Stephen jay gould evolution essay
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Ben Carson Tells of jay gould evolution His Journey from Poverty. By: July • Essay • 1,212 Words • November 26, 2009 • 642 Views. Essay title: Ben Carson Tells of His Journey from Poverty. Essay. Ben Carson tells of his journey from poverty. Benjamin S. Carson went from an angry street fighter in Detroit to become director of pediatric neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Carson, who attributes his escape from the poverty of his youth to the support and love of his mother, is the recipient of jay gould evolution essay numerous honors and awards, including an writing basics honorary degree from UD in 1997. His autobiography, Gifted Hands, chronicles the road from a broken home and poor self-esteem to his life today. His second book, Think Big, elaborates on stephen evolution essay his philosophy of success in life, and his newest book, The Big Picture, offers an in-depth look at a professional surgeon's life, as well as his perspectives on priorities, race, society, success and living out a life of faith in a complex world. He and his wife, Candy, created a program known as the Carson Scholars Fund, for writing basics students in grades four through 12 in Maryland, Delaware and Washington, D.C., who meet high standards of stephen jay gould academic achievement and humanitarian service.
These remarks, presented at UD's 151st Commencement exercises May 27, are printed with permission of Benjamin S. Carson Sr., M.D. Essays. Congratulations to all the graduates. You know that a Commencement builds dreams. I think back on a time when I was in evolution essay your seat and integral research also even much further back than that, when I was a youngster sometimes spending hours sitting in the hallways of Detroit's Receiving Hospital or Boston City Hospital. We were on medical assistance, so we had to wait for one of the interns or residents to finish with all their work so they could see us. But, I used to entertain myself by jay gould evolution listening to the PA system: Dr. Jones, Dr. Royal Commonwealth 2012. Jones to stephen, the emergency room; Dr. Johnson, Dr. Johnson to the clinic. Commonwealth 2012. It sounded so important, and I would be thinking, One day, they'll be saying, 'Dr.
Carson, Dr. Carson to the operating room.' But, of course, nowadays we have beepers, so I still don't get to hear it. But, it was wonderful having that dream. You know, you have to have something that inspires you to stephen evolution, go on. I have to tell you that things kind of fell apart for me when I was 8 years old. My parents got divorced. My mother was one of 24 children and critical got married at age 13. They moved to Detroit from rural Tennessee, where she discovered that my father was a bigamist. (I was telling that story at stephen jay gould evolution essay a commencement at the University of Utah. Nobody thought it was that strange. No, actually they don't do that anymore in plot essay Utah, and the fact of the matter is, if everybody had the morals of the people in Utah, we'd be in pretty good shape.) But, at any rate, things kind of fell apart, and we moved to Boston. (I was in Boston this past week speaking at the Harvard Medical School commencement.) But, things weren't so good while we were living there.
We lived in one of the stephen jay gould evolution essay tenements. We became very, very familiar with poverty. I'll tell you I learned a very important lesson during that time; it was from my mother. Essay. She had a very difficult life, but she never adopted the victim's mentality. Stephen Jay Gould Essay. She never felt sorry for herself, regardless of all the things that happened. And, that was a good thing.
The problem was she never felt sorry for us, either. So, no excuse was ever acceptable, and essay she would always say if you came up with an excuse, Do you have a brain? And, if the stephen jay gould evolution essay answer was yes, then she would say, You could have thought your way out of it. Well, eventually we moved back to Detroit; poverty was rampant. I was a fifth-grade student, perhaps the worst fifth-grade student you've ever seen in your entire life. My idea of a good day was when I got somebody else kicked out of class. Because, I knew that I wasn't going to achieve, and, if I got other people not to achieve, I felt good. Royal Commonwealth Essay. You know, misery loves company.
And, my nickname was Dummy. Stephen Jay Gould. We were having an argument. (2009, 11). Ben Carson Tells of His Journey from Poverty. EssaysForStudent.com . Retrieved 11, 2009, from https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/Ben-Carson-Tells-of-His-Journey-from-Poverty/14771.html. Ben Carson Tells of His Journey from Poverty EssaysForStudent.com . 11 2009. 2009.
11 2009 https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/Ben-Carson-Tells-of-His-Journey-from-Poverty/14771.html. Ben Carson Tells of His Journey from Poverty. Critical Anthology. EssaysForStudent.com . EssaysForStudent.com, 11 2009. Web. 11 2009. https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/Ben-Carson-Tells-of-His-Journey-from-Poverty/14771.html. Ben Carson Tells of His Journey from Poverty. EssaysForStudent.com. Evolution Essay. 11, 2009. Accessed 11, 2009. https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/Ben-Carson-Tells-of-His-Journey-from-Poverty/14771.html. Imaginative Journeys . Imaginative journeys can be taken through the imagination or psyche of an essay individual as they explore, reflect and fuse together the stephen jay gould evolution seemingly intangible. When I received my schedule for the fall semester back in the summer, I read that I had Racism and Sexism in the United States.
Benjamin Solomon Carson Biographical Information: Born in essay with mla footnotes Detroit, Michigan September 18,1951 the second son of Sonya and Robert Solomon Carson Graduated with honors from Southwestern. Evolution Essay. . /wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Ben_Carson_by_Skidmore_with_lighting_correction.jpg Ben Carson : Surgical Pioneer Although Ben Carson is most presently known for . Get Access to writing basics, 87,000+ Essays and Term Papers Join 179,000+ Other Students High Quality Essays and Documents. Free Essays, Book Reports, Term Papers and Research Papers.
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LEARN HOW TO WRITE A SONG: a step-by-step guide. This easy-to-use guide will show you how to write a song, from evolution, finding a great title to writing your melody. Hands-on songwriting exercises will jump start your creativity, while ‘how-to’ video tutorials are a fun way to find out more. What comes first, melody or lyrics? How does an idea become a whole song? How do you know if your song is any good? Well, I’ll answer the first two questions in this article. The third question – How do you know if your song is good? – is answered like this: If a song genuinely expresses your feelings, then it’s a good song. Mla Footnotes. It doesn’t matter what anyone else thinks.
If a song expresses your feelings AND touches other people, moves them emotionally, or gets them on jay gould evolution, the dance floor – that’s a good song with the potential to become a HIT. So, how do you write a song that moves other people and integral paper makes them want to listen? Well, that’s where song craft comes in. ? What is song craft and stephen jay gould essay why do I need it. Good songwriters use song craft to give their songs emotional impact and create a memorable experience for listeners. The tools and techniques of our craft are not arbitrary; they weren’t invented just to drive us crazy or make us write copy-cat songs without depth or originality. They exist because, over hundreds of years, songwriters have found that they help listeners to understand, experience, and remember the message at the heart of a song. The simple, time-tested ideas on writing basics, this page will help you create a song that expresses your feelings and jay gould evolution moves listeners, keeping them involved and interested in writing basics, what you have to say.
Like any skill, though, song craft takes a little practice, so be sure to try the “Go Ahead and Do It!” exercises that follow each step. ? How does a song get started? (Good question!) Getting started can be one of the hardest tasks in songwriting. And it’s also one of the most important because if you start well, you’ll have a lot less trouble later on. You’ll know where you’re going and you’ll have plenty of things to say. There’s always the temptation to jump right in and begin with the first thing that occurs to you. You know you want to write a song – lyrics with a melody and jay gould evolution essay some chords – but you may only have a vague idea or a feeling about what you want to express. When that happens you could end up with a song that listeners can’t understand or relate to. So which comes first – lyrics, melody, or chords? My answer is: None of the above.
There are a lot of ways to start a song and you could start with one of those, but I’m going to suggest that you start with THE TITLE. The title is going to be the line that everyone remembers. More important, it’s going to define the message of the song. It will be your guide, keeping your song on track and keeping listeners interested. Think of your title as the peak of a pyramid. The rest of the song is made up of the building blocks that support it. Start your song with a title that appeals to you. Essays. Make sure it’s a phrase that rings true in your ears. Stephen Jay Gould Evolution Essay. Something that makes you say, “I’ve got to know more about that!” Because if YOU want to royal commonwealth essay, know, others will want to stephen jay gould evolution, know.
TIP: Short phrases make good titles because they grab attention and they’re easy to remember. The ideal length for a title is one to with, five words. Where to find good titles. Keep your eyes and ears open for evolution essay, good titles that have energy for you. Action words, images, or short phrases make good titles. Attention-grabbing newspaper headlines are full of good titles. Here are a few examples of titles I picked up by reading through a popular magazine: “A Dream On The Edge,” “Hiding in the Shadows,” “What You Can’t Change,” “Slipping Away.” When you watch television always keep a little corner of your mind alert for dialogue lines that capture your attention. Listen to your friends and health tourism in india family to see if you can pick out stephen jay gould, interesting phrases.
Or turn inside and listen to yourself by doing some stream-of-consciousness writing. Write or type as fast as you can, trying not to think or make judgments, then go back and look for good phrases. Start keeping a list of these potential titles. GO AHEAD DO IT – Start your title list right now. Pick up a book or magazine, or scan for interesting short phrases. Write down at least three phrases. Essay. Mix and match words between phrases, substitute your own words, play around with ideas. Try to essay, come up with at least one phrase that makes you want to write a song. Health Tourism In India Essay. Keep looking for more phrases until you have something you like.
Draw a big circle around that phrase. Then keep reading. ? Turn a title into a lyric. Here’s how. Now, let’s begin to turn your title into evolution a great lyric by simply asking a few questions – the writing basics questions suggested by your title. Stephen. If you use these questions as a guide when writing your lyric, you’ll be able to… Finish every song you start Keep listeners with you Make your song say what you want. Ask the questions hidden in your title. Every title suggests questions that need to be answered.
Some of the questions will be ones that you want to explore, others will be questions that listeners have. You’ll need to essay mla footnotes, answer both. Jay Gould Essay. Let me give you a few examples… Take a classic song title like “Heartbreak Hotel.” Some of the questions this title suggests are: What is a ‘heartbreak hotel’? What happens there?
Where is essay it? Sure enough, these questions are all answered in this great Rock standard. What is jay gould evolution essay a ‘heartbreak hotel’? A place to go when your baby leaves you. What happens there? Brokenhearted lovers cry.
Where is it? Down at royal the end of Lonely Street. A title like Taylor Swift’s “I Knew You Were Trouble” suggests questions like “Who was trouble?” “What kind of trouble?” and ‘How did things turn out?” If these questions aren’t answered in jay gould, the song, listeners will go away disappointed. Integral Thought Research. Here’s the lyric. Stephen Jay Gould Evolution Essay. Take a look to see how these questions were answered. In a big Country hit like “You’re Gonna Miss This” recorded by Trace Adkins, listeners will be asking “What is writing basics it we’re going to stephen evolution essay, miss?” and “Why will we miss it?” Check out the lyric. Tourism. You might be surprised by the answer! That’s the sign of a great song. It draws the listener in with questions, then answers them in evolution essay, a fresh way. Of course, you’ll also have questions you want to write about.
Exploring our own feelings and experiences is a big part of what drives us to critical, write songs. So, here are a few questions you might want to answer. What does your title mean? How do you feel about that? Why do you think that happened? What do you hope or fear will happen next? If you’d like to hear a lyric example, listen to “Be With You,” a song I wrote with singer-songwriter Ed Patrick. The lyric answers questions suggested by the title, questions like: Why is the jay gould singer saying this? What’s happening?
Who is involved? What is the singer feeling? Why is it important to him? A simple title like this one can suggest a lot of different emotions and situations. Ed and I wrote about the feelings we wanted to integral, express, but another songwriter could go in an entirely different direction with the same title. You can choose the questions you want to evolution, answer and the way you want to the gunpowder plot, answer them. GO AHEAD DO IT – Go back and stephen jay gould essay look at the title you circled in critical anthology essays, the previous exercise. What questions does it suggest to stephen, you? What would you like to integral research, say about it? Make a list of stephen jay gould, questions you’d like to answer. Then add any questions you think listeners might have.
Answer your questions in short phrases, eight to health in india essay, ten words will convert easily into lyric lines. Write more than you think you’ll need; you won’t use all of evolution essay, it. Anthology. Remember, it’s just raw material. Explore the possibilities. Evolution Essay. Don’t worry about rhyming, just say what you want to say. That’s the best place to start.
? Add images related words to bring your song to life. Just like a potter has clay and a painter has tubes of royal, paint, the songwriter has images, action words, and fresh ideas. Jay Gould Evolution Essay. These are your raw materials. You’re going to create that raw material yourself by using the words, phrases, and images suggested by your song title. Make a list of words and images the title suggests. Let’s say your song title is “You Make Me Smile.” To create raw material based on critical essays, this title, think of words and images associated with smiling. We can start with obvious ones like “happy,” “sunny,” “bright,” and “fun.” These are words you can use in essay, your lyric, but they’re a little bit abstract. Writing Basics. Let’s see if we can come up with words that will actually create an upbeat feeling for listeners and jay gould essay really make them feel like smiling. Take the words “happy” and “fun,” for instance.
What are a few things that are fun, things that make people smile? Parties, dancing, weekends, and vacations. Royal Commonwealth. The sound of laughter and music. Favorite foods and a day at the park with friends. A trip to the beach, a night on the town. Bright lights and crowds and carnival rides. These are just rough ideas. Try not to judge whether they’re good or not at this stage. Just write down everything that comes to stephen essay, you. You won’t use all of it, but you never know what might end up in writing basics, your song. Now, let’s try the stephen jay gould evolution word “sunny.” Obviously that word makes me think of sunshine, which makes me think of summer and essay with being outdoors, which makes me think of grass, trees, and jay gould essay flowers.
Flowers make me think of the gunpowder plot essay, colors – gold, red, purple – and bees buzzing around. So now we have a whole bunch of words that evoke mental images – bees, flowers, sunshine, parties, dancing, colors! They all have to jay gould evolution essay, do with smiling and feeling good. And they all came from starting with one or two words, and then letting them suggest more. To hear how these words are used in health, a hit song, here’s part of the chorus lyric of stephen evolution essay, “Smile” by Uncle Kracker. Notice how many words are similar to the ones we came up with. You make me dance like fool.
Forget how to breathe. Just the health in india essay thought of stephen jay gould, you can drive me wild. Oh, you make me smile. Now the listener is able to picture how the with mla footnotes singer is feeling instead of just having to take his word for it. This is jay gould essay one of the most important tools a songwriter has. Check out “Smile” by royal commonwealth essay, Uncle Kracker on Spotify, read the jay gould evolution lyrics online, or watch the video to plot, hear even more fun images and ideas based on smiling. BONUS TIP: After you have a list of related words, make a list of contrasting words and essay images, ones that suggest the opposite. For example, I wrote a song called “California Girl.” Obviously the related words will include summer, sun, warm, waves, water, sand, feeling free – a kind of royal commonwealth essay, or paradise. Evolution. Contrasting words will be winter, moon, cold, fire (contrasting with water), and feeling caught or trapped (the opposite of feeling free).
If you’d like to hear how I turned these lists of royal commonwealth, related and contrasting words into a lyric, watch the video of my song “California Girl” or listen and read the evolution essay lyrics here. GO AHEAD DO IT – Make a list of words, images, and phrases related to critical essays, your title. Write down single words or short phrases. Don’t think about rhyming or making sense of things at this point. And try not to be critical of your ideas – just write down what comes to you. Essay. Then, make a list of contrasting words, images, and phrases.
Write as many words as you can think of in each column. Let one idea suggest another and follow the trail wherever it takes you. This is a great exercise for stretching your creativity. ? Why is song structure such a big deal? Now is a good time to royal essay, get familiar with one very important aspect of stephen evolution, songwriting: Song Structure. An easy-to-follow structure acts like a path leading your listener through your song from royal essay 2012, beginning to stephen jay gould essay, end. The most common contemporary hit song structure looks something like this: VERSE / CHORUS / VERSE / CHORUS / BRIDGE / CHORUS . Listeners like this song form because it provides enough repetition to feel familiar and enough variety to keep them interested. It also gives you, the songwriter, the chance to add emotional dynamics to your song. Many of the gunpowder plot essay, today’s hit songs feature a conversational, low-key verse followed by jay gould, a big, powerhouse chorus with plenty of essay mla footnotes, emotional punch. Once you get familiar with this basic song structure, there are plenty of add-ons and variations to play with.
Some songs have a pre-chorus or extra post-chorus hook. But try using this one to get started. It’s been the foundation of many huge hits and many more to come. Here are some useful definitions for understanding song structure: – Verse: The verses in a song all have the same melody but different lyrics. The verse lyrics give us information about the situation, emotions, or people in the song.
– Chorus: We may hear the chorus of a song three, four or more times. The lyric and melody remain the same each time it recurs.The chorus lyric sums up the heart of the song. The title of the song almost always appears in the chorus section and jay gould essay may be repeated two or more times. – Bridge: The bridge has a different melody, lyrics, and royal essay 2012 chord progression from the verse or chorus. It provides a break from the stephen evolution repetition of integral thought research paper, verse and chorus. The lyric often provides an stephen evolution essay insight or revealing moment. GO AHEAD DO IT. Use the essay song form VERSE / CHORUS / VERSE / CHORUS / BRIDGE / CHORUS . Go back to the list of questions you made earlier and choose a question to jay gould essay, answer in each section. The chorus will be repeated several times so pick the most important question to answer there.
Often, that question is “What does this feel like?” Be sure to use your title in plot, your chorus! Fill in the lines around your title using some of the images from your list. Make sure your listeners understand your song by stephen, having the singer come right out and say what he or she really feels at least once in the chorus. When you have a rough idea of commonwealth 2012, your chorus lyric, move on stephen jay gould, to a verse. Verse lyrics tend to be more conversational, so keep it simple and just answer the question you picked in an open, honest way. ? Look for the melody that lives in your lyrics. Every time you open your mouth to speak, you start singing! Don’t believe me? Just try speaking without using any changes in pitch, without speaking faster or slower, louder or softer.
You can’t do it! You end up sounding like a robot. Although we usually think of singing as something quite different from talking, we actually use a lot of melody when we talk. When we talk we use pitch, volume, phrasing, and critical rhythm – all the elements of jay gould, a song melody. The only difference is in a song these elements are exaggerated and there’s more repetition. Critical Essays. So if you have a few lyric lines, all you need to evolution, do is speak them to the gunpowder plot, get a raw melody started. It’s the stephen essay melody part of speech that communicates emotion. In fact, just by changing the melody you can give the same words an entirely different emotional meaning. Try this: say the phrase “Oh, no?” as if you are asking a simple question.
Now, say the same phrase — “Oh no!” — as if you are anxious and frightened. Health Tourism In India Essay. Notice the difference in the melody? In the jay gould evolution essay question, the melody goes up at the end. Writing Basics. In the frightened version, the pitch starts higher and then the jay gould essay melody moves downward. Writing Basics. Exaggerate the jay gould emotion in the second phrase and you’ll really hear it.
Now try saying “Oh no” with a sarcastic, disbelieving, ‘you’ve got to be kidding’ tone. It’s an entirely different melody from the other two. You can use this melodic element of speech to give your songs added emotional impact. If you’ve got a lyric that asks a question, try a rising motion on the end of the melody , just as if you were really asking a question. Or, if your lyric questions are the kind that don’t really want an answer, try a descending melody on the end of the phrase. You’ll make the meaning clear and sound natural and believable to integral thought research, your listeners. GO AHEAD DO IT – To achieve the conversational tone of many of jay gould evolution essay, today’s verses, try speaking your verse lyric in a casual, conversational style, then exaggerate it a little to begin creating your verse melody. Commonwealth Essay. Keep the jay gould pauses that occur naturally and exaggerate the little ups and downs in integral research paper, your speaking voice. You’ll want to make changes later but, for stephen essay, now, this will give you a good place to start. Remember, this is the gunpowder essay your raw material, not the finished melody.
Choruses often have more energy and urgency, conveying more of the song’s emotional heart. As we saw with the “Oh, no!” phrase, the jay gould essay more emotion there is, the higher the voice tends to writing basics, be. That’s why very emotional Pop and Rock choruses work well in a higher note range. Speak the stephen evolution chorus lyric with as much emotion as you can put into it. Royal. Now, exaggerate the pitches, keeping the rhythm of the words and any pauses that occur naturally. This will get you started on your chorus. Once you’ve found the melody your lyric naturally suggests, then sit down with your guitar or keyboard and start roughing out the chords. I like to record my vocal ideas before I even start to add chords, that way I can recall the original “spoken word” melody in stephen jay gould evolution, case I want to go back to it. Research Paper. Of course, there are other ways to write a song melody but this one will give you a great place to start. Writing both lyrics and melody. If you play guitar or keyboard and you’re going to jay gould essay, be writing your own melody and chords.
Skip down to the next section for some ideas on how to find and use chord progressions that work well for today’s songs. Work on the melody and chords using the verse and chorus lyric you have, gradually smoothing and changing until you have something you like. Then write the rest of the lyric to the final melody. If you’re going to be looking for a collaborator to put music to your lyrics, then you should go ahead and finish the lyric now. In India. Filling in the rest of the lyric while sustaining the emotional tone of stephen evolution, what you’ve done is a tough job but if you’ve gotten this far, you can do the rest. IMPORTANT TIP ON RHYMING: Don’t twist words out of order or write a line just to make something rhyme!
A ‘vowel rhyme’ — rhymes like love/enough or mine/time/sigh with the same vowel sound but different final consonants — will work just fine for popular songs. (Songs for musical theater are different – they usually do require perfect rhymes.) Check out a web site like Rhymedesk.com or B-rhymes.com to mla footnotes, find lists of evolution essay, interesting, closely rhyming words to use. Know when to take a break. Work on your lyric for short periods of time. If you’re not getting anything usable, walk away… literally. Essay With. Take a walk and let things settle for stephen evolution, awhile.
Keep the lyrics you’ve written on a desk or table where you can easily add a word or thought when it strikes you. Keep the hit song melody in your head. The most important thing (and the most difficult) is to keep the emotional integrity of the song intact. Don’t settle for integral research, anything less. There are times when you’ll lose your way. Stop working! Go away and come back when you’re fresh. You’ll be able to see what needs to be fixed. Stephen Essay. Keep working on commonwealth 2012, the lyric until you are genuinely moved and excited by jay gould, it. Many songwriters begin their songs by tourism essay, strumming a chord or playing two or three chords to inspire a mood, a melody idea, or a lyric theme.
Today’s hit songs often use simple, repetitive chord progressions, relying on the melody to evolution, keep things interesting, melodies with a lot of forward momentum and unexpected twists. The Gunpowder. To hear this style, check out hit songs by artists like Ed Sheeran, OneRepublic, or Kelly Clarkson. You don’t have to reinvent the wheel. There are loads of jay gould evolution essay, useful chord progressions that depend on just three to four basic chords. While song melodies and lyrics are copyrighted, in general, these familiar chord progressions are not. C-Am-F-G belongs to everyone! You can use this type of generic chord progression in your own songs.
I’m going to suggest that, for now, you do just that. These progressions aren’t hard to pick up. Listen to the gunpowder, a recent hit song and learn to play along on either guitar or keyboards. There are many YouTube videos that will show you how to stephen jay gould evolution essay, play recent hits. In India. There are also “fake books” with chords and websites with the chord progressions for hundreds of essay, hit songs. Integral. Just do a quick web search using the song title and the word “chords.”
If you decide to use one of these chord progressions to practice writing a song of your own, just be sure you don’t use any of the melody or lyric from the stephen essay hit song. Essays. These are protected by the copyright law. If you already have an idea for your melody, you can hunt for the chords that fit. If you don’t play piano or guitar, take a few lessons. There are ‘instant’ piano and essay guitar courses you can buy online that will teach you to read and play chords. Check out my Resources page for a good one. Or you can take a few lessons from a local music teacher. Many music stores offer lessons. Your local community center or college may have classes. Or ask friends and neighbors to refer a teacher. If you decide to take lessons, be sure to tell the teacher you want to learn to essay, read and play CHORDS.
You don’t need to evolution, learn note reading. In general, songwriters don’t have to be great musicians. Health. We know chords, we know song craft, we know how to evolution essay, follow our emotions – none of this has anything to do with how many dazzling riffs and licks you can play. Just strum or chord along with your voice and keep the emotional feel front and critical center. Here’s a resource for those of you who don’t play an instrument – and even those who do! Karaoke tracks offer an evolution instant backing track that can inspire ideas and integral thought research get you singing your lyrics to stephen jay gould, a contemporary beat. Go ahead and write a song for friends and family or just for songwriting practice. The track itself is copyrighted but generally the chords are not.
If you want to essays, pitch your song commercially, you’ll need to record a new instrumental track. You can keep the chords or adapt if needed. Many of evolution essay, today’s top TV dramas and films use songs to add mood, energy, and research atmosphere to scenes. A lyric with a single, strong emotional focus is ideal for evolution essay, this use. Writing Basics. If you’re interested in evolution essay, this market, begin to study how songs are used in commercials, TV shows, and films. Notice how they enhance and deepen the effect of the scene. As an exercise, choose a scene and try writing a song that would work with it. Record your vocal and a simple guitar or piano part, then play it softly under the scene to integral thought, see if it increases the emotional impact. For more information, read my book “Shortcuts to evolution essay, Songwriting for essay, Film TV” available at Amazon.com. So let’s say you have this fabulous lyric. It’s got emotion and good song craft but you don’t play guitar or keyboards.
Maybe writing melodies just isn’t your strength. Or you’re a musician who doesn’t write lyrics. Time to look for essay, a co-writer! Before you show your lyric or melody to critical, a co-writer, before you enter it in a contest, or otherwise spread it around, it’s a good idea to copyright it with the U.S. Library of Congress.
You’ll find online registration forms, printable forms, FAQ, and instructions at the Copyright Office web site. There’s a fee for each form you file, but you can register groups of lyrics or songs on a single form to save money. Back to the hunt for collaborators… Idea #1: Check out the Collaboration Corner at jay gould TAXI.com. You don’t have to be a TAXI member to join in the forum discussions and meet collaborators. Not only are these folks serious about writing songs, most of them are actively pitching to critical anthology essays, TAXI’s opportunities – a BIG plus! Idea #2: Universities and community colleges in stephen essay, your area will have a music department.
Talk to in india, one of the teachers or post a sign on a bulletin board letting people know you’re looking for co-writers and what style you write in. Also, check to see if there is a campus club or group interested in music or songwriting. Idea #3: Check out clubs in your area that feature local artists. When you find an artist or band playing the kind of music you’re interested in, ask if they’re willing to co-write. When they tell you they write all their own songs, tell them you’d like to collaborate on songs to pitch to publishers for other artists. They’ll be interested. Idea #4: Check out local music stores. They usually have a guitar or piano teacher or they can put you in touch with one. The teacher might be interested in writing with you or may know a student who is looking for a collaborator.
Once you’ve written a strong song with a memorable melody, emotionally evocative lyric, and good structure that keeps the listener’s attention, you’ll want to evolution essay, make a demo to show it off. Advances in recording technology have revolutionized home recording. It’s now relatively easy and affordable to put together a home demo studio. Although a course in home recording is beyond the scope of this article, here are a couple of critical essays, ways to get started… HOME MIDI STUDIOS: There are many inexpensive software programs that include both MIDI sequencers (for use with MIDI keyboards) and evolution essay audio recording capability (to record vocals and guitar). Acid Music Studio is an inexpensive sequencer and it comes with a huge library of loops that make assembling a track a breeze. For Mac users there’s Garageband for the gunpowder essay, MAC . It’s included in the iLife software package.
You’ll need a MIDI keyboard for use with both of these programs. Apple has one for under $100. Yamaha makes a good inexpensive keyboard. SONGWRITING SOFTWARE: There’s a unique software program called Band-In-A-Box that I like a lot! BIAB is like having a song collaborator who never tells you your ideas are lousy. It will create a chord progression or you can type one in or play one on stephen jay gould evolution essay, a MIDI keyboard. It will create a drum, bass, piano, guitar, and string arrangement based on writing basics, your chords.
BIAB will even create a melody and a title! It’s inexpensive, fun, creative, and a great place to start a song from scratch! To find out more, visit my Resources page. Stephen Jay Gould Essay. There are versions for royal commonwealth essay, both PC (BIAB for Windows) and Mac (BIAB for Mac) . DEMO SERVICES: There are many good recording studios and demo services that can produce all or part of stephen jay gould, your demo. They can record the instrumental tracks so you can do your vocal at home, or they can give provide just the guitar or drums. Writing Basics. You’ll have a chance to evolution, give input or talk with the producer ahead of time. I suggest giving the service an in india idea of what you want by playing existing songs with a similar style, sound, or feel.
Here’s a list of services and online musicians I’ve used. Of course, all I have given you here is a doorway into songwriting. There are other ways to approach songwriting but they’re just other doors. Jay Gould Evolution Essay. Once you go through the door, that’s when you really begin to learn. Everything you need to know is right there on the radio, in your CD collection or on health in india essay, your iPod. Study songs by your favorite artists to learn what they’re doing. Essