic.
The Sample topics were provided from the business plan of CitiLoc, Inc., a web service corporation that provides a forum for herbal cities to communicate effectively with corporations looking for la youth essay potential expansion sites. COPY NUMBER ______________. Paper! CitiLoc, Inc.'s business plan is confidential, containing information proprietary to CitiLoc, Inc.. None of the information contained in this plan may be reproduced or disclosed to any person under any circumstances without express written permission of CitiLoc, Inc.. I have accepted and will protect the confidentiality of this business plan. The Executive Summary should include a concise presentation of those aspects of your business that are critical to a potential investor or lender.
A prospective investor or lender will scan the Executive Summary to determine whether the details which follow merits their time. Factors to consider: Objectives of the business plan (to raise capital, to guide the team) Profile of your enterprise. Qualifications of the founders. Market Opportunity (what is missing in the market) Strategy for essay success. Research Paper! Requirements (finances, technology, key personel) CitiLoc is oj simpson essay committed to improving communications between government (city, state federal) and businesses seeking to research paper herbal, relocate. CitiLoc, Inc. is a newly established C corporation. We are located in Austin, Texas and are presently working out of one of the dissertations psychology, principal's homes. Research Paper Medicine! There are four principals who have formed CitiLoc; Mark Hanson, Jim Jones, Donald van Pelt and Jessica Lane.
Our primary objective is to establish a presence on essay help the Internet with a data base of information about research paper medicine every city in the U.S. with a population over 50,000. This data base will be of so much value to any business evaluating a move to a new city that it will be orders of magnitude more cost effective than any alternative method of evaluation. The CitiLoc service will be unique in that it will be the only service that offers a data base specifically designed to help a business evaluate and la youth essay, locate the most appropriate city for their expanded business. It will offer a quick and effective way to paper, evaluate all of the cities in the U.S. with populations over 50,000 on the basis of a wide variety of criteria. There are about 570 cities in the U.S. with a population of 50,000 or more. Oj Simpson! We expect about 90% of these cities will be willing to research paper medicine, pay a fee to be included in our data base. There are an estimated 200,000 businesses in the U.S. large enough to consider expanding their operation to a new city. On an process essay annual basis 2% - 3% of research paper those will actively consider such a move. Persuasive A Product! We project that more than half of these will choose to use our services in some manner. Paper! To initiate this business, the ecotect coursework, first year of operations will involve collecting information about the cities, populating the data base and developing the web site.
This will involve 40-45 permanent and herbal, temporary personnel. Following the initial development stage, the thesis about, organizational objective is to be lean and mean. Because the medicine, business will be web based and a product, the majority of the prospect/customer interface will be achieved electronically there will not be a need for a large organization. Starting in the second year we expect to conduct business with twenty six personnel. We are projecting a requirement for about 6,000 square feet of herbal medicine space for our operation. The cost will be about $4,500 per in educational psychology month with a one-time finish out cost of about $10,000. Additional equipment and software require a one time, up front expense of about $80,000. Mark Hanson, age 33, has a masters degree in political science, and has been the marketing director and chief operating officer of two successful businesses. His latest business was recently sold to XYZ, Corp. and Mr.
Hanson chose to leave his position there in favor of starting CitiLoc. He is the president and COO of CitiLoc. Jim Jones, age 30, has a masters degree in computer science and has participated in the development of two major web sites. He is a vice president and will be responsible for the initial development of our web site and thereafter the research paper herbal medicine, maintenance and expansion of the services we will offer. Donald van Pelt, age 28, is a vice president and will direct the effort of data collection and population of the data base. Mr. A Product! van Pelt has a degree in paper herbal, economics and has worked with the city of Austin, Texas for four years.
For the last two years he has been involved in the area of attracting and working with businesses that are considering locating a facility in the Austin area. Jessica Lane, age 31, is dissertations psychology a vice president and will be responsible for marketing, sales and public relations. Paper Herbal Medicine! Ms. Lane has a degree in public relations and has been working with an established company for three years as their director of marketing. She helped this company modify and expand their sales program from a field sales force orientation to thesis about electronics, a broader web based approach. Paper Herbal Medicine! First, describe the market in terms of the need that is being addressed by your product or service (don't discuss your product or service yet). Explain what is creating the need, what the market is currently doing to essay selling, address that need and the opportunity this need is research paper providing for the solution provided by your offering. Then, provide a description of the overall market, how it breaks down into segments, geographical distributions, sizes, growth expectations and the share of the oj simpson help, market your enterprise expects to capture. Remember this is a summary and your objective is to convince the reader of the quality of your market. Our objective is to be recognized as the premiere data base for evaluating the pros and cons of moving a business operation to any given city. We expect our data base to be populated with information from over 500 U.S. cities and paper medicine, 50 to 100 international cities that will pay for the service.
We also expect about 500 businesses to ecotect coursework, pay to use the paper, data base in the first year growing to about 2000 businesses in the fifth year. Factors to consider: Name of your products/services. Ecotect Coursework! Benefit to user. Return on investment for the user. CitiLoc will provide, via the Internet, a service to both cities and businesses that helps cities attract new business and businesses determine which city is research medicine best for them. This service is valuable to a city because it provides an opportunity for them to present their information to a wide audience of potential new businesses. Businesses benefit by having essential city information available in ecotect, one data base.
They will have the ability to specify qualifying criteria and research paper herbal medicine, get a list of cities that meet those criteria. Initially the collection, organization and persuasive, entry of data about the cities will be very time and people intensive. It will require about one year to construct a database with enough information to be of interest to businesses. Once again, remember this is a summary and your objective is to convince the reader of the efficacy of your marketing strategy. We will promote our service using literature, links with other relevant web pages, a strong push to gain publicity, advertising in strategic planning, financial and human resource publications and a direct mail program. Pricing for cities to be included in the data base will range from $1,000 to $2,500 per year and for research paper businesses to use the data base from $2,500 to essay, $10,000 per year. In addition to our web site being accessible through well indexed search engines, we will have an initial staff of five personnel contacting businesses on paper herbal a daily basis to locate the person who would be involved in establishing a new business location. Electronics! Their objective will be to get the business prospect to visit our web site. In addition to our own efforts to promote and distribute our services, there will be a secondary distribution channel in the form of links to our web site from other web sites.
We will actively pursue the establishment of links with sites we believe will have a viewer base that may be interested in our service. Then describe the main competitor's strengths and weaknesses and how you will address this competitor. At present there are two major forms of competition: consultants and information provided by the individual cities. Research Herbal Medicine! Consultants range in in educational, size from research paper herbal medicine, individuals to large international firms. The minimum consulting fee a business can expect to pay is $10,000 and it can easily reach $100,000. The quality of information a business can expect to receive from our service will be equal to or better than what they get from a consultant at a fraction of the cost and the information will be available in a fraction of the time. Most cities have a web page today. The information they provide is designed to project about, help visitors and citizens locate restaurants, parks, forms of entertainment, retail outlets and in some cases city government contacts. It is not designed to be user friendly to the business considering a move to the city. Cities that are aggressively trying to research paper herbal medicine, attract new business will often have a contact point to provide information to prospective businesses. This usually comes in the form of dissertations in educational written literature and seldom addresses the majority of a business' concerns.
There will be no revenue generated in the first year which will be dedicated to developing the research medicine, web site and creating the data base. We expect to achieve break even cash flow by the middle of year two with a positive cash flow and la youth essay, a profit by the end of that year. Year three will see a major increase in revenue, a complete recovery of research herbal medicine our investment and positive retained earnings at year end. Years four and five will result in revenues of $5,485,000 and $7,885,000 respectively with after tax profits of $2,793,000 and $4,368,000. Revenues per employee will approach $225,000 by in educational year five.
Access to research medicine, technology. Access to distribution channels. Availability of external services. The primary resource requirement during the first year will be personnel who can contact appropriate city employees and essay help, gather the information necessary to populate our data base. In support of these personnel we will require phone lines and research herbal medicine, computers (25 each). Ecotect! During the same period we will be developing our data base software technology.
The primary resources here are qualified programming personnel, support software and computers. Include a spreadsheet listing the research paper herbal, key milestones involved in implementing your business plan including specific dates and responsible personnel. If you are using business plan software to write your plan, this should be included for you automatically. Ecotect! There are only a few issues to research paper, address as we begin the business. They are, in order of oj simpson essay help priority: Find and paper herbal medicine, lease facilities. Acquire the necessary hardware, software and communication capabilities. Hire the necessary personnel to persuasive selling a product, collect the data and develop the software. Get development and data collection under way. Establish appropriate accounting procedures. Create the contracts we will use with our customers. Other factors to consider: Legal structure (partnership or corporation) Patents, trademarks or proprietary technologies.
Ability to compete. CitiLoc, Inc. Paper Herbal Medicine! will be structured as a C corporation, located in Austin, Texas. There are four principals who will all invest money in in educational, the enterprise and who will take primary responsibility for the various operational aspects of the business. As a new enterprise our primary objective will be to secure funding so that we can develop the required data base and paper, web site to provide service to dissertations in educational psychology, our customers. Our first year of operation will require 43 personnel, however, once the data base and web site are complete we will reduce staff to twenty six personnel. Herbal Medicine! Our enterprise will strive to be recognized as the leader in the field of ecotect exploration and mining. A short term objective might be: Our AA-1000 boring machine will capture 60% market share within the next two years as measured in the Exploration Monthly sales review. To achieve our primary objective we must, in the short term, secure funding, collect the necessary data and populate the medicine, data base and develop a high quality, professional looking web site.
Longer term we must develop a strong base of business clients and as opportunities occur expand the data base content to attract a wider range of business users. Factors to consider: Years in business. Distribution channel relationships. Ecotect! Distribution channel costs. Experience with regard to offering: quality, durability, uniformity, pricing. Reputation of enterprise, offerings.
Since CitiLoc is a new enterprise, this section will not be included. If you are using a software program to write your business plan, it should provide a tool for creating an organization chart. In the research paper herbal, text associated with the organization chart describe the ecotect coursework, current and planned staffing, the skill levels available, and any internal or external factors that may influence your organization. Factors to consider: General management philosophy. Completeness of current staffing. Management access to counsel. Management access to legal support. Labor union relationships.
Operations sharing between projects. Employee benefits: Insurance, Retirement plan, Health fitness program, Profit sharing plan, Stock options, Stock purchase plan, Child care program. Following the initial development stage, the organizational objective is to be lean and mean. Because the business will be web based and the majority of the prospect/customer interface will be achieved electronically there will not be a need for a large organization. Paper Herbal! The two areas requiring the most personnel will be the web site support and improvement group and the customer support and essay help, sales program. Starting in the second year we expect to research, have a total of about twenty six employees.
Factors to essay help, consider: Placement in organization structure. Key positions that need to paper, be filled within the next twelve months should be described with an persuasive essay selling explanation of how you expect to fill the position. Factors to consider: Placement in organization structure. Paper Medicine! Experience level required. Essay! Staffing from inside or outside.
Use of professional recruiters. Desired date for staffing. Drop dead date for staffing. Mark Hanson, age 33, has a masters degree in political science, and has been the marketing director and research medicine, chief operating officer of persuasive selling a product two successful businesses. His latest business was recently sold to XYZ, Corp. and Mr. Hanson chose to research medicine, leave his position there in favor of starting CitiLoc. He is the president and persuasive, COO of CitiLoc. Jim Jones, age 30, has a masters degree in research paper medicine, computer science and has participated in the development of two major web sites. He is a vice president and will be responsible for the initial development of our web site and thereafter the la youth essay, maintenance and expansion of the paper, services we will offer. Donald van Pelt, age 28, is a vice president and a product, will direct the effort of data collection and population of the data base.
Mr. van Pelt has a degree in economics and has worked with the city of Austin, Texas for four years. For the last two years he has been involved in the area of attracting and working with businesses that are considering locating a facility in the Austin area. Jessica Lane, age 31, is a vice president and will be responsible for research herbal medicine marketing, sales and public relations. Ms. Ecotect Coursework! Lane has a degree in public relations and has been working with an research paper medicine established company for three years as their director of marketing. She helped this company modify and expand their sales program from a field sales force orientation to process person, a broader web based approach.
During the first year of operation, we will contract with two outside agencies to help us with the development program. Research Herbal Medicine! One will supply 3-4 personnel to assist in the design and development of the web site. The other will supply about 25 personnel to collect information about the cities and enter it into the data base. We will need to hire one other key manager prior to the end of the first year, responsible for finance and accounting. Mark Hanson will handle these responsibilities until such a person is hired. The total number of personnel in this list must be used to calculate the Revenue Profit per coursework Employee later in this document. If you are using business plan software to write your plan, this will be done for you automatically.
Describe what functions of your business are considered appropriate for performing in-house and those that could be or are done by sub-contractors. Factors to consider: We do not currently have any facilities. However, we will quickly have to lease an estimated 6,000 square feet of space for our operation. We are aware of two new commercial office space areas where we can get a three year lease of that much space for research paper herbal about seventy five cents a square foot per month (about $4,500 per month). There will be a one-time finish out cost of about $10,000. In addition to the space we will need desks, office equipment, communication lines and equipment, computers and software. Oj Simpson! This will require a one time, up front expense of about $80,000. Technology associated with the Internet is research paper medicine changing at persuasive a product, a rapid pace.
Our web site is designed to isolate the various aspects of the process so that if new technology affects a portion of our design we can incorporate it without impacting the total design. Isolated areas include the medicine, browser interface, the e-commerce process, security measures, the data base processes and the report generation and return to the customer. Our data base is designed to oj simpson essay help, be modified or extended with minimal impact on existing processes and we fully expect that as the service matures this will happen. Paper! Describe the general characteristics of the distinct segments of prospects that make up the market for your offerings. Factors to consider: Extent of market (local, regional, national, international) General description of essay segments. Paper Medicine! Current versus new customers. Size of the typical prospect. Current ability of prospects to use your offerings. Prospect's incentive to thesis electronics, buy.
Prospect's decision process. Our market involves two segments; cities and businesses. The cities will provide about 10% of our service income with businesses providing the rest. Cities will find this of value because they will be able to present their information in herbal medicine, a format specifically designed to assist and attract businesses. Businesses will derive great value from the service because, from a single source, they will be able to oj simpson essay help, evaluate all of the research paper herbal medicine, major cities in the United States against project electronics, a wide variety of selection criteria. Our objective is to have over 500 cities represented in research medicine, our data base and between 1,000 and 2,000 businesses using the data base annually to assist in their location of a new operations site. The modern business world is focusing on communications and information technology as the driving force for growth. Support for essay this growth involves production of communications equipment, data storage equipment, computers (and related technologies such as chips, monitors, etc.), software and much more. Because these businesses are accustomed to using high-tech solutions for their business, we believe they will embrace our service when planning their expansion. Alternatives, such as individual city web sites and city information packets represent competition, however the benefits of our centralized data base of all the cities far outweighs the effort involved in using these alternatives.
Include all segments of the market whether you will be selling to them or not. It is just as important to paper herbal medicine, understand the segments you will not address as those that you will. For example, if you are planning on a fine dining restaurant you will not be attracting the fast food segment but you should understand that segment as a part of the overall market. Choose the segments most important to the market and group the remaining segments into an Other category. For example, if you were AMTRAK, you might describe yourself as being in the transportation business and offering your services to two market segments, recreational and business travelers. If you were DELL Computer, you might say you were in the PC, Server and ISP markets addressing the business and individual consumer communities. Oj Simpson Essay Help! Each of research paper medicine these would then be broken down into segments. Help! EG: the PC market might segment into individual consumers, small business and large business. If you are selling to research herbal medicine, other businesses (B2B) some examples might be: Industry by SIC code. This is especially beneficial for la youth essay vertical market offerings. Size - revenues, # employees, # locations.
In general if your offering is highly sophisticated, requires significant resources or provides greater value based on paper herbal medicine volume, then the target should be the larger enterprises. Thesis Project About Electronics! Examples of offerings might be dehumidifiers in areas near the ocean or snow plows in northern areas. An example of a language specific service is a Spanish TV channel. Status in the industry. You might want to target businesses that are the research herbal, technology leader or revenue leader or employee satisfaction leader, etc. La Youth Essay! To minimize promotion and sales expense you may want to target urban rather than rural or local rather than national prospects. Access (or lack of access) to herbal, competitive offerings. Cable TV business's significant investment in their service delivery system has allowed a near monopoly for ecotect some time. IBM's service reputation insured minimal competition during the mainframe days. If you are selling to individual consumers some examples might be: Creation of or response to a fad.
Examples are hula hoops, Jurassic Park T-shirts, pet rock, physical fitness, etc. Marketers take advantage of location by selling suntan lotion in Hawaii, fur coats in Alaska, etc. Time related factors. You may be able to target vacationers in summer, impulse buyers during the holidays or commuters at 7AM. This could include country club memberships, philanthropic contributions, etc. Paper! Product and service examples are encyclopedias, scientific calculators, learning to read tools and financial counseling. This could include products for hunting, fishing, golf, art work, knitting, etc. Our market is segmented by la youth essay the size of the cities we will serve. If you are selling business to herbal medicine, business (B2B) some examples might be: Examples of offerings might be planning software for managers or cleaning agents for maintenance managers. A good example is how Apple Computer supplied products to schools at all levels to condition students graduating into the marketplace.
Ability to make a quick purchase decision. Targeting individual purchasers (EG: product manager or HR manager) versus business committees can significantly reduce marketing expense and oj simpson, increase the probability of a quick close. Need for paper customization. Oj Simpson Essay! Offerings such as police cars or busses to city governments or specialized computer systems for specific departments fall into this category. Product or service application to paper herbal, a business function. Examples are specific departments responsible for data processing, accounting, human resources or plant maintenance. Ecotect! If you are selling to individual consumers some examples might be. Research! Offerings might be big men's clothing, golf clubs for shorter players, etc. Time related factors. You may be able to target vacationers in summer, impulse buyers during the process second person, holidays or commuters at 7AM. Ethnic products would fall into this category.
Product examples are scarves for women, ties for men, etc. Product examples are toys for children, jewelry for women, etc. You could target cat lovers, science fiction readers, jazz music collectors, etc. Because the individual is more difficult to reach you may want to segment by urban versus rural, train commuters, people who read Wall Street Journal, etc. Need for herbal medicine specific information. Based on features or content of your offering you can target a market segment. A product might be books on how to la youth essay, start a business or a service might be seminars on how to research paper medicine, quit smoking. Factors to consider: Individual consumer description or if a business, purchaser's job title. Secondary influencers of the purchase decision. Does offering improve prospect's financial situation or day to day operations? Is prestige involved in the purchase?
Can the prospect measure the benefits? Does the prospect require a customized offering? Will prospect purchase more than one unit of second your offering? What are prospect's requirements for: Dependability, Durability, Economy, Efficiency, Reliability, Productivity, Uniformity? We have two market segments for our services. Research Paper Herbal! A city (city manager) interested in attracting new businesses to their locale.
Businesses looking for a city where they can establish a new site to expand their operations. Longer term we will probably have others who would like to be included in our service (for a fee) such as real estate agents, attorneys and a variety of local vendors wanting to second, attract the attention of research paper new businesses moving to their city. This is a critical factor in your marketing strategy, so close attention should be given to insuring accurate and detailed descriptions. Factors to consider: Concentrations of prospects. Ecotect! Segments that require different marketing strategies.
Purchasing power by segment. Numbers by segment. Segments with past customers. Segments with greatest need for the offering. Segments with shortest purchase decision cycle.
Segments more willing to take risks to use a new concept. Paper Herbal Medicine! Segments impacted by external factors such as unions or buyer protection groups. The content of our data base consists of la youth essay information about cities. We will start the research paper herbal, process of populating the data base by gathering information for cities having a population of 500,000 or more. The next stage will be cities between 250,000 and 500,000 population. Finally we will add cities with populations between 50,000 and dissertations in educational, 250,000. Research Medicine! We realize there are a number of international cities where a business may wish to locate a part of essay person their operation. After completing the U.S. portion of the data base we will include selected cities from around the world. Each of these cities will be approached with a request to provide information to research herbal medicine, be included in the data base at no charge for the first year.
At the end of that year, if they find the inclusion of their information to be of value, they will be asked to pay an annual exposure fee. We expect that over 90% of the cities will be willing to pay the fee. The other market segment will be the businesses wanting to essay person, gather information about potential sites for an expanded operation. These are usually well established businesses in high growth industries that have outgrown their current facilities or for strategic reasons wish to establish multiple operating sites. Some investors like to see numbers that represent the Total Available Market (TAM) and the Served Available Market (SAM).
The TAM represents all of the buyers that could potentially use your offering while the SAM represents the number who will actually buy an research offering like yours in any given time period. Your sales, represented as market share, will be some percentage of the SAM. Factors to consider: Number of buyers. Number of units (yours or competitors) to be purchased by each buyer annually. $$ value of the essay selling a product, market. Size projections over research paper time.
Special considerations that could cause projections to change. The number of dissertations in educational psychology cities that will be represented in our data base (based on 2008 U.S. Census bureau reports) includes: It is estimated that over 4,000 businesses establish a new operation or move their operation to a new city each year. We expect that the majority of research herbal medicine these will use our data base to evaluate that move. The following are announcements of businesses locating new facilities, taken from a January, 2008 edition of CC NEWS, a small customer support publication.
Boise Express opens second call center - Boise Express is in the process of investing $5 million to open its newest sales facility in Norman, OK. La Youth Essay! Directory assistance opens Boston Center - Metro One Telecommunications Inc., . has opened a new call center here. RightNow Technologies opens Dallas center - RightNow Tech. (of Bozeman, Mont.) announced the opening of its new sales office in Dallas, TX. Financier brings center to Knoxville - Associates Housings Finance LLC announced the opening of its new collections center in Knoxville, TN. The facility will house 250 employees. Rockwell Electronics expands worldwide - Rockwell Electronics is opening five new offices. EGain opens office in Australia - EGain Communications, a provider of customer communications solutions for e-commerce, is research paper herbal medicine launching operations in Australia. Factors to consider: Changing social values.
Life style trends. Age of the society. Government price controls. Changes in la youth essay, geographic preference. Research! Changes in usable income. We are experiencing a strong period of growth and expansion in nearly all areas of our economy. While the future is open to debate, most economists are predicting continued growth for thesis electronics several years.
The modern business world is research herbal focusing on communications and information technology as the driving force for growth. Support for this growth involves production of communications equipment, data storage equipment, computers (and related technologies such as chips, monitors, etc.), software and much more. Process Essay Second! Because these businesses are accustomed to research medicine, using high-tech solutions for their business, we believe they will embrace our service when planning their expansion. Most cities now have some sort of presence on essay the Internet. Some of the information of research paper interest to a business considering the la youth essay, city as an expansion location is probably available on paper herbal medicine the Internet site. It will however, be sporadic and organized differently for each city.
Also, most of the larger cities have an information packet available to essay selling a product, any business that requests it. However, many businesses would prefer to conduct their preliminary evaluation in herbal medicine, private, contacting the city personnel only after they have determined that the city is a viable location for their operation. Factors to consider: Benefit to user. Comparison to competition. La Youth Essay! Adherence to industry standards. Impact on herbal medicine user operations. Use of persuasive a product proprietary technology. CitiLoc will provide, via the Internet, a service to both cities and businesses that helps cities attract new business and businesses determine which city is best for them. Getting started will involve setting up a web site, finalizing data base design, contacting city management, collecting city data and research paper herbal, entering it into the data base, developing the user interface, insuring the security of the data and making sure that our web site is properly indexed in all of the most popular search engines.
This service is valuable to la youth essay, a city because it provides an opportunity for them to present their information to research herbal medicine, a wide audience of ecotect coursework potential new businesses. Businesses benefit by having essential city information available in research, one data base. They will have the ability to specify qualifying criteria and get a list of cities that meet those criteria. Initially the process second person, collection, organization and entry of data about the cities will be very time and people intensive. We estimate that each new city we add to the data base will require about research medicine two man weeks (on the average) of effort.
It will require about thesis project about one year to construct a database with enough information to be of interest to businesses. Once the paper herbal medicine, data base is on-line, a primary service objective will be to review the oj simpson help, information on every city no less than once every six months. In addition we encourage the cities to provide us with updated information anytime a change occurs (especially personnel changes). Medicine! If it is a product, describe the function performed, the in educational, physical characteristics, operational characteristics, technological factors of import and paper herbal, unique aspects that make it more desirable to the market than competitive products. If it is a service, describe the purpose, content, method of delivery and unique aspects that make it more desirable to the market than competitive services. Factors to consider: Product or service family relationships.
Businesses are regularly faced with the second person, problem of expanding their operation. In many cases it is strategically appropriate to do so in a new city. When they make this decision they must then select a city. CitiLoc will provide, via the Internet, a service to both cities and paper, businesses that helps cities attract new business and businesses determine which city is help best for them. Businesses will have access to information about every city in the United States with a population of over 50,000.
City management can get a regular report comparing what they offer a business with every other city in the data base. The data base will contain a wide range of information. Medicine! The types of oj simpson essay information include: Demographics: work force size, % unemployment, salary ranges. Major forms of transportation: highways, trucking, bus lines, air lines. Direct access to major cities by each form of transportation. Communication: phone lines, digital/optical lines, newspapers (affiliations) Commercial real estate: quantity, occupancy rates, prices, expected growth.
Housing: quantity, occupancy rates, prices, expected growth. Educational institutions: availability, occupancy, grade levels, planned growth. Breakdown of major businesses by industry and size. Three year history of businesses that have located in the city. Availability and cost of utilities and water. Taxes of all forms, any tax abatement programs for new businesses. Any limitations on the types of industries allowed to locate in the city. Review of all EPA conformance issues. Geographic boundaries of the city, including ETJ's.
City government structure and contacts. Herbal! This service concept has been thoroughly thought out, several city managers have been interviewed with an almost universal positive response to the concept and a prototype data base has been developed. A number of coursework strategic planning managers from various businesses have also been contacted. Their response has been positive and in some cases they have offered good advice on research paper herbal medicine the kind of features they would like the service to have. The basic features of the user interface for thesis about the Internet have been defined, however, additional work is required in this area. From start-up to initial market entry will require about one year. This will involve setting up a web site, finalizing data base design, contacting city management, collecting city data and entering it into the data base, developing the user interface, insuring the research herbal, security of the data and making sure that our web site is essay a product properly indexed in all of the most popular search engines. As the service matures, new sets of information will be collected that will be of value to herbal, the customer and of financial benefit to CitiLoc.
For example, real estate agents capable of meeting the needs of a business looking for property could include their information in psychology, the data base. The same would be true for herbal medicine many other services such as attorneys, parts suppliers and numerous other vendors of products or services. Factors to consider: Impact on buyer's operation/product. Essay Second Person! Time required to benefit. Return on investment.
Useful life of paper herbal offering. Education of purchaser or purchaser's employees. Technical assistance requirements. Process Essay Second! This service is valuable to a city because it provides an opportunity for them to present their information to a wide audience of potential new businesses. If they so choose they can also get information comparing what their city has to offer a new business with all other cities in the data base. Businesses benefit by having essential city information available in one data base.
They will have the ability to research paper herbal medicine, specify qualifying criteria and oj simpson essay, get a list of research paper cities that meet those criteria. When they have chosen their target cities they will have access to the information necessary to contact the coursework, appropriate city personnel to research paper herbal, begin discussions. For each business a customized and secure interface will be created at the time they begin their city search. Each time they re-enter the web site they will have access to process essay person, all the research paper, information they collected in prior visits. If you offer a service, while you may not have a manufacturing operation, you will still probably deliver materials which will need to be inventoried and organized prior to in educational psychology, delivery to the customer, all of which involves costs. Paper Herbal Medicine! For example, if you were a consultant offering a seminar your production costs might include hand out materials, facilities for the seminar, presentation slides, lunch or refreshments for the attendees, etc. Persuasive Essay! Factors to consider: Benefits of volume purchases. Effect of research experience on labor costs. Total cost to produce.
Change in costs over time. Essentially all production costs for the CitiLoc service will be personnel costs. There will be costs for communication and for data storage, but these represent a small portion of the persuasive, total. Initially the collection, organization and entry of data about the herbal, cities will be very time and people intensive. We estimate that each new city we add to person, the data base will require, on the average, about two man weeks of effort (more for larger cities, less for smaller). Thereafter, we will accept updates to research paper, the data base (as provided by a member city) on a daily basis. In addition we will initiate a regular (once every six months) review of essay help each city's data by our personnel and the city's personnel. As the service matures we will be expanding the research paper medicine, data base with new information content and with new ways for the businesses to search, review or print the information. Project Electronics! For a service you are always in paper medicine, a support situation.
You should concentrate on how to insure that the on-going quality and content of the service is essay meeting your customer's needs. Factors to consider: Most likely part(s) to fail. How critical is offering to customer's day to day business? Repair time requirements. Location of maintenance/service sites.
Contract with an another enterprise to maintain your products. Customer's ability to maintain product. Research Paper Herbal Medicine! Spare parts availability. Is maintenance operation a profit center? The information in the data base is of no use to our customers unless it is current.
Therefore, a primary service objective will be to review the information on every city no less than once every six months. Selling A Product! In addition we encourage the cities to provide us with updated information anytime a change occurs (especially personnel changes). We will back our data base up on herbal medicine a daily basis and, if and when necessary, rebuild the data base to eliminate any fragmentation problems. We know that providing information to us will be far down on coursework a city manager's priority list so we must regularly maintain contact and present a positive service image. To this end we will assign an individual the task of preparing a monthly newsletter and a set of data base statistics to send to each of the city contacts. Factors to consider: Type of sales force. Sales support activities. Channels of distribution.
Use of outside agencies. Our objective is to be recognized as the premiere data base for paper medicine evaluating the pros and cons of moving a business operation to any given city. We expect our data base to be populated with information from over 500 U.S. cities and 50 to 100 international cities that will pay for the service. We also expect about 500 businesses to pay to essay help, use the data base in the first year growing to about 2000 businesses in the fifth year. We will promote our service using literature, links with other relevant web pages, a strong push to research paper herbal medicine, gain publicity, advertising in strategic planning, financial and human resource publications and a direct mail program. Essay! Pricing for cities to be included in the data base will range from herbal medicine, $1,000 to $2,500 per essay second year and for businesses to use the data base from $2,500 to $10,000 per year. In addition to our web site being accessible through well indexed search engines, we will have an initial staff of five personnel contacting businesses on research paper medicine a daily basis to locate the person who would be involved in establishing a new business location. Their objective will be to get the business prospect to visit our web site. In addition to our own efforts to in educational, promote and distribute our services, there will be a secondary distribution channel in the form of links to our web site from other web sites.
We will actively pursue the establishment of research medicine links with sites we believe will have a viewer base that may be interested in our service. We will provide customer support to city personnel in maintaining the integrity of the la youth essay, information in the data base and to business customers using the data base. Factors to consider: Immediate need for your offering. Willingness to make a decision. There are about 570 cities in research medicine, the U.S. with a population of 50,000 or more. We expect about about 90% of these cities will be willing to pay a fee to be included in our data base. There are an estimated 200,000 businesses in the U.S. large enough to consider expanding their operation to a new city. On an annual basis 2% - 3% of those will actively consider such a move. We project that more than half of these will choose to use our services in some manner.
As we grow, a third market segment will be services and vendors within each of the cities that want to attract the attention of new businesses. A special section that presents their business will be available for a fee. Factors to consider: Past promotional objectives. Past ad contents. Research Paper Herbal! Industry peer perception. Past market segments. Oj Simpson Essay! CitiLoc is a new service and therefore currently has no image.
Our objective is to be recognized as the premiere data base for evaluating the pros and cons of moving a business operation to any given city. Through the process of constant communication with city management, regular exposure of our service offerings to the business community and consistently excellent service to our customers we expect to build our image. Research Paper Herbal Medicine! The PUSH strategy maximizes the use of all available channels of distribution to push the offering into the marketplace. This usually requires generous discounts or commissions to achieve the objective of process essay second person giving the channels incentive to promote the offering, thus minimizing your need for advertising. The PULL strategy requires direct interface with the end-user of the offering. Use of channels of distribution is minimized during the first stages of offering promotion and a major commitment to advertising is research paper herbal medicine required. The objective is to la youth essay, pull the prospects into paper the various channel outlets creating a demand for the offering the channels cannot ignore. Describe your promotion strategy.
Factors to consider: Relationships with channels. Competitors relationships with channels. Channel discount requirements. Potential for publicity. Avenues for advertising. Kind of offering.
There are a number of ways we will promote our service, all basically being a PULL strategy. La Youth Essay! These include: A CitiLoc employee acting as the paper herbal, personal coordinator for each city in the data base. A one page flyer in each city's packet of literature sent to essay second person, prospective businesses. A link from each city's web page (if one exists) to our web page. Links with other relevant web pages throughout the Internet. Each search engine on the web will be fully indexed to find our site. A strong push to gain publicity about our web site. Advertising in strategic planning, financial and human resource publications. Research Paper Medicine! A direct mail program to inform top level business management of our service.
Factors to dissertations in educational, consider: Domain name simplicity and relevance to the product/service. A description of your web site content. How you will get registered with the search engines? What key word search criteria you want to locate your site? Links with other web sites. Will you provide e-commerce capability? Integration concerns between Internet sales and field/direct sales. Understand the relationship between web site access and revenue. How you plan to keep web site information current.
Requirements for and ability to herbal medicine, support web site customers. Will site content and ecotect coursework, projected traffic attract advertisers? Your ability to paper herbal, insure security for viewers. Our web site will be professionally constructed with respect to process essay person, presentation, content, navigation, security and usability across browsers. The business customer will immediately feel comfortable with the paper herbal medicine, interface, because it will be customized to his or her needs. All of the customer's analysis will be stored in a secure entry in the data base and will be instantly available for as long as the business is a customer. Factors to consider: New offering announcements. Offering update announcements. Offering application articles. Endorsements from customers or experts. Trade show presentations.
Local/national news articles. Talk shows - TV/radio. We will aggressively pursue as much free publicity as we can get. Thesis About Electronics! To address the city market segment, starting in the fourth month of the development project we will be sending press releases to a wide range of city planning publications. This should cause the publicity to appear in the various publications during months six through nine. We will be contacting every city manager of the cities we want in research paper herbal, our data base, describing our service, providing them an access code to a secure sight describing the service in more detail and, of course, asking them to provide us with the desired information. In addition, there is a national Governor's conference being held in Miami, FL in the month of ecotect May and a national Mayor's conference being held in Phoenix, AZ in research paper herbal, the month of June. Because our service is Internet based (the hot topic these days), we would expect to be included on person the agenda of each of these conferences to present the concepts of our service. To address the business market segment, starting in month nine we will send press releases to about 500 strategic planning, accounting and business publications. To complement the press release, we will conduct a press tour in research paper herbal medicine, New York City, Chicago, San Francisco and Los Angeles making personal visits to appropriate editors and writers of key publications.
We will also offer a white paper to several fall and winter business conferences describing the in educational, concepts of our service. Again, because of the Internet hook, we expect to be included on the agenda of a number of these conferences. Describe each form of advertising planned, specifying the paper, market it is aimed at, the form it will take, what it will cost and in educational, the expected return. Factors to consider: Media focus on your market segment. Cost to expose each prospect to your message. We will judiciously use advertising to promote our service. There are a few key publications that we believe will reach the right management personnel in herbal, businesses that might use our service.
These include Harvard Business Review, CEO, Red Herring, two or three financial and accounting publications, The Wall Street Journal, The Christian Science Monitor and some major city newspapers. Beginning in la youth essay, the eleventh or twelfth month we will begin placing ads in these publications. Beginning in medicine, the first month of year two we will begin a direct mail campaign directed at CEO's, COO's and process essay second person, CFO's in high growth industries. The mailings will be followed up with a phone contact and where available an email contact. Research Herbal! We will also pay major Internet search engines such as Yahoo and Google to display our ad whenever specific search criteria is used. Cash generation is possible if you can price the offering significantly higher than your cost to produce. About Electronics! To achieve this there must be minimal competition. This could be because you are the first to the market, you have a monopoly on the market or because you are the only one willing to offer such an offering due to market decline, liability, social pressures, market location, etc. Research Herbal! Significant market penetration is essay usually only medicine, feasible in the early stages of an offering form's life cycle and is often accompanied with very competitive pricing.
In later life cycle stages, market penetration might be feasible if you are able to offer much greater value for dissertations psychology the same price or you have been able to substantially reduce your cost to produce as compared to the competition. Describe your pricing strategy in terms of dollars per unit and medicine, how that compares to help, the competition. If you plan pricing specials or volume discounts, describe them. If you intend to use dealers or distributors, discounts or commissions will be required and should be described. Research Paper Herbal! The mix of sales from full price to your deepest discount will result in an average selling price (ASP) that is lower than your retail price. You should project this mix and the resulting ASP. Essay Person! Factors to consider: Long term staying power. Research Paper! Market penetration objectives. Strength of competitors. Average selling price considering all channel discounts.
Prospect's sensitivity to price versus product value. Use of pricing specials or trade allowances. Impact on essay sales organization. We will generate revenue by charging each city to be listed in the data base, by charging businesses to herbal, search the data base and by charging vendors to dissertations, advertise their services on the data base. There will be two pricing levels for cities. The basic level, priced at $1,000 per year, will include our effort of accumulating and storing the research herbal, city data on our data base and keeping the thesis project, data current. Research! The advanced level, priced at $2,500 per ecotect coursework year, will include quarterly reports comparing the research paper herbal medicine, data for all cities in the data base plus a listing of coursework businesses that have made a commitment to locate in paper herbal medicine, a specific city. There will also be two pricing levels for businesses wishing to use the data base.
The basic level, priced at essay selling, $2,500, will allow a business to access and search the data base for up to one year using the medicine, search tools provided by our system. For example, the business could search for all cities that offer a tax abatement program, have an coursework average price per paper medicine foot for commercial space of less than $1.75/month, have an occupancy rate of less than 90%, have direct airline connections to San Jose and have a major university within 50 miles. The advanced level, priced at $10,000, will provide extensive analysis tools plus evaluations, written by our staff, for up to three cities. The evaluations will review over fifty important factors to consider before making a commitment to oj simpson essay help, a new city. We may also offer to provide consulting support to businesses. If so, we will make proposals on request from the prospect. Minimum consulting rates will be $1,200 per day. In addition, we expect that service and product vendors in the various cities will be interested in promoting their business in the data base.
We have not established pricing for research paper herbal medicine this as yet, but, in any case, do not expect it to be a substantial portion of our revenue. Factors to consider: Full service retail. Self service retail. Field sales force for on-site sales. Current sales personnel. Sales personnel recruiting. Education of oj simpson essay help sales personnel. Technical support for sales. Paper Herbal! Demonstrations of offering.
Generation of leads. Ability to contact prospects. Oj Simpson Essay Help! Selling an Internet service is not much different than selling any other service. However, we have an edge over medicine traditional services. Prospects can find us more easily by searching the Internet. (The key here is to insure that the search engines have our site indexed in a way that will position us in the top one or two pages of the dissertations psychology, search results.) However, we can't depend on paper medicine that alone. We will have an initial staff of five personnel contacting businesses on a daily basis to locate the dissertations psychology, person who would be involved in establishing a new business location. When that person is reached, our personnel will explain the basic features of our service and how they can get more information by looking at our web site. A primary objective will be to get their email address so we can follow up the call with an e-mail that will link them directly to our web site. As can be determined from the above, a very critical part of the sales process is the content of research medicine our web page. Oj Simpson Essay Help! It will be designed to educate the prospect, lead them through a decision process and then propose a closure. The prospect can make a commitment on the spot using the e-commerce capabilities.
They can pay using a credit card, enter a purchase order number and a phone number for research paper herbal medicine verification or request that a representative contact them. If they pay with a credit card, the card will be verified and an access code will be provided to the new customer. If they provide a purchase order number or request to be contacted, our personnel will receive the information within seconds after the e-commerce transaction. Their response will be to take whatever steps are necessary to close the sale. Factors to consider: Competitors use of channels.
Channel's financial stability. Channel's discounts as compared to alternative channels. Channel's access to dissertations in educational psychology, desired market segment. Channel's experience with your kind of offering. Conflict between in-house sales and selected channels. Research Herbal Medicine! We and our web site represent the major distribution channel for our services.
There is a secondary distribution channel in the form of links to our web site from other web sites. We will actively pursue the establishment of links with sites we believe will have a viewer base that may be interested in our service. These sites will be defined as Referral Partners. Oj Simpson Essay! If a prospect links to paper, our site from a Referral Partner and contracts for our service within a 10 day period, we will pay a referral fee to the partner. Our objective is to establish over 100 Referral Partners by the time we put the data base on-line. If your offering is a product, describe your ability to inventory, ship, warehouse and deliver product when and where needed. If your offering is a service, describe your ability to deliver the about, service when and where needed and paper, especially how you handle peak demands. Factors to consider: Access to transportation. Use of transportation services versus in-house service.
Size of offering. Oj Simpson Help! Fragility of offering. Delivery time expectations of customer. Alternative methods of delivery. Offering availability when ordered. Warehouse locations and space. Implications of late or lost deliveries. Delivery prices part of offering price or additional. Requirement for insurance.
For the most part, our service consists of making the data base and its search tools available to the customer. This is all done through our web site and does not require any intervention by research medicine our personnel. For advanced city subscribers we will distribute a quarterly report via email. Persuasive Essay Selling A Product! For advanced business customers there will be email communication to request and deliver customized city reports. Factors to consider: In-house versus on-site support.
Service after warranty. Proof of purchase. Paper Herbal! Delivery to and from service area. Service site locations. Service personnel experience requirements. Education of service personnel. Process Person! Support falls into paper herbal two categories. Cities who wish to add or modify information stored in the data base will interface with one of our personnel who has been assigned as their personal representative. New or changed data will be reviewed with the customer to confirm its validity and process essay second person, then entered into the data base, usually on herbal the same day it is provided.
City personnel can contact their personal representative at any time with questions or data changes. We will initiate contact with each city at ecotect coursework, least every six months to determine if the data base needs any changes. Research! Business users may have problems using the search tools or have questions regarding the data. About! If so, there is an on-line help facility that will answer most questions. There will also be an email facility that allows the user to pose a question via e-mail. Our commitment will be to respond to all e-mail queries within 24 hours.
If neither of those methods satisfy the user, we will also have a 1-800 customer support line that will be available during normal working hours (7AM to 7PM CST). Number of competitors. Is market gaining or losing competitors? Are competitors profitable? Do competitors have manufacturing or marketing advantages? Do you expect more or less pricing pressure from the competition? Describe each competitor and their offering and why they are such strong competition. Describe how your enterprise is positioned as one of the competitors. Factors to research paper, consider: Names of coursework key competitors/offerings. Leader or follower. How long have they been in business?
Record of research paper medicine response to project about electronics, competition. Record of research technological innovation. Record in other markets. Price versus value. Ease of installation. Technical support requirements.
Proven return on investment. Persuasive Essay Selling A Product! Return on investment record. Research! Current level of profitability. Commitment to the market. Investment in specialized equipment. Strategic importance to competitor's business objectives. Percent of total income derived from competitive offering.
Commitment to channel relationships. Labor contracts involving termination costs. Responsibility to installed customer base. At present there are two major forms of competition: consultants and information provided by the individual cities. Consultants range in size from individuals to large international firms. The minimum consulting fee a business can expect to pay is $10,000 and it can easily reach $100,000. The quality of information a business can expect to receive from our service will be equal to or better than what they get from a consultant at a fraction of the cost and the information will be available in a fraction of the time. Most cities have a web page today.
The information they provide is designed to aid visitors and citizens locate restaurants, parks, forms of ecotect coursework entertainment, retail outlets and in paper medicine, some cases city government contacts. It is not designed to be user friendly to the business considering a move to the city. Cities that are aggressively trying to ecotect, attract new business will often have a contact point to provide information to research herbal, prospective businesses. This usually comes in the form of written literature and essay second, seldom addresses the majority of a business' concerns. Once again, our service provides more relevant information on any given city and, in addition, the business has immediate access to every other city that might be a candidate. Another service could pursue the same business model as CitiLoc, however, we will be first and have at least a year's head start. The commitment by research herbal medicine all of the cities to our service will make them reluctant to enter into a second agreement with another service and the high up-front development investment for a me-too business will represent a significant barrier to entry.
If you are offering a service, describe what preparations are required before you can begin delivery. Factors to consider: Offering availability dates. Critical factors: Personnel, Equipment, Materials, Technological breakthroughs, Test results. Our objective is to create a web site that incorporates a data base of information about the 500+ largest cities in process, the U.S. and about 100 international cities. The web site is projected to herbal, be ready for coursework use within 12 months from the research, time we receive funding. The development and testing of the web site will require about 35 personnel during the 12 month period.
On completion this will drop to la youth essay, about 10 personnel for research paper maintenance and new development. The technology involved is all fairly straightforward. We will purchase our own Internet server, but will contract a local Internet service to provide the communications interface and to maintain our server. Our development program will be directed by Mr. Jim Jones. He will direct in-house personnel and an outside web site design service in the creation of our site. Mr.
Donald van Pelt will direct the effort of data collection and population of the data base. Person! It is our intent to use about herbal medicine twenty five (25) temporary personnel hired either through personnel agencies or through our local university's job placement program. Factors to consider: Direction of technological investigations. Improvement of existing offerings and technologies. Dissertations! Use of existing versus new technologies. Research Medicine! Commitment to patents. Manufacturing versus application technology. Reduction of cost to produce. Improvements to: Quality, Durability, Reliability, Maintainability. Ecotect Coursework! Completing the web site development and data base population will be our first year objective.
This will involve completing the research medicine, design of the data base, populating it, developing the ecotect, user interface and the data base search engine, insuring the security of the data and making sure that our web site is properly indexed in all of the research medicine, most popular Internet search engines. Ecotect! There is nothing technologically new involved in this development project with the possible exception of some of the herbal, search techniques we expect to provide for the data base users. The service uniqueness will be due to the centralized collection of persuasive essay data about the cities and the ability of the medicine, user to coursework, quickly qualify cities of interest. Key positions that need to be filled within the next twelve months should be described with an explanation of research how you expect to fill the position. Factors to consider: Key management responsibilities. Ecotect Coursework! Key management capabilities. Vacancies to paper herbal medicine, be filled. Commitment to assigned projects. History of in educational successes/failures. Stability of the paper herbal, group. Interaction with other organizations in the enterprise.
Our development program will be directed by Mr. Jim Jones. Mr. In Educational! Jones has a masters degree in computer science and has participated in the development of research paper herbal two major web sites. We intend to hire two additional Internet development personnel and a data base management programmer.
They will report to Mr. Electronics! Jones, and all of them will work together with an outside consulting organization that will help to design and develop the web site. We are located in a city that is very involved in high tech development projects and feel certain that we can find and hire qualified personnel quickly. We have talked with three Internet development consulting groups and will choose one of them as soon as we are funded. When the development is complete we expect to be able to maintain and improve the web site with in-house personnel. Data collection and population of the research herbal medicine, data base will be a very time intensive effort. Mr.
Donald van Pelt will direct that effort. It is our intent to use about twenty five (25) temporary personnel hired either through personnel agencies or through our local university's job placement program. The personnel will all go through a three day training session explaining the project, the data we need from each city and how to make contact with city personnel. We have a data input form with very detailed instructions explaining the exact meaning and necessary content for each data field which our personnel will use to interface with the city personnel. Thesis About Electronics! Our objective is to complete the data collection effort in about nine months.
The web site is projected to research paper medicine, be ready for use within 12 months from the time we receive funding. The following section shows a breakdown of the development program with a complete set of milestones and schedules. The development of our web site includes the following activities. The Man Months column indicates the amount of time required to essay, complete the activity, the Start column indicates the research paper herbal, month when the activity starts and the Completion column indicates the month in which the activity will be completed. Factors to consider:
Use of proprietary technology, yours or another party's. Legal restrictions to persuasive essay selling, use of any technology. Royalties for use of technology. New versus existing technology. If new technology, probability of success/failure. Is use of new technology consistent with production capabilities?
The process of registering our web site with each of the search engines and providing index information that will place us near the top of the search results. It is also important that the whole project is designed to herbal medicine, be scalable. That is, as access demand increases there will be no problem expanding the resources to meet the demand. Factors to consider: Critical factors: Personnel, Equipment, Materials, Suppliers, Sub-contractors, Labor contracts. Key positions that need to be filled within the next twelve months should be described with an explanation of how you expect to fill the position. If you expect a requirement for a significant increase in personnel, discuss the availability of oj simpson help a labor pool in the vicinity of research paper your facilities. Factors to consider: Key management responsibilities. Key management capabilities.
Vacancies to be filled. Process! Experience level of personnel. Personnel training requirements. Availability of paper herbal replacement personnel. Worker safety/comfort considerations. Interaction with other organizations in the enterprise. The operation of our web site will be a dual responsibility.
Our server will be located at FastFind.net, a professional Internet service provider. They will maintain the hardware and make sure that the communications interface is available for Internet users to access our web site 24 hours a day seven days a week. They also have expertise in the Windows 2000 operating system that we will be using. Our responsibility is to essay person, keep all of the web site code working. As we get customer feed back, there will be constant improvement as we add features and make the interface more user friendly. We will also be creating back up for the data base on a daily basis as well as updating it with data for new city customers or modified data for existing city customers. Purchase information is routed to research paper medicine, our accounting data base on a real time basis and both systems must be reviewed and maintained on la youth essay a regular basis.
Our accounting group will use this information to bill to purchase orders and to pay reference fees to other businesses who have referred a customer to research paper, us via a link from their web page. A log of all user accesses will be maintained on the site which will be reviewed as weekly and monthly summaries. This will help us to better understand how our customers are using the web site and the data base providing more input to oj simpson essay help, help us improve our service. Factors to consider: Prices versus other suppliers. Proximity to your enterprise. Might they be a competitor? Do they supply your competitor?
Do they have labor problems? How important is your business to the supplier? How important is the supplier to research medicine, your business? The cities could be considered as our suppliers. We intend to have a very close working relationship with them. And, since it is in their best interest to keep our data base current about their receptiveness to new business, we expect good response from process person, them. Factors to consider: Use of proprietary technology, yours or another party's. Legal restrictions to use of any technology. Royalties for use of technology. New versus existing technology.
If new technology, probability of success/failure. Is use of new technology consistent with personnel capabilities? Need/availability of special equipment. Factors to research paper herbal medicine, consider: Definition of quality Tolerance specifications for materials / components / offering. Materials/components critical to offering quality. Special measurement tools. Quality check points: Material/component source, Receiving dock, Storage facilities, In-production points, Finished product. Factors to consider: Material ordering processes.
Order lead times. Short shelf life materials. Movement from inventory to production. Finished goods inventory. If you expect the la youth essay, debt to be retired in payments over time, then the amounts and timing should be described.
Remember that since the rate of return is paper herbal medicine their most important consideration, and that a public offering is dissertations in educational sometimes not an alternative, investors will be looking for a variety of exit strategies. Therefore, be flexible and herbal medicine, creative in developing these opportunities, taking into consideration concepts such as merger/acquisition or strategic partnering. Dissertations In Educational Psychology! Although details can be worked out later, investors need to know that you understand their primary objectives as you develop your overall business strategy. Research Paper! The following are examples of several of the more traditional ways for investors to oj simpson essay, realize a return on their investment. Dividends - Beginning in the third year following investment, the enterprise will pay to the investor a dividend.
Dividends will be shared among investors on a pro rata basis. The amount of the research medicine, dividend will be determined by the board of directors, but in no event will total dividends issued reduce the fiscal year end cash ratio to less than .75. Investor redemption based on a pre-defined schedule - Beginning in the third year after investment the investor will have the right to redeem their equity to the extent that the enterprise's cash ratio can be maintained at or above .6. If more than one investor wishes to redeem their equity it will be done so on a pro persuasive essay selling a product rata basis. Redemption will be based on the following schedule. Year three - 125% of herbal medicine original investment (10% internal rate of return) Year four - 190% of original investment (18% internal rate of ecotect return) Year five - 250% of original investment (21% internal rate of return) Enterprise buyout of investors based on a pre-defined schedule - Beginning in the third year after investment the enterprise will have the right to herbal, buy back the investor's equity at a pre-determined price. Buy back will be based on the following schedule. Year three - 400% of original investment (60% internal rate of return) Year four - 600% of original investment (57% internal rate of return) Year five - 800% of original investment (52% internal rate of return) Merger, Acquisition, IPO. In any of these circumstances it is not possible to predict what the return will be for persuasive a product the investor. It is research herbal medicine assumed that any such action would be done in the best interest of the stockholders.
Convertible Note - An alternative to a direct investment is ecotect coursework a loan from an investor. Paper Herbal Medicine! A specified interest rate would be defined with payments due at regular intervals over the term of the loan. The investor would have the option to convert the loan to a percentage interest in the enterprise for some pre-defined period of time (usually considerably less time than the term of the loan). If you are using business plan software, these spreadsheets should be provided for you automatically. If you are using business plan software, this spreadsheet should be provided for you automatically. If you are using business plan software, this spreadsheet should be provided for you automatically. If you are using business plan software, this spreadsheet should be provided for you automatically. All numbers in every financial spreadsheet must be consistent. Your projections lose credibility when salaries are out of proportion to headcount, revenue expands while expenses fall, monthly increments are enormous, etc.
If you are using business plan software to write your plan, the consistency and completeness of these spreadsheets will be verified for you automatically. Investors or lenders are primarily interested in whether your projections reflect an understanding of how cash flows through your enterprise, what needs to be tracked to help, measure risk and success, how expenses are distributed, and what risk you project will need to be covered by them. Factors to consider: Cost of goods sold. Variable expenses (payroll, legal, marketing, etc.) Fixed expenses (facilities, interest, depreciation, etc.) Include a spreadsheet with revenue and expenses for each month of the research paper herbal medicine, first year. If you are using business plan software, this spreadsheet should be provided for you automatically. Include a spreadsheet with revenue and expenses for each quarter of the second year. If you are using business plan software, this spreadsheet should be provided for you automatically.
Include a spreadsheet with revenue and expenses annually. If you are using business plan software, this spreadsheet should be provided for you automatically. Cash flow is oj simpson essay help projected for each month of the research, first year, for each quarter of the second year and annually for the remaining years. Factors to consider: Cash receipts (sales, loans, etc.) If you are using business plan software, the selling, cash flow statement is generated automatically from the data you provided for your income statement. Otherwise, you must assure the cash flow statement agrees with the income statement. Cash flow is research paper herbal medicine projected for la youth essay each quarter of the second year. If you are using business plan software, the cash flow statement is generated automatically from the data you provided for research medicine your income statement. Otherwise, you must assure the cash flow statement agrees with the income statement.
Cash flow is projected annually for the 5 years. If you are using business plan software, the cash flow statement is generated automatically from the data you provided for essay second your income statement. Research Paper Herbal Medicine! Otherwise, you must assure the cash flow statement agrees with the la youth essay, income statement. Factors to research herbal, consider: Current Assets (cash, accessible resources) Fixed assets (land, equipment, buildings, etc.) Long-term investments (copyrights, patents, stocks, etc.) Current Liabilities (payable within one year) Long-term liabilities (mortgages, contract obligations, etc.) Net Worth (owner equity) Do not vary from standard accounting format and order. If you are using business plan software, the balance sheet is generated automatically from the data you provided for your income statement. Otherwise, you must assure the balance sheet agrees with the income statement. If you are using business plan software, this spreadsheet is generated automatically. If you are using business plan software, this spreadsheet is generated automatically.
While some enterprises conduct a cash only business, most enterprises will make sales for which they do not receive immediate payment. To analyze the cash flow for your business it is important for you to estimate your receivables period. That is, the average number of days between a sale and the receipt of payment for that sale. Coursework! So some sales may result in 'payment on delivery' while for research medicine others payment may take as long as ninety days. Considering your mix of sales please enter the anticipated receivables period (you can change this later if necessary). If you are a cash only business, use zero. In the course of business you will incur a variety of debts for a product everything from pencils to computers to legal advice.
In many cases the vendor will invoice you for payment at a date following the receipt of the goods or services. Some of these invoices will be paid immediately, others you will hold for a while. The average number of days between receipt of the invoice and payment of that invoice for herbal all purchased goods or services is called the payables period. This number is important for essay analyzing your cash flow. Percent Reserved for research Taxes. When we make a profit we pay a percentage of that profit in taxes to the federal government. For each year of the plan indicate the percent of oj simpson help your profits you reserve for taxes. The period of paper medicine time over essay a product which your capital assets in the form of buildings can be depreciated. Also, for equipment. The period of time over which your capital assets in the form of buildings can be depreciated.
Also, for paper herbal medicine equipment. Cash available as you begin business for the period addressed by your business plan. Initial, one-time expenses. The amount you expect to receive from selling an thesis project about electronics interest in your business. The amount you expect to receive from payment in advance fro the research paper medicine, planned delivery of process second your product or service. The amount you expect to receive from the sale of specific assets to raise operating capital.
The amount you expect to receive from a lender and the terms of repayment. Expenses for buildings or equipment. The amount of dividends you plan to pay to your stockholders for each year of the plan. The value of inventory of finished goods or materials to produce your product or service. Our average accounts receivable period will be 40 days with an average accounts payable period of 45 days. We will require capital investment as follows: First Year - $1,250,000. Second Year - $500,000. 3rd-5th Year - $500,000. We will make capital expenditures in the first year of $75,000 to acquire equipment.
The equipment will be depreciated over a period of 7 years. Taxes are calculated as 25% of herbal revenue. Process Essay Person! A measure of the amount of cash available to offset current debt. A ratio below .5 may mean you are having cash flow problems, possibly because of a significant backlog in accounts receivable. A measure of the amount of research herbal medicine liquid assets available to offset current debt. A healthy enterprise will always keep this ratio at 1.0 or higher.
A measure of the degree to psychology, which current assets cover current liabilities. A high ratio indicates a good probability the enterprise can retire current debts. Research Herbal! A ratio of 2.0 or higher is a comfortable financial position. Current Liabilities to Net Worth. A measure of the extent to which the enterprise is using creditor funds versus their own investment to finance the business. A ratio of .5 or higher may indicate inadequate owner investment or an extended accounts payable period. Care should be taken not to offend your vendors (creditors) to the extent it affects your ability to essay selling a product, conduct day to day business.
Total Liabilities to Net Worth. A measure of the extent that the net worth of the enterprise can offset the liabilities. Research Paper! A ratio greater than 1.0 should be avoided, since it indicates the creditors have a greater stake in thesis project about electronics, the business than the research, owners. Fixed Assets to Net Worth. A measure of the extent of project about electronics investment in non-liquid and often over research herbal medicine valued fixed assets. Project About! A ratio of .75 or higher is usually undesirable as it indicates possible over-investment and paper medicine, causes a largge annual depreciation charge that will be deducted from the income statement. Fixed Assets to Total Assets. A measure of the extent to which fixed assets are financed with owners equity (capital). A high ration of .5 or higher indicates an process essay second person inefficient use of working capital which reduces the ability to carry accounts receivable and maintain inventory and usually meanas a low cash reserve. This will often limit your ability to respond to increased demand for your products or services.
If you are using business plan software to write your plan, this spreadsheet should be provided automatically. If you are using business plan software to write your plan, this spreadsheet should be provided automatically.
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Management of herbal, Diabetic Ketoacidosis. ABBAS E. KITABCHI, PH.D., M.D., and BARRY M. WALL, M.D., University of Tennessee, Memphis, College of Medicine, Memphis, Tennessee. Am Fam Physician. Dissertations In Educational. 1999 Aug 1;60(2):455-464. This article exemplifies the AAFP 1999 Annual Clinical Focus on management and prevention of the complications of diabetes . Diabetic ketoacidosis is an emergency medical condition that can be life-threatening if not treated properly. The incidence of this condition may be increasing, and a 1 to 2 percent mortality rate has stubbornly persisted since the 1970s. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs most often in patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus); however, its occurrence in paper herbal medicine, patients with type 2 diabetes (formerly called non#x2013;insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), particularly obese black patients, is not as rare as was once thought. The management of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis includes obtaining a thorough but rapid history and performing a physical examination in an attempt to persuasive essay selling a product identify possible precipitating factors. The major treatment of this condition is initial rehydration (using isotonic saline) with subsequent potassium replacement and low-dose insulin therapy. The use of bicarbonate is not recommended in paper herbal, most patients.
Cerebral edema, one of the project about electronics, most dire complications of research paper, diabetic ketoacidosis, occurs more commonly in children and adolescents than in adults. Project Electronics. Continuous follow-up of research herbal medicine, patients using treatment algorithms and flow sheets can help to minimize adverse outcomes. Preventive measures include patient education and instructions for process essay second the patient to contact the research, physician early during an illness. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a triad of dissertations in educational, hyperglycemia, ketonemia and acidemia, each of which may be caused by other conditions ( Figure 1 ) .1 Although diabetic ketoacidosis most often occurs in paper herbal, patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), more recent studies suggest that it can sometimes be the presenting condition in obese black patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (formerly called non#x2013;insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).2 , 3. Diagnostic Triad of Diabetic Ketoacidosis. The rightsholder did not grant rights to reproduce this item in electronic media. For the missing item, see the original print version of this publication. The commonly used diagnostic criteria for diabetic ketoacidosis and average deficits of water and electrolytes are given in Table 1 .4 The therapeutic regimen, which consists of replacing fluid and la youth essay, electrolyte losses and herbal, administering low-dose insulin, is based on an understanding of the pathogenesis of the condition. Although protocols for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis are well established, a 1 to 2 percent mortality rate has persisted since the 1970s,5 emphasizing the need for careful, ongoing evaluation of this sometimes #x201c;routine#x201d; medical emergency.
Diagnostic Criteria and Typical Total Body Deficits of Water and oj simpson essay help, Electrolytes in Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Blood glucose: 250 mg per dL (13.9 mmol per L) Serum bicarbonate: 15 mEq per L. Serum ketone: positive at 1:2 dilutions#x2020; Serum osmolality: variable.
Water: 6 L, or 100 mL per kg body weight. Sodium: 7 to 10 mEq per kg body weight. Potassium: 3 to 5 mEq per kg body weight. 1.0 mmol per kg body weight. *#x2014; Not all patients will meet all diagnostic criteria, depending on paper herbal, hydration status, previous administration of diabetes treatment and other factors . #x2020;#x2014; Nitroprusside reaction method . Adapted with permission from Ennis ED, Stahl EJ, Kreisberg RA. Diabetic ketoacidosis. In: Porte D Jr, Sherwin RS, eds. Ellenberg and process person, Rifkin's Diabetes mellitus. 5th ed. Stamford, Conn.: Appleton Lange, 1997;827#x2013;44 . Diagnostic Criteria and Typical Total Body Deficits of Water and Electrolytes in Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Blood glucose: 250 mg per dL (13.9 mmol per research medicine, L)
Serum bicarbonate: 15 mEq per L. Serum ketone: positive at 1:2 dilutions#x2020; Serum osmolality: variable. Water: 6 L, or 100 mL per kg body weight. Sodium: 7 to 10 mEq per kg body weight. Potassium: 3 to 5 mEq per kg body weight. 1.0 mmol per kg body weight. *#x2014; Not all patients will meet all diagnostic criteria, depending on hydration status, previous administration of diabetes treatment and other factors . #x2020;#x2014; Nitroprusside reaction method . Adapted with permission from Ennis ED, Stahl EJ, Kreisberg RA.
Diabetic ketoacidosis. In: Porte D Jr, Sherwin RS, eds. Ellenberg and Rifkin's Diabetes mellitus. In Educational. 5th ed. Stamford, Conn.: Appleton Lange, 1997;827#x2013;44 . Major components of the paper, pathogenesis of diabetic ketoacidosis are reductions in effective concentrations of circulating insulin and concomitant elevations of counterregulatory hormones (catecholamines, glucagon, growth hormone and process second, cortisol).6 These hormonal alterations bring about three major metabolic events: (1) hyperglycemia resulting from accelerated gluconeogenesis and decreased glucose utilization, (2) increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis and (3) increased lipolysis and ketone production.7. Hyperglycemia initially causes the movement of water out of paper herbal, cells, with subsequent intracellular dehydration, extra-cellular fluid expansion and hyponatremia. La Youth Essay. It also leads to a diuresis in which water losses exceed sodium chloride losses. Urinary losses then lead to progressive dehydration and volume depletion, which causes diminished urine flow and greater retention of research paper herbal, glucose in second, plasma. The net result of all these alterations is hyperglycemia with metabolic acidosis and herbal medicine, an increased plasma anion gap.8. Evaluation of Patients with Diabetic Ketoacidosis. The history and physical examination continue to be important aspects of management.
Even in comatose patients, information documenting a history of diabetes or insulin therapy may be available. The physical examination can provide supportive evidence for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and can point to precipitating factors (Table 2) .3 , 4. Factors Most Often Associated with the Development of Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Omission of ecotect coursework, insulin or inadequate insulin. Initial presentation of research medicine, diabetes mellitus. Adapted with permission from Umpierrez GE, Kelly JP, Navarrete JE, Casals MM, Kitabchi AE. Hyperglycemic crises in urban blacks. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:669#x2013;75, and Ennis ED, Stahl EJ, Kreisberg RA.
Diabetic ketoacidosis. In: Porte D Jr, Sherwin RS, eds. Ellenberg Rifkin's Diabetes mellitus. 5th ed. Stamford, Conn.: Appleton Lange, 1997;827#x2013;44 . Factors Most Often Associated with the Development of Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Omission of insulin or inadequate insulin. Initial presentation of diabetes mellitus. Adapted with permission from Umpierrez GE, Kelly JP, Navarrete JE, Casals MM, Kitabchi AE. Hyperglycemic crises in urban blacks.
Arch Intern Med 1997;157:669#x2013;75, and help, Ennis ED, Stahl EJ, Kreisberg RA. Diabetic ketoacidosis. Paper. In: Porte D Jr, Sherwin RS, eds. Ecotect. Ellenberg Rifkin's Diabetes mellitus. 5th ed. Stamford, Conn.: Appleton Lange, 1997;827#x2013;44 . Although usually straightforward, the diagnosis of research, diabetic ketoacidosis is occasionally missed in unusual situations, such as when it is the initial presentation of diabetes in infants or elderly patients or when patients present with sepsis or infarction of the brain, bowel or myocardium. These presentations can distract the physician from the underlying diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. The laboratory tests needed to confirm the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis and to screen for precipitating events are summarized in Table 14 and Figure 2 . Thesis About. The essential data can be obtained promptly in the emergency department.
Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Protocol for the management of herbal, patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Coursework. (IV = intravenous; SC = subcutaneous; IM = intramuscular) Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Protocol for the management of paper herbal medicine, patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. (IV = intravenous; SC = subcutaneous; IM = intramuscular) The therapeutic goals for diabetic ketoacidosis consist of improving circulatory volume and tissue perfusion, reducing blood glucose and serum osmolality toward normal levels, clearing ketones from thesis electronics serum and urine at a steady rate, correcting electrolyte imbalances and identifying precipitating factors. A suggested flow sheet for monitoring therapeutic response is provided in research herbal, Figure 3 .6. Flow Sheet for Monitoring Diabetic Ketoacidosis. A suggested flow sheet for ecotect monitoring response to therapy for diabetic ketoacidosis. (PaO 2 = partial pressure of oxygen; PaCO 2 = partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide) Adapted with permission from Kitabchi AE, Fisher JN, Murphy MB, Rumbak MJ. Diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic state.
In: Kahn CR, Weir GC, eds. Joslin's Diabetes mellitus. 13th ed. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1994:738#x2013;70 . Flow Sheet for research herbal medicine Monitoring Diabetic Ketoacidosis. A suggested flow sheet for monitoring response to therapy for diabetic ketoacidosis. (PaO 2 = partial pressure of oxygen; PaCO 2 = partial pressure of persuasive essay a product, arterial carbon dioxide) Adapted with permission from herbal medicine Kitabchi AE, Fisher JN, Murphy MB, Rumbak MJ. Diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic state. In: Kahn CR, Weir GC, eds. Joslin's Diabetes mellitus.
13th ed. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1994:738#x2013;70 . The severity of fluid and sodium deficits (Table 1) 4 is determined primarily by the duration of hyperglycemia, the level of la youth essay, renal function and the patient's fluid intake. Dehydration can be estimated by clinical examination and by calculating total serum osmolality and the corrected serum sodium concentration. Total serum osmolality is calculated using the following equation: The measured serum sodium concentration can be corrected for the changes related to hyperglycemia by adding 1.6 mEq per research paper, L (1.6 mmol per L) to the measured sodium value for every 100 mg per dL (5.6 mmol per coursework, L) of glucose over the normal baseline of 100 mg per research paper, dL.1 , 8 Corrected serum sodium concentrations of greater than 140 mEq per L (140 mmol per L) and calculated total osmolalities of greater than 330 mOsm per dissertations, kg of water are associated with large fluid deficits.4 , 6 Calculated total osmolalities are correlated with mental status, in that stupor and paper herbal medicine, coma typically occur with an osmolality of greater than 330 mOsm per kg of water.1 , 6. The initial priority in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis is the restoration of a product, extra-cellular fluid volume through the intravenous administration of a normal saline (0.9 percent sodium chloride) solution. This step will restore intravascular volume, decrease counterregulatory hormones and lower the blood glucose level.9 As a result, insulin sensitivity may be augmented. In patients with mild to moderate volume depletion, infusion rates of paper herbal, 7 mL per ecotect, kg per hour have been as efficacious as infusion rates of 14 mL per kg per hour.10 The subsequent administration of a hypotonic saline (0.45 percent sodium chloride) solution, which is similar in herbal medicine, composition to the fluid lost during osmotic diuresis, leads to gradual replacement of deficits in both intracellular and extracellular compartments. When the blood glucose concentration is approximately 250 mg per dL (13.9 mmol per ecotect coursework, L), glucose should be added to the hydration fluid (i.e., 5 percent dextrose in hypotonic saline solution).
This allows continued insulin administration until ketonemia is paper herbal medicine, controlled and also helps to avoid iatrogenic hypoglycemia. Another important aspect of process essay second, rehydration therapy in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis is the replacement of ongoing urinary losses. Modern management of herbal medicine, diabetic ketoacidosis has emphasized the use of lower doses of insulin. This has been shown to be the most efficacious treatment in both children and adults with diabetic ketoacidosis.11 #x2013; 14 The current recommendation is to dissertations in educational give low-dose (short-acting regular) insulin after the research paper herbal medicine, diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis has been confirmed by laboratory tests and fluid replacement has been initiated. It is prudent to withhold insulin therapy until the serum potassium concentration has been determined. In the rare patient who presents with hypokalemia, insulin therapy may worsen the hypokalemia and precipitate life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias.1 , 2.
Standard low-dose insulin therapy consists of an initial intravenous bolus of 0.15 unit of regular insulin per kg followed by the continuous intravenous infusion of la youth essay, regular insulin prepared in normal saline or hypotonic saline solution at a rate of 0.1 unit per kg per hour. In clinical situations in which continuous intravenous insulin cannot be administered, the recommended initial insulin dose is 0.3 unit per medicine, kg, with one half of the dose given as an intravenous bolus and the remainder given subcutaneously or intramuscularly ( Figure 2 ) . Ecotect Coursework. Subsequently, regular insulin should be given in a dosage of 0.1 unit per kg per hour until the blood glucose level is approximately 250 mg per dL. If the blood glucose concentration does not fall by 50 to paper medicine 70 mg per dL (2.8 to essay a product 3.9 mmol per L) in the first hour, the intravenous infusion rate should be doubled or additional intravenous 10-unit boluses of research paper herbal, insulin should be given every hour ( Figure 2 ) . Either of process second, these treatments should be continued until the blood glucose level falls by 50 to 70 mg per dL. Low-dose insulin therapy typically produces a linear fall in the glucose concentration of 50 to 70 mg per dL per hour.12. More rapid correction of hyperglycemia should be avoided because it may increase the risk of paper medicine, cerebral edema. This dreaded treatment complication occurs in approximately 1 percent of children with diabetic ketoacidosis.5 The typical presentation is oj simpson essay help, onset of headache and decreased mental status occurring several hours after the paper herbal medicine, start of treatment. Oj Simpson Help. Cerebral edema is associated with a mortality rate of up to 70 percent.15. When a blood glucose concentration of 250 mg per dL has been achieved, the continuous or hourly insulin dosage can be reduced to 0.05 unit per kg per hour.
The insulin and fluid regimens are continued until ketoacidosis is controlled. This requires the research, achievement of at least two of these acid-base parameters: a serum bicarbonate concentration of greater than 18 mEq per L, a venous pH of 7.3 or greater and a product, an anion gap of less than 14 mEq per L. Although the typical potassium deficit in diabetic ketoacidosis is herbal, 500 to 700 mEq (500 to 700 mmol), most patients are hyperkalemic at the time of diagnosis because of the effects of insulinopenia, hyperosmolality and acidemia.4 During rehydration and a product, insulin therapies for diabetic ketoacidosis, the serum potassium concentration typically declines rapidly as potassium reenters the intracellular compartment. One protocol entails using insulin and research paper medicine, intravenous fluids until the serum potassium concentration is less than 5.5 mEq per L (5.5 mmol per L). Persuasive Essay Selling A Product. At this time, potassium chloride is added to paper herbal medicine intravenous fluids in the amount of 20 to 40 mEq per ecotect coursework, L. The exact amount of potassium that is research medicine, administered depends on the serum potassium concentration.
When the serum potassium level is less than 3.3 mEq per L (3.3 mmol per L), the administration of 40 mEq per L of potassium is appropriate. If the serum potassium is greater than 3.3 mEq per L but less than 5.5 mEq per L, 20 to 30 mEq per L of potassium can be administered. The goal is to maintain the serum potassium concentration in the range of 4 to la youth essay 5 mEq per L (4 to 5 mmol per L).1 , 2 , 6. In general, supplemental bicarbonate therapy is no longer recommended for patients with diabetic ketoacidosis, because the plasma bicarbonate concentration increases with insulin therapy.1 , 4 , 8 , 16 , 17 Insulin administration inhibits ongoing lipolysis and ketone production and also promotes the regeneration of bicarbonate. Retrospective reviews and prospective randomized studies have failed to identify changes in morbidity or mortality with sodium bicarbonate therapy in research paper medicine, patients who presented with a pH of 6.9 to 7.1. Ecotect Coursework. Therefore, the use of research medicine, bicarbonate in a patient with a pH greater than 7.0 is not recommended. Furthermore, bicarbonate therapy carries some risks, including hypokalemia with overly rapid administration, paradoxic cerebrospinal fluid acidosis and hypoxia.6 , 15 , 17. Some authorities, however, recommend bicarbonate administration when the pH is less than 7.0, for the purpose of treating the possible adverse hemodynamic effects of profound acidemia.
If bicarbonate is used, it should be given as a nearly isotonic solution, which can be approximated by the addition of one ampule of sodium bicarbonate in 300 mL of psychology, sterile water. The bicarbonate solution is administered over a one-hour period.1 , 2 , 8. A small percentage of patients who have diabetic ketoacidosis present with metabolic acidosis and a normal anion gap. Therefore, they have fewer ketones available for the regeneration of research paper herbal medicine, bicarbonate during insulin administration.18 Bicarbonate therapy may be warranted in dissertations psychology, this subset of patients. Osmotic diuresis leads to increased urinary phosphate losses.
During insulin therapy, phosphate reenters the intracellular compartment, leading to mild to moderate reductions in the serum phosphate concentration. Adverse complications of hypophosphatemia are uncommon and occur primarily in patients with severe hypophosphatemia (a serum phosphate concentration of research paper herbal medicine, less than 1.0 mg per dL [0.32 mmol per L]). Prospective studies have indicated no clinical benefit for phosphate replacement in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis, and selling, excessive phosphate replacement may contribute to hypocalcemia and soft tissue metastatic calcification.19 #x2013; 21 Although the replacement of herbal, phosphate per se is not routinely recommended, it may be useful to replace some potassium as potassium phosphate. One protocol is to administer two thirds of the potassium as potassium chloride and ecotect, one third as potassium phosphate. Research Herbal Medicine. The use of phosphate for this purpose reduces the coursework, chloride load that might contribute to hyperchloremic acidosis and research medicine, decreases the likelihood that the project, patient will develop severe hypophosphatemia during insulin therapy.
When diabetic ketoacidosis has been controlled, subcutaneous insulin therapy can be started. Herbal Medicine. The half-life of regular insulin is less than 10 minutes. A Product. Therefore, to avoid relapse of diabetic ketoacidosis, the first subcutaneous dose of research, regular insulin should be given at least one hour before intravenous insulin is essay selling a product, discontinued.1 , 22 A protocol for the administration of subcutaneous insulin is included in paper, Figure 2 . In patients who are unable to eat, 5 percent dextrose in la youth essay, hypotonic saline solution is continued at a rate of 100 to paper 200 mL per hour. Blood glucose levels are monitored every four hours, and regular insulin is given subcutaneously every four hours using a sliding scale ( Figure 2 ). When patients are able to eat, multidose subcutaneous therapy with both regular (short-acting) and intermediate-acting insulin may be given. In patients with newly diagnosed diabetes, an initial total insulin dosage of 0.6 to 0.7 unit per kg per day is essay, usually adequate to achieve metabolic control. Research Medicine. A typical regimen is two thirds of the total daily dosage before breakfast and one third of the la youth essay, total daily dosage before dinner, with the research paper herbal medicine, insulin doses consisting of two-thirds NPH (intermediate-acting) insulin and essay selling a product, one-third regular (short-acting) insulin. Patients with known diabetes can typically be given the dosage they were receiving before the onset of diabetic ketoacidosis. Symptomatic cerebral edema occurs primarily in pediatric patients, particularly those with newly diagnosed diabetes. No single factor predictive for cerebral edema has yet been identified.
As noted previously, however, overly rapid rehydration or overcorrection of hyperglycemia appears to increase the herbal, risk of cerebral edema. Onset of headache or mental status changes during therapy should lead to consideration of this complication. Intravenous mannitol in a dosage of 1 to 2 g per kg given over 15 minutes is the mainstay of essay second, therapy. Prompt involvement of a critical care specialist is prudent. Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.23 Excessive crystalloid infusion favors the development of pulmonary edema, even in the presence of normal cardiac function.
Patients with an increased alveolar to arterial oxygen gradient (AaO2) and patients with pulmonary rales on physical examination may be at increased risk for ARDS. Research Medicine. Monitoring of oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry may assist in the management of such patients. Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with a normal anion gap typically persists after the resolution of second person, ketonemia. Research. This acidosis has no adverse clinical effects and is gradually corrected over the subsequent 24 to la youth essay 48 hours by enhanced renal acid excretion.8 , 18 The severity of hyperchloremia can be aggravated by excessive chloride administration in research paper herbal, hydration fluids. Resource Utilization in Diabetic Ketoacidosis. No randomized prospective studies have evaluated the optimal site of care for patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.
The response to initial therapy in the emergency department can be used as a guideline for choosing the most appropriate hospital site (i.e., intensive care unit, step-down unit, general medical ward) for further care. Admission to a step-down or intensive care unit should be considered for patients with hypotension or oliguria refractory to initial rehydration and for essay help patients with mental obtundation or coma with hyperosmolality (total osmolality of herbal medicine, greater than 330 mOsm per kg of water). Most patients can be treated in step-down units or on general medical wards in which staff members have been trained in on-site blood glucose monitoring and persuasive essay a product, continuous intravenous insulin administration. Milder forms of research paper herbal medicine, diabetic ketoacidosis can be treated in process person, the emergency department using the herbal medicine, same treatment guidelines described in in educational, this review. Successful outpatient therapy requires the absence of severe intercurrent illness, an alert patient who is able to resume oral intake and the presence of mild diabetic ketoacidosis (pH of greater than 7.2 and research paper medicine, a plasma bicarbonate concentration of greater than 10 mEq per L).24. With the use of standardized written treatment guidelines and flow sheets for monitoring therapeutic response, the mortality rate for patients with diabetic ketoacidosis is about, now less than 5 percent.25 Most deaths occur in elderly patients who have concomitant or intercurrent life-threatening illnesses.1 #x2013; 4 , 6 Similar outcomes for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis have been observed in both community and training hospitals. Medicine. These outcomes have not been altered by the specialty of the primary treating physicians (e.g., family practice, internal medicine, endocrinology), as long as they adhere to an established guideline and protocol.26. An educational program should include sick-day management instructions (i.e., for any illness that alters routine care), including the use of short-acting insulin, blood glucose and thesis, urinary ketone monitoring, and the use of a liquid diet containing carbohydrates and salt. Paper Herbal Medicine. Patients should not discontinue insulin therapy when they are ill, and dissertations, they should contact their physician early in the course of illness. Indications for hospitalization include greater than 5 percent loss of body weight, respiration rate of greater than 35 per minute, intractable elevation of blood glucose concentrations, change in mental status, uncontrolled fever and unresolved nausea and vomiting.
Read the full article. Get immediate access, anytime, anywhere. Choose a single article, issue, or full-access subscription. Earn up to 6 CME credits per research paper herbal, issue. Already a member or subscriber? Log in. Get Full Access. Includes: Immediate, unlimited access to all AFP content More than 130 CME credits per essay person, year Access to the AFP app Print delivery option. Access This Issue.
Includes: Immediate access to this issue CME credits in this issue. Access This Article. ABBAS E. KITABCHI, PH.D., M.D., is professor of paper, medicine and la youth essay, biochemistry and chief of the endocrinology and metabolism division of the Department of Medicine at the University of Tennessee, Memphis, College of Medicine. Dr. Kitabchi received his doctoral degree in medical sciences from the University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, where he also earned a medical degree at the College of Medicine. He received fellowship training in endocrinology at the University of Washington, Seattle. . BARRY M. Paper Herbal. WALL, M.D., is la youth essay, associate chief of the research paper herbal medicine, nephrology section at the Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Memphis. He is also associate professor of medicine at the University of Tennessee, Memphis, College of Medicine, where he attended medical school and completed residency training. Dr. Wall received fellowship training at the University of Alabama, Birmington. Address correspondence to la youth essay Abbas E. Kitabchi, Ph.D., M.D., Division of research herbal, Endocrinology/Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, College of Medicine, 951 Court Ave., Room 335M, Memphis, TN 38163.
Reprints are not available from the authors . Dr. Kitabchi is a member of the speakers' bureaus of the selling a product, following companies, and research paper herbal, has received honorariums from them: Merck Co., SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, Parke-Davis, Eli Lilly and Company, Knoll Laboratories, and Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals, Inc . 1. Kitabchi AE, Wall BM. Diabetic ketoacidosis. Med Clin North Am . 1995;79:9#x2013;37. . 2. Ecotect Coursework. Umpierrez GE, Khajavi M, Kitabchi AE. Review: diabetic ketoacidosis and paper medicine, hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome. Am J Med Sci . 1996;311:225#x2013;33. 3. Umpierrez GE, Kelly JP, Navarrete JE, Casals MM, Kitabchi AE. Hyperglycemic crises in urban blacks.
Arch Intern Med . 1997;157:669#x2013;75. 4. Ennis ED, Stahl EJ, Kreisberg RA. Diabetic ketoacidosis. In: Porte D Jr, Sherwin RS, eds. Ellenberg Rifkin's Diabetes mellitus. 5th ed.
Stamford, Conn.: Appleton Lange, 1997;827#x2013;44. 5. Rosenbloom AL, Hanas R. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA): treatment guidelines. Oj Simpson. Clin Pediatr [Phila] . 1996;35:261#x2013;6. 6. Kitabchi AE, Fisher JN, Murphy MB, Rumbak MJ. Research. Diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic state. In: Kahn CR, Weir GC, eds.
Joslin's Diabetes mellitus. 13th ed. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1994:738#x2013;70. 7. Zammit VA. Regulation of ketone body metabolism: a cellular perspective. Diabetes Rev . 1994;2:132#x2013;5.
8. DeFronzo RA, Matsuda M, Barret EJ. Diabetic ketoacidosis. A combined metabolic-nephrologic approach to therapy. Diabetes Rev . In Educational. 1994;2:209#x2013;38. 9. Waldhausl W, Kleinberger G, Korn A, Dudczak R, Bratusch-Marrain P, Nowotny P. Severe hyperglycemia: effects of rehydration on endocrine derangements and blood glucose concentration. Diabetes . 1979;28:577#x2013;84. 10. Adrogue HJ, Barrero J, Eknoyan G. Research Herbal. Salutary effects of modest fluid replacement in the treatment of adults with diabetic ketoacidosis.
Use in patients without extreme volume deficit. Coursework. JAMA . 1989;262:2108#x2013;13. 11. Alberti KG, Hockaday TD, Turner RC. Small doses of intramuscular insulin in the treatment of diabetic #x201c;coma. Paper Medicine. Lancet . 1973;2(7828):515#x2013;22. 12. Kitabchi AE, Young R, Sacks H, Morris L. Diabetic ketoacidosis: reappraisal of therapeutic approach. Annu Rev Med . Process. 1979;30:339#x2013;57. 13. Kitabchi AE, Ayyagari V, Guerra SM.
The efficacy of low-dose versus conventional therapy of insulin for treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Ann Intern Med . 1976;84:633#x2013;8. 14. Kitabchi AE, Fisher JN. Insulin therapy of diabetic ketoacidosis: physiologic versus pharmacologic doses of insulin and research paper, their routes of ecotect, administration. In: Brownlee M, ed.
Handbook of diabetes mellitus. Medicine. New York: Garland STPM, 1981:95#x2013;149. 15. Lever E, Jaspan JB. Sodium bicarbonate therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Am J Med . 1983;75:263#x2013;8. 16. Barnes HV, Cohen RD, Kitabchi AE, Murphy MB. When is bicarbonate appropriate in treating metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis? In: Gitnick G, ed. Debates in medicine.
Chicago: Year Book Medical, 1988:200#x2013;33. 17. Process Second Person. Morris LR, Murphy MB, Kitabchi AE. Bicarbonate therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Ann Intern Med . 1986;105:836#x2013;40. 18. Oh MS, Carroll HJ, Uribarri J. Medicine. Mechanism of normochloremic and hyperchloremic acidosis in diabetic ketoacidosis. Nephron . 1990;54:1#x2013;6. 19. Wilson HK, Keuer SP, Lea AS, Boyd AE 3d, Eknoyan G. Phosphate therapy in person, diabetic ketoacidosis.
Arch Intern Med . 1982;142:517#x2013;20. 20. Fisher JN, Kitabchi AE. A randomized study of phosphate therapy in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 1983;57:177#x2013;80. 21. Research Paper Herbal Medicine. Zipf WB, Bacon GE, Spencer ML, Kelch RP, Hopwood NJ, Hawker CD.
Hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and transient hypoparathyroidism during therapy with potassium phosphate in ecotect, diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes Care . 1979;2:265#x2013;8. 22. Kitabchi AE, Rumbak M. The management of diabetic emergencies. Hosp Pract [Off Ed] . 1989;24:129#x2013;33. 23.
Carrol P, Matz R. Adult respiratory distress syndrome complicating severely uncontrolled diabetes mellitus: report of research paper herbal medicine, nine cases and a review of the literature. Diabetes Care . 1982;5:574#x2013;80. 24. Bonadio WA. Pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis: pathophysiology and potential for outpatient management of selected children. Pediatr Emerg Care . 1992;8:287#x2013;90. 25.
Fishbein HA. Diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar nonketotic coma, lactic acidosis and hyperglycemia. In: National Diabetes Data Group. Diabetes in America. Bethesda, Md.: U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of person, Health, National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 1985; NIH publication no. 85-1468.
26. Hamburger S, Barjenbruch P, Soffer A. Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis by internists and family physicians: a comparative study. J Fam Pract . 1982;14:719#x2013;22. This article is one in a series developed in paper, cooperation with the American Diabetes Association. Guest editors of the series are Bruce Zimmerman, M.D., and oj simpson essay, Richard Kahn, Ph.D., American Diabetes Association, Alexandria, Va . Copyright © 1999 by the American Academy of Family Physicians. This content is paper herbal, owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in electronics, any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Contact email@example.com for copyright questions and/or permission requests. This page will be removed from your Favorites Links.
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100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Research Paper Herbal Medicine! She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Explain something or answer questions like: What is thesis project electronics it? How should we define it? How do you do it? How does it work? What is the history of it? What caused it? What are the effects?
What is the meaning of it? This type of essay doesn't have to be dry and uninteresting. Paper Herbal Medicine! Choose a topic you really like or know something about and make it interesting to the reader by telling unusual details or making it humorous. Expository Essays Answer: How can I do it well? What caused it to happen? Why should it matter? Want a fast and easy essay? Follow these three easy steps: Choose a great topic: Scan the list of essay help topics below, or pick something you either know a lot about or would like to herbal medicine learn about. Writing is always easier if you are interested in the topic. Pre-write: Use my pre-writing worksheet questions at ecotect the bottom of this article to help guide you through the process of gathering and research paper medicine organizing the information you’ll need to help write your essay.
It may take 30 minutes (or more if you do research), but when you are done you should be ready to write. Edit: Use your computer's spell and grammar check program, and use Grammarly, which is medicine a free check for errors. Have at least one other person read your paper and give you advice. Ecotect! Finally, read your paper out loud so that you slow down as you read and notice your errors. Herbal! One of the easiest topics is to write something that explains a person, place, event or organization at your University. Not only is ecotect coursework it easy to get information, you will probably enjoy learning more about your campus or the history of your college.
Interview other students, staff, or faculty. You can use their quotes or stories as evidence for paper herbal your paper. Observe the place you are writing about. Sit down with a notepad or your phone and write down your sensory experiences (what you smell, hear, see, taste, and touch). You can even listen to ecotect coursework conversations and observe people. Vividly-written details and personal experience make your expository paper stand out.
Research by looking at past issues of your college paper or on research medicine the college website. You might also find information posted on buildings around campus, the ecotect library, or in pamphlets at the visitor's center. Explain the requirements of an herbal medicine, unusual major at thesis project electronics your school (like Aviation, Fashion Design, Astro-Physics, Japanese, or International Studies). What is the history of your college? Who are the students at research herbal medicine your college? What is the background of in educational psychology most students?
How are students different? What do they have in herbal medicine, common? Pick a professor at your college to interview. What is their background and ecotect coursework how did they get interested in their subject? What is the history of your college mascot? Describe in research herbal medicine, detail a statue or memorial marker on campus. Research the history of the project about electronics marker and paper the person or event it commemorates. How does one join a sorority or fraternity? How can you stay healthy while dining on campus food? What's the best way to choose which college activities to ecotect coursework be involved in as a freshman?
How has your college has changed over the years? What do you need to paper do to get ready for la youth essay a college football game (or other sport) at research paper herbal your school? Why should people attend games of a less popular sport? (Pick one you like.) What's the worst way to study for finals? How can a student survive the help first few weeks of college? How can you be a great roommate? What are ways to research use the local coffee house to avoid studying? What causes college freshmen to be depressed? How can you help a suicidal friend? What do you have to do to win a campus election? What should you leave at thesis home when you go to college?
How best to decide which college to go to? How to get scholarships for college. How can one pay for college without getting into too much debt? What are the best scandals or memorable events in your college's history? Pick a building on your campus: Describe its history and describe how the building got its name (especially if it is named after someone). How can a person best separate from paper medicine their parents in college? How can someone avoid dating the coursework wrong people in college? How long does your expository paper need to herbal be? How Can You Relieve College Stress : Explains ways for college students to process essay person reduce the amount of stress they feel about school. What happens to juveniles who break the law?
What is homelessness? What causes people to be homeless? What is the Salvation Army? How do they help the needy? (Or choose another non-profit charity that helps the research herbal poor.) What are the effects on a family when a parent becomes a meth addict? What causes teenagers to run away? How does having a single parent affect children in the areas of education, hygiene, and nutrition? How do people without health insurance get medical treatment? What is it like to be an illegal alien? What is the history of the persuasive selling a product foster care system in the U.S.? What is the history of affirmative action in research herbal medicine, education?
What are its effects? What is the process of prosecuting someone for domestic abuse? Why do women stay with men who beat them up? What does living below the poverty line mean? What is the history of welfare in the U.S.? How do food stamps work? What is discrimination, or affirmative action? What is oj simpson essay help peak oil?
What causes some people who grow up in bad circumstances to overcome them? What is sociology? How can bullying be prevented? What is the research paper effect of the closing of public libraries in the U.S.? What is the effect of ability grouping in a classroom? What happens to thesis project electronics kids when they drop out of school? What effect does social media have on interpersonal relationships? Good places to research social problems are government websites (which give current statistics), non-profit websites (which have information about programs to help alleviate social problems), and major news sources. Herbal Medicine! Here are some places to start: Write About Science and Technology.
What is Google Glass? How will it change the way we live our lives? What are nanobots? How can they be used? What is a black hole and why are they important? What causes obesity?
What is climate change? How is electronic music made? Why is there an increase in autism? What is an allergen? What is an allergic reaction? Why is there a startling increase in people with allergies and autoimmune diseases in Western countries? What is ecotect Alzheimer's? What happens to the brain of herbal medicine someone with this disease? How does wifi work? Explain the project to use DNA to store data. What is fusion energy?
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Who were the Neanderthals? Did humans and Neanderthals ever mate? How similar are current robots to real people? Explain Stanley Milgram's psychological experiments of 1961 and the controversy about the results. Research Paper Herbal Medicine! What is essay second electronic paper? What is bioengineering? How has bioengineering changed our lives?
Need help researching? Here are some links to good sources for accurate science and technology information, and ideas for your essay: CNN Latest Tech News: Updated regularly. Popular Science: Links to paper herbal current articles about science innovations. Discover Magazine: Features articles on science and technology. How does having a special needs child affect a family? What is the cause of depression and why is it rising in la youth essay, the United States? What is schizophrenia? What are the different types of medicine this disease?
Is there a cure? What does it mean to be OCD? How can you recognize it? How can it be overcome? What is a psychological disorder? What is cognitive behavioral therapy? Who can it help and why? What is the essay person history of art therapy? Explain the different types of therapy done by psychiatrists. Herbal Medicine! What’s the process essay second person best way to read and understand an article in a psychology journal? How does one become a therapist?
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What is a memory? Explain what left brain vs. Process Second Person! right brain dominance means to paper herbal most of us. Researching mental health issues can easily be done online, but you need to la youth essay be sure you get articles which are in a journal that is either published by a university or written by professional psychiatrists or psychologists. Here are some good places to start: Psychology Today : A popular journal that has easy-to-read articles for the general public. Herbal! American Psychological Association: Features extensive links to articles, listed by topic. Full-Text Psychology Journals: Is a list of psychology journals which offer full-text articles. After you have a topic idea, what's next? You have to develop information that you will put into your essay and decide on your audience and purpose. Then you will need to la youth essay decide the point of view, tone, and research paper style of writing you will use. Sound confusing?
Don't worry. Just answer the following questions to persuasive essay selling a product get ready to write. You can open up a word processing program, copy these questions, and then answer them, or do it the old-fashioned way with paper and pen. Topic idea: ______________________________________________. (Write yours out.) What kind of research medicine expository essay is this? (How to? How does it work? Definition? Fact? Cause? History of?) List or cluster different aspects or parts of la youth essay your topic. Circle the aspects which are most interesting to you.
Cluster those. Do you have enough to say or too much? Do you need to narrow your topic or expand it? What sources can you use? Where can you find them? What are some things your audience would be familiar with which you can compare your topic with? What do they already know? What would they be interested in paper, knowing? What kind of tone would be best for this audience? (informational, satiric, humorous, folksy, professional?) Considering your audience, which point of view would be the most effective one to write in? Would it be better to write in the first person (I or we), second person (you), or third person (impersonal)?
Your purpose (What do you want audience to think, do, or know after reading? This will be related to what your audience doesn't know.) Turn your topic into project about electronics, a question: ___________________________________________ Answer that question: __________________________________________________ Make a thesis statement: _______________________________________________ Essay map—sentence(s) which list main sub-topics: ______________________________________________________________ (These can be headers for research herbal medicine sections of the process essay person paper.) Which sort of organization would work best for research herbal medicine you? Examples: chronological (in time), spatial (in space and time), process (step-by-step), topical (part-by-part), cause/effect, historical overview, comparison and contrast, or reverse expectations. Write a brief outline for how you will structure the body of the paper. Which of these introduction and conclusion ideas could you use? Reverse expectation, expectation fulfilled, scenario (imagined typical story, also called a case study), personal story, frame story, vivid description, conversation, definition, comparison and in educational psychology contrast, analogy, startling statistic or fact, quotation, story from book or movie. Choose the best one(s) for paper medicine your essay and process explain what you will do. Which person will you write in for your essay? (1 st “I,” 2 nd “you,” or 3 rd “he, she, it.”) Why? What sort of tone will you have?
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essay cat's cradle Kurt Vonnegut's Cat's Cradle. There are two parts to this assignment. Both parts are to be passed in on time as LATE PAPERS WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED. Part 1: Do ONE of the following essay questions. (50%) 1. Cat's Cradle is a book that questions our sense of truth, beginning with the statement, All of the true things I am about to tell you are shameless lies (A Tentative Tangling of Tendrils). Nothing in this book is research herbal, true, writes Vonnegut in the disclaimer before the start of the oj simpson essay book, a joke on research paper herbal medicine, the standard disclaimer. He adds Live by the foma [harmless untruths] that make you brave and kind and healthy and happy. Before the book is even begun, the reader's sense of purpose and expectancy are shaken. We are left wondering what we are meant to believe, as well as a little amused.
Examine Cat's Cradle for incidence in which our relationship with truth is shaken. Why do you think Vonnegut would want to make his readers question in this way? Is there any lesson to be gleaned from this questioning of what is true? 2. In Cat's Cradle , Vonnegut describes religion as a useful lie. Anyone unable to understand how a useful religion can be founded on lies will not understand this book either (A Tentative Tangling of Tendrils). Explore Vonnegut's portrayal of religion in the novel.
Pay particular attention to la youth essay, the portrayals of Christianity and medicine, Bokononism. 3. Vonnegut depicts a universe in Cat's Cradle that is completely amoral -- that is, it has no concern for good or bad, terms which, it seems, have been cooked up by human beings. Ecotect! Discuss Vonnegut's portrayal of the amorality of the universe in research paper herbal Cat's Cradle , and how this might affect the way that we live if we take it seriously. Does Vonnegut encourage us to oj simpson essay, take him seriously? Why or why not? 4. In Cat's Cradle , Frank's character is frequently compared to God (ex. Bug Fights, Hobby Shop). Examine the manner in which Vonnegut relates experimentation, God, and amorality in the person of Frank. What sorts of paper, conclusions is project, Vonnegut encouraging us to draw from his novel? What sorts of questions is he bidding us to ask? 5. Robert Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb, is famed to have said, If something is research paper medicine, sweet, you have to go ahead with it.
At the time of the selling bomb's development and first test, there was no certainty that, once a nuclear chain reaction began, it could ever be stopped. Many scientists speculated that a nuclear explosion would burn up the entire Earth's atmosphere; but Oppenheimer, not knowing whether his weapon would destroy the entire earth, went ahead with it anyway. Cat's Cradle is very much a novel concerned with nuclearism and thoughts of apocalyptic destruction. Felix Hoenikker is very much like Robert Oppenheimer in that he, too, develops terrible weapons without any concern for their consequences. Write an essay that delves into the relationship between knowledge and moral responsibility. What happens when knowledge is pursued as an end in itself, or as though it has no relation to good or evil? Must true knowledge always concern goodness? How might we evaluate the modern technological drive to master the universe through knowledge, putting everything to the uses that we prescribe? Chapter 19 may be especially helpful in research your analysis. 6. In the chapter entitled, Letter from persuasive a product a Pre-med, Felix Hoenikker is made to research paper herbal, say, Anything can make me stop and look and wonder, and sometimes learn.
I am a very happy man; and, Why should I bother with made-up games when there are so many real ones going on? Examine the relationship between science, wonder, and play in ecotect coursework the novel. 7. In the chapter entitled, Bug Fights, Newt recounts the story of his father at the Alamagordo nuclear test site. After the explosion, a scientist turned to Felix and said, Science has now known sin. Felix replied, What is sin? Vonnegut would have us ask this question, too. What is sin?
What meaning can sin have if the paper herbal medicine universe is psychology, amoral, or if good and evil are simply constructs (or lies?) invented by human beings to give a sense of order to an otherwise chaotic, meaningless existence? Drawing on Vonnegut's text, respond to these questions. 8. In the chapter entitled, Protein, Vonnegut satirizes positivism, or the belief that the only real kind of knowledge is scientific knowledge (that is, knowledge derived from the research paper medicine application of the scientific method). Indeed, Dr. Breed is la youth essay, quoted as saying, The trouble with the world was that people were still superstitious instead of scientific. He said if everybody would study science more, there wouldn't be all the trouble there was. Research Paper Herbal Medicine! Science is portrayed as the means to discover the facts of existence; the natural world is portrayed as amoral; consequently, considerations of essay second person, good and evil have no real relation to knowledge at all. They are mere superstitions. The secret of life, as revealed in this chapter, has nothing to do with goodness or the Ground of all goodness; it is protein. Analyze Vonnegut's novel for the satiric way it portrays the positivistic understanding of things.
9. Examine how Vonnegut personifies the forces of nature in research paper the character of Felix Hoenikker (see, for instance, Vice President in Charge of Volcanoes). What among Felix's personal characteristics might Vonnegut wish to impart to nature in Cat's Cradle , and why? 10. Why would Vonnegut include the thesis about electronics Chapter 13 concerning the murderer who wasn't sorry about anything in the novel? What relation does this chapter have to the rest of Cat's Cradle ? 11. We sometimes suppose that there would be a lot less pain and suffering and misery in research paper herbal the world if only people would just think more carefully. Vonnegut's novel would have us question that assumption, or at least qualify its meaning. Persuasive Essay Selling! In chapter 15, Dr. Research Paper! Breed says, I think you'll find that everybody does about the same amount of thinking. Scientists simply think about things in one way, and other people think about things in others.
What is the difference between scientific thought (like the thoughts of Dr. Breed or Dr. Hoenikker) on the one hand, and the other people? 12. In Chapter 16 of Cat's Cradle , Dr. Dissertations! Breed calls science the antithesis of magic; science, in his view, de-mystifies the world. However, in Chapter 97, Papa Monzano's dying wish is that his people will be taught science, since Science is magic that works. Medicine! What are we as readers to think of this contradiction?
What is magic? What is science? Does science mystify or de-mystify the world? Is it a good or a bad thing to be able to find the world mysterious? 13. The chapter entitled, The Most Valuable Commodity on dissertations, Earth, celebrates ironically the importance of pure research, or knowledge for its own sake.
However, the importance of research paper herbal medicine, truth is scoffed at la youth essay, by Bokononists. Following the logic of Vonnegut's novel, explain his criticism of pure research and the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. 14. Vonnegut's writing often parallels the works of the German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche -- particularly in its amoralism, and research paper herbal medicine, its portrayal of ecotect, useful lies in contradistinction to paper herbal medicine, the truth. Ecotect Coursework! Read through the selected aphorisms of Nietzsche and draw some parallels between the thoughts of the two writers. Research Herbal Medicine! How might reading Nietzsche help us to understand Kurt Vonnegut's novel? 15. In Chapter 25, Miss Faust admits, I just have trouble understanding how truth, all by itself, could be enough for a person. Explain how this comment exemplifies Bokononism, and how it embodies a major theme in Vonnegut's novel.
16. Chapter 26 discusses the la youth essay notion of absolute truth in terms of the question, What is God? Carefully analyze this short chapter, drawing on the rest of the novel where appropriate. Why would Vonnegut include this chapter in medicine Cat's Cradle ? What is the significance of Felix's retort, What is love? Relate this question to project about, the Felix's positivism (i.e., the idea that only paper herbal things that can be discovered through the application of the scientific method are real). 17. Felix admits that, as a scientist, he is filled with wonder at the world around him (Ch. 5); science, for him, is persuasive selling, a playful kind of thing that he engages in because of his wonder. And yet, his attitude towards the wondrous is to de-mystify it -- to research paper medicine, explain it and to master it in scientific terms.
Science, for Felix, is a kind of play that destroys itself, ridding him of wonder through investigation. Scour Vonnegut's book for instances of characters wondering, being awestruck, amazed, or confused. Why is wonder important in in educational psychology the novel? Why might wonder be important in real life? What would life be like without wonder? Is science, as you understand it, the destruction of wonder, or is paper medicine, it the heightening of wonder?
What might be the persuasive selling ramifications of science in either case? 18. Vonnegut makes frequent reference to imagery from Homer's Odyssey and his Iliad in Cat's Cradle . For instance, the herbal city in which much of the ecotect coursework action takes place in the novel is called Ilium -- a clear reference to the ancient city of Troy where Odysseus fought in the Trojan War, and from which Odysseus leaves and is lost at sea having offended Poseidon, god of the oceans. In Chapter 33 of Cat's Cradle , it is said There wasn't a man in Ilium City who wasn't in love with her [Emily Hoenikker] -- a clear reference to Helen of Troy, who is reputed in medicine Homer's Iliad to have caused the Trojan War. Chapter 47 makes reference to Calypso -- a double entendre that hearkens the thesis about reader both to steel, Caribbean drums, as well as to paper medicine, the Sorceress who falls in thesis project about love with Odysseus. Chapter 49, entitled, A Fish Pitched Up By an Angry Sea, compares Bokonon's subjection to research, the anger of the sea, his shipwreck, and essay, his washing up on shore with a similar scene in the Odyssey . Mona is compared with the Greek goddess Aphrodite in Chapter 64, and in Chapter 74, we learn that her father is named Nestor, after the archetypal wise old man in Homer's Iliad . Medicine! Read through Homer's great works. Why would Vonnegut choose to make so many allusions to the Iliad and the Odyssey in Cat's Cradle ? 19.
Kurt Vonnegut makes frequent reference to ancient Greek mythology in Cat's Cradle . Chapter 28 compares the elevator man, Mr. Knowles, with the Ferryman over the River Styx. Research this ancient image of the Ferryman, and analyze how and why Vonnegut chooses to use it in his novel. 20. Emily Hoenikker is initially attracted to second person, Felix because his mind was tuned to the biggest music there was, the music of the stars (Ch. Herbal! 34).
Here, Vonnegut is making reference to the ancient idea that the entire universe was musical. Help! The universe was understood as a cosmos, or a good order of things in which everyone had a place and, when they behaved with justice, participated in cosmic harmony. The music that we can hear with our ears was thought to be only an research image of the cosmic music that one could only hear with one's heart or grasp with one's mind. This was the music of the la youth essay spheres. Music was thought to be everywhere at all times if we could but only hear it. Research the ancient idea of the music of the spheres in more depth. Then ask the questions, Why would Vonnegut evoke this image in research herbal a book concerned with positivistic science and the de-mystification of the world?
How could Emily see in Felix someone who was attuned to this music? Was Felix able to essay selling, hear this music? Why or why not? 21. In Chapter 34, John states, I had a Bokononist vision of the unity in paper every second of all time and all wandering mankind, all wandering womankind, all wandering children. Explain what prompted this vision. Why is this vision particularly Bokononist? How can this vision be reconciled with the Bokononist insight concerning the importance of lies versus truth? 22. Why would it be significant that the main character in the story, John, wishes to be called Jonah?
Read the story of Jonah in the Hebrew Bible. Persuasive Selling! In your essay, provide an account of what happens in the book of Jonah , then offer your ideas on research paper herbal, why Vonnegut would choose to begin his book, Cat's Cradle , with reference to thesis project about, Jonah . What similarities are there in paper herbal the two stories? 23. Chapter 36 discusses John's rejection of nihilism. What is nihilism? Why does he reject it? How does Bokononism differ from nihilism? 24.
Chapter 47 discusses the philosophy of Bokononism in terms of the old comic book advertisements that sold Charles Atlas' fitness plan. Typically, there's a little cartoon depiction of a puny guy on a beach with his girl, and a big guy comes along and kicks sand in his face. Body-builder extraordinaire Charles Atlas is shown in the corner of the ad standing in a leopard skin bathing suit; after trying the Charles Atlas work-out method, the puny guy gets all bulked up and goes back and beats the bully figure. Dissertations Psychology! As John notes in Cat's Cradle , It was the paper herbal belief of Charles Atlas that muscles could be built without bar bells or spring exercisers, and that they could be built by simply pitting one set of persuasive selling a product, muscles against research another. Philosophically, Bokononism shares an affinity with Charles Atlas, inasmuch as Bokonon treasured the sense of a priceless equilibrium between good and evil.
Moreover, it was the belief of Bokonon that good societies could be built only by pitting good against evil, and by essay selling, keeping the tension between the two high at all times. Explain what is meant by the maintenance of medicine, a tension between good and evil. Why ought one not, according to Bokonon, seek to eradicate evil entirely in the name of goodness? What do you think of this Bokononist viewpoint? 25.
Compare the Bokononist sense of a priceless equilibrium between good and thesis electronics, evil (Dynamic Tension, Ch. Research Paper Herbal Medicine! 47) with the la youth essay German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche's ideas concerning dynamic tension in the soul. How might we understand Bokonon in terms of Nietzsche? How might we understand Nietzsche in terms of Bokonon? Do you think there is any insight in either Bokonon's or Nietzsche's account of the importance of tension in the soul? Why or why not? 26. Having lived through a tide of continuous misfortunes (Chapters 48 ff), Bokonon developed a conviction that something was trying to get him somewhere for some reason. Herbal Medicine! How does this idea develop into Bokononism? How do we reconcile the thesis electronics notions that truth is of less use than lies, that the universe is amoral, and that everything is arbitrary and random, with the notion that there is a purpose to things, that there is a pattern or a kind of fated nature to things (Also see Ch.
73)? Is it possible to reconcile the notion that religion is merely a useful lie with John's belief that God was running my life and that He had work for me to do (Ch. 90)? Why or why not? 27. Analyze Vonnegut's portrayal of San Lorenzo as a utopia described in Chapters 58 through 60 ( Tyranny With a Difference to An Underprivileged Nation). What does Vonnegut see as the paper herbal primary problem(s) with utopian social engineering?
Give your own appraisal of utopias. 28. Chapter 74, entitled, Cat's Cradle, appears near the middle of process essay person, Vonnegut's novel, and it is central to our understanding of the book. Analyze the significance of the image of the cat's cradle throughout the book, in this particular chapter, as well as in the book's title as it is described by paper medicine, Newt: For maybe a hundred thousand years or more, grown-ups have been waving tangles of string in their children's faces. Ecotect Coursework! No wonder kids grow up crazy. A cat's cradle is nothing but a bunch of X's between somebody's hands, and little kids look and paper herbal, look and look at dissertations in educational psychology, all those X's. No damn cat, and no damn cradle. 29. Chapter 75 offers us a glimpse into the character of herbal, Julian Castle, who is process essay person, described contradictorily as a saint with a criminal sneer. Do a character study of Julian Castle that examines his inner contradictions.
How does this exemplify his Bokononism? 30. Julian Castle, a Bokononist, is said, nonetheless, to be a follower of Albert Schweitzer (Research: Who is Albert Schweitzer?). Moreover, Castle says that Jesus is his hero. Examine Castle's various religious and humanitarian affiliations and paper herbal medicine, how they affect the way that he lives. How do you assess Julian Castle and why? 31. Ecotect Coursework! In Chapter 76, Julian Castle agrees with Newt that everything is meaningless. Human beings are vile garbage -- like everything else. How do we assess this statement in light of paper herbal medicine, Castle's Bokononism? What are the tenants of Bokononism, and how can a Bokononist proclaim that human beings are garbage while, at the same time, adhering to the central Bokononist view that human beings are sacred (Ch.
94)? 32. There is an important discussion of the use of lies for happiness in Chapters 78-79. La Youth Essay! Julian Castle explains, Religion became the one real instrument of hope. Truth was the enemy of the people, because the truth was so terrible, so Bokonon made it his business to provide the research paper herbal medicine people with better and essay help, better lies. Because of Bokonon's lies, people didn't have to pay as much attention to the awful truth. the happiness of the people grew.
Through the use of lies, life became a work of art. Explore the relation between lies, art, and paper herbal medicine, happiness in process essay second person Cat's Cradle . What do you think? Is art beautiful and good because it tells us the truth about the research paper herbal medicine goodness of existence? Or is art beautiful and good because it lies to us, and thesis, hides the awful truth of existence, making life bearable? 33.
Examine the aestheticism (ideas on research paper herbal medicine, beauty and art) in Cat's Cradle in light of a few selected aphorisms by the German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, concerning the artful use of lies. How does Vonnegut's novel shed light on persuasive selling a product, Nietzsche's writings? How does Nietzsche help us to understand Vonnegut? 34. Examine the relation between Angela's musical transports (Ch. 81) and her father's attunement to the celestial spheres (Ch. 34).
How might Angela's shamanistic-musical trance shed so light on aspects of reality that are left out of the scientific-positivistic account of the world that motivates men like Dr. Breed? How might the Bokononist explain Angela's musical experiences? 35. The word monster comes from the Latin monstrare , meaning to warn. Effectively, monsters appear from medicine time to time in literature and, metaphorically, in real life, as warnings to the rest of us about something that we have done that has transgressed an la youth essay important boundary, or crossed a line that human beings ought not to paper herbal, cross. Describe the family members in some detail (i.e., Emily, Felix, Frank, Angela, and Newt). How might Felix Hoenikker's children be understood as warnings to Vonnegut's readers? What might be the substance of this warning? 36. In Cat's Cradle , dramatic tension is maintained between the opposed ideas of free will and determinism.
Vonnegut stretches his reader's mind between contradictory notions of la youth essay, fate, destiny, or the research herbal medicine idea of dissertations in educational, purpose on the one hand, and the idea that all is meaninglessness on the other (cf. Herbal! Chapters 82, 85, 91, for a few examples). What do you think? Is there such a thing as fate or destiny? Is it, contrary to what Mona says, possible to make a mistake, or is there no such thing as free will?
If there is la youth essay, free will, can there still be such a thing as destiny? How do Bokononists resolve this tension? How might you make sense of it? 37. In Chapter 99, Vonnegut offers us a religious image of the Oneness of all things. Research Medicine! Detail and explain the significance of this image. How do we understand this image?
Is it a true image, or is it just another lie? Can a lie tell a deeper truth, or does a lie simply fool us into feeling happy about our lot in life, and psychology, conceal the awful truth from us? 38. Analyze Vonnegut's use of black humour in Cat's Cradle . Briefly, black humour is used by authors to expose the absurdity of the state of things; the paper herbal use of black humour often entails ironic detachment; it often opposes antithetical moral understandings in a state of la youth essay, tension; black humour can be used to research medicine, demonstrate humanity's lack of a sense of purpose in an unpredictable environment, or it can be used to emphasize realisations concerning the complexity of moral and aesthetic experience that affect the individual's ability to choose a course of action. Black humour most often plays with the psychology reader's ideas of reality. In Vonnegut's own words, Black humorists' holy wanderers find nothing but junk and lies and idiocy wherever they go. A chewing gum wrapper or a used condom is often the best they can do for a Holy Grail. Find incidents of black humour in Cat's Cradle and explain how they are used to convey a deeper meaning in research paper herbal the novel. 39. In Cat's Cradle , Vonnegut attacks the idea that truth is process essay person, innately desirable and good - an idea that is all pervasive in our culture, particularly within the two major competing explanative philosophies of religion and science. Provide and explain examples from the novel of Vonnegut's attack on this idea.
What is research, your own opinion about the importance of truth? Do you agree with Vonnegut? Why or why not? 40. Not only does Cat's Cradle cast doubt on psychology, the usefulness or wisdom of searching for truths, and research paper herbal medicine, our traditional ways of doing so, but the idea of persuasive a product, self-determination and the ability of a person to control their destiny is research paper herbal, questioned. The idea of thesis about, being able determine our own destiny does, after all, hinge on the assumption that we live in a sensible, predictable, meaningful universe.
But do we? Or are we living in absurdity and constantly creating our own meanings? Provide and paper herbal medicine, explain examples from the novel that demonstrate Vonnegut's questioning of self-determination, and then offer your own thoughts on dissertations, this question. To what extent do we have control over our own destiny? Are we creatures with free will, or are our actions completely determined? Is there some middle ground between these two positions that holds the truth? Part 2: Do ONE of the following projects. (50%) 1. Create a Decalogue poster, or table of herbal medicine, Ten Commandments for Bokononists, given your own understanding of Bokononism as it is described in Kurt Vonnegut's Cat's Cradle . 2. Design a book jacket for Cat's Cradle. Persuasive Essay! It should include the research herbal author's name and title, along with some art relevant to the story on dissertations psychology, the front cover. Paper Medicine! On the front inside flap, include a brief synopsis of the book (details about the story that also serve to sell the book to prospective readers.
On the back inside flap, include information about the essay person author and his other books. Research Paper! On the back cover, include excerpts from glowing book reviews. 3. La Youth Essay! Do a movie review of Leonardo DiCapprio's recent interpretation of Cat's Cradle (Screenplay by Jake Hart, Richard Kelly, Appian Way Productions, 2007). Be sure to detail what you thought was good about the research paper medicine movie, as well as what you thought was bad about it. Was the movie true to the book? Did it leave too much out? Did it add things that took away from the book's message?
On a scale of 1 to in educational, 10, how would you rate this movie? 4. Do a poster that details your own karass ( a group of people who, unknown to them, are working together to do God's will. The people can be thought of research herbal, as fingers in a cat's cradle). Indicate what might be the two wampeters (waxing and persuasive, waning central points) of your own karass. as well as at herbal medicine, least one granfalloon (a false karass , i.e. a group of people who imagine they have a connection that does not really exist) of which you may, at times, feel you are a member. 5. Create a poster or a piece of art that compares and essay, contrasts Ice Nine with the atomic bomb. The art should embody some of herbal medicine, Vonnegut's questions and criticisms concerning the development of essay second person, both doomsday weapons. 6. Paper! Artistically reproduce the travel brochure for San Lorenzo that is described in la youth essay Cat's Cradle (Ch. 37). 7. Assume the role of Bokonon. Write a calypso that instructs your followers in the practice of herbal, Bokononism.
8. Create a poster or some form of visual representation that examines modern day scientific and technological breakthroughs in light of Ice Nine, remarking on any similarities and differences. Essay! Are there any other current-day real crises that resemble the conundrums and menaces depicted in herbal medicine Cat's Cradle? Illustrate them visually/artistically.
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Essay Form and Structure: How to Write an Essay. Do you have an essay to write and do not know where or how to begin? Before you get started, there are a few things you must know about writing an essay. Forming and structuring an essay are necessary for a well developed essay. Here are the steps to do this. 2. Narrow the herbal medicine, subject into a workable topic. Subject vs. Dissertations? Topic. For example you could have a broad subject such as politics or dogs. The topic has a narrow focus within the paper medicine, subject, such as the cost of running a campaign or the training of essay second person, a police dog.
You will need to find a subject. 3. Research Herbal? You can find a subject in many ways. You can do so by, Freewriting (brainstorming) Looking in a dictionary Reading a Newspaper or magazine Looking in a journal or notebook Searching the internet. 4. When choosing a topic think about the impact you will have on the reader and la youth essay, allow yourself time for consideration.
It should have an impact on the reader by being informative, entertaining, influential, emotional, or interesting. You’ll want to know about the topic. That means that you’ll have to do research and read about the topic. You will want to shape the research paper, topic to the appropriate length for your essay. 6. Narrowing a Topic . Some ways to narrow a topic are by: Freewriting Making a list Examine subject from different angles Clustering. 7. Once you’ve narrowed your Topic, you’ll want to coursework, establish a purpose for your essay. A few of the purposes are: To express feelings or ideas with the reader and/or relate experiences.
To inform the reader of something To persuade the research paper herbal, reader to think or act a certain way. You may want to think about entertaining the project electronics, reader. 8. Next you want to think about developing your topic . You can do the following: Freewriting List Write. Jot down everything you know about the topic in a short list. Questions.
Ask yourself questions, and answer those questions. Cluster. Start with the essential ideas and then connect ideas in research paper a cluster. Dissertations Psychology? Write a letter to yourself or someone else explaining exactly what you know about research herbal a particular idea or topic. Oj Simpson Essay Help? Keep a journal. Jot down things during the day that pertain to your topic as your thinking about paper herbal medicine developing your essay. Collaborate. Talk with other people about your topic see if they know anything that you may want to process, use in your essay. The thesis tells what an essay is going to herbal, be about. It is a brief opinion on ecotect coursework a limited subject, and research paper herbal medicine, it usually appears at the end of the introduction . The purpose of the Thesis Statement is to let the readers know the writer’s topic, and what opinion the writer has about the topic. It provides focus for the essay; it gives the reader an idea of what you’re going to oj simpson help, be discussing in the essay.
It guides the research herbal, reader; it tells the reader exactly how you are going to be developing this particular topic. It presents the main idea of the essay. You should always begin your writing with a working thesis statement. This helps you to organize our ideas and set u the structure of the second person, essay. Once your have your thesis, you may want to research herbal medicine, start with an essay map. The essay map breaks the thesis down into parts to be discussed in the body.
The e ssay map is generally one or two sentences that follow the thesis statement. The essay must be grammatically parallel. 5. In Educational Psychology? The thesis must express an attitude or opinion towards topic. For example, this is a poor thesis statement: --There are many differences between a Lexus and a Lincoln.— A better thesis statement includes the Essay Map that precedes the thesis statement. For example, this thesis statement is brief and specific: --Its aerodynamic design, its V-6 engine, and its luxury appointments make the Lexus a mechanically and aesthetically superior car than the Lincoln.— --Apartment living is medicine, preferable to dorm living because it’s cheaper, quieter, and more luxurious.— Tip: Have your essay explain exactly why apartment living is preferable to dorm living. 7. A Good Thesis Statement avoids:
Broad statements will lead to coursework, vague and research, undeveloped essays Factual statements deal on facts, there’s nothing to explain or develop as when you have a specific opinion on a brief subject. Announcements. Avoid b road statements. Persuasive Essay Selling A Product? A thesis that is too broad will cause the research, writer to present a superficial discussion that will never get beyond the obvious. For example : -- The role in women in state politics has changed drastically the last ten years.— Improved Thesis. Be specific and concise. For example: -- The leadership role of women in la youth essay state politics has changed drastically in the past ten years.—
Factual statements leave the writer with nothing to say, with no way to develop it. For example, a poor statement: -- The water department is considering a rate increase—. Better statement would be: -- The water department’s proposed rate increase is not needed—. --I will explain why our board of education should consider magnet schools.— --This essay will describe the best way to choose a major.—
--Our board of education should consider magnet schools.— --Students who are unsure of how to choose a major should follow my advice.— --It is interesting to paper herbal medicine, consider the person, various meanings of love.— --We apply the work love to a broad spectrum of emotions.— 12.
Evaluating Thesis Statement. Determine whether these thesis statements are broad, factual, announcements, or vague, and research paper, then think about re-writing them. -- I think Men in Black is oj simpson help, a really interesting movie that everyone would enjoy—. This is a vague statement. -- My essay will tell you how to apply for a college loan with the least amount of trouble—. This is an announcement . -- Having a close friend to talk to is very important—. Paper Herbal? This is electronics, a broad statement. Catch the readers attention Lead into research medicine the topic Present your thesis (main idea) Providing background information on your thesis statement, some ways to do that is by:
Tell a relevant story Explain why topic is important to your reader Present interesting images or use description that will keep readers interested. La Youth Essay? Present an exciting problem or raise a provocative question. Present an research paper herbal opposing viewpoint. Body paragraphs will have two parts; topic sentence and supporting details . Develop by examples, contrast, definition, classification Body paragraphs must relate to thesis. It must present facts and details to validate thesis. Coursework? It will also present detail that supports, explains, etc…the idea given in your thesis. It will present the material to research paper medicine, convince your reader of the validity of your thesis.
This is important because the body paragraphs are the core of the essay. A good, solid, developed body paragraph explains and develops your thesis statement. The topic sentence provides focus by ecotect coursework, presenting the point the body paragraph will deal with, and usuallly appears at the beginning of the paragraph . This point will be something to support the thesis. It is important to develop each of your topic sentences with enough detail. Supporting details involve all the information that explains the idea presented in the topic sentence. Research Paper? These details can be developed through description, narration, illustration, process analysis [explains step-by-step how something is ecotect coursework, done], comparison or contrast definition [to compare in order to show unlikeness or differences], classification, etc.
Avoid one or two sentence paragraphs. These are seen in business writing; however in academic essays an average length body paragraph ranges from 7-12 sentences, you want to have fully developed body paragraphs. Avoid ending a paragraph with a new idea. Avoid repeating the same idea in different ways. Avoid including more than one idea in a body paragraph. 7. Conclusion (asides from your body paragraph, you will also have a conclusion)
This is the last paragraph of your essay. It leaves the reader with an overall reaction. It summarizes the main ideas of the essay. Gives the medicine, reader something to think about. It looks back or looks ahead. You’ll want to dissertations, move the reader to action. The conclusion influence’s the reader’s final impression. The same care that goes into the introduction should also go into the conclusion. It is the last impression the herbal, reader has of your essay. Avoid a conclusion that is persuasive essay a product, out of proportion to the rest of your essay. Paper Medicine? The conclusion paragraph should be the same approximate length of your body paragraph.
Avoid a conclusion that is not suited to your audience, purpose, or thesis. Avoid expressions like ‘in conclusion,’ ‘in summary,’ ‘to summarize,’ and ‘in closing.’ These are completely unnecessary for the conclusion. Once you have your thesis statement, you’re ready to start Planning the Essay . You are going to Outline and Draft your paper. Outlining helps organize ideas before drafting. Outlines can be detailed or sketchy, formal or scratch.
Long writing such as thesis paper length requires detail, while brief pieces such as an psychology in-class essay can be sketchy. The formal outline is the most detailed and structured outline. It allows you to plot main points and paper herbal, major supporting details. Generally is written in full complete sentences. Main ideas are designated with Roman numerals.
Supporting details are designated by capital letters. Points to la youth essay, develop further are designated by Arabic numbers. Theses are generally done not with complete sentences but with fragments. Writers who prefer only main points in outline will use the scratch outline. Writers who prefer not to use much detail will use the scratch outline. Writers who prefer developing ideas as they draft, will use the scratch outline. This is for writers who find a more detailed outline constraining and prefer to have this outline. It begins with an idea in the center of the trunk of the tree, and the branches will be focused off the trunk so one can see the relationships between the main idea and the sub ideas. Write the research paper herbal medicine, central idea; Main points= First branches. Add additional branches as sub points.
Once you have your outline, you’re now ready to start your draft. Thesis? The first draft of your essay is herbal, referred to dissertations in educational psychology, as a rough draft. It Forms a base that can be shaped into the final product. If you decide to use the detailed formal outline, you’ll require less time in organization when drafting as compared to sketchy outlines. If you get stuck into writing the draft, skip the research herbal, troublesome section and second person, move. If trouble arises, skip the herbal medicine, introduction and dissertations in educational psychology, go back to it later. The important thing is to paper herbal, complete the essay help, draft of the essay. Medicine? Select an la youth essay idea you are comfortable with and start with that topic. You may reshape your topic to something easier to write about. If you get stuck, leave your work for a while, and medicine, come back to your essay draft later with a fresh perspective.
How to la youth essay, Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. by Nadia Archuleta 4. How to Write in the Format of research herbal medicine, a 3.5 Essay. by Jessica Marello 8. How to Write a Personal Experience Essay With Sample Papers. by Virginia Kearney 17. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108.
100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Ahh, a philosophy major? I enjoyed my one philosophy class back in the school days. I participated in a few debates myself. Ecotect Coursework? My most famous one was the paper medicine, right to bear arms. The structure of an essay is basically the la youth essay, same: outline, topic, thesis statement, intro, body, and conclusion. To meet the research, writing intensive prereqs at my college, this is how it was taught.
The different types of essays varied. There is the argumentative essay, persuasive essay, narrative essay, informative essay, etc., and each had their own requirements. I remember now that it was during these long sleepless, researching and essay writing nights that I discovered I liked writing. I wish you the la youth essay, best in your philosophy paper and would like to read it if and when you post it. PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. I studied philosophy, and their was often discussion about the disagreements between how english students are taught to write as compared to philosophy students, including everything from word choice to referencing convention.
I am working on an article about research medicine writing philosophy paper, and essay, hope to have it up in medicine the next few days. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from ecotect Sunny Florida. Thanks for your visit. This came from notes taken from one of my English classes at College, a requirement I needed for my Associates degree. It helped me greatly in all my essay writing, which earned me all A's :) PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. Some good advice though some of these points tend to vary quite a bit from field to field. Herbal Medicine? I can't say that I write this way at all, though my method is not standard. A good start for anyone with little experience.
Evi Lopez 5 years ago from oj simpson help Sunny Florida. Thank you for the compliment. Glad you stopped by. htodd 5 years ago from United States. That is great post. That is nice article on how to write an essay. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thank you for your visit and comment. Brenda Barnes 6 years ago from America-Broken But Still Beautiful. What a great tutorial. Paper Herbal Medicine? Very well done indeed Faithful Daughter.
Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. I am glad to selling a product, hear that this has helped you. Thank you for your comment. This is a very helpful hub. I am currently working on my Bachelor's degree and I have to write a thesis statement on herbal a paper that is due at the end of the coursework, session. I have been trying to figure out what and how to write my thesis and this hub has proved to be extremely helpful. Thank you. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and medicine, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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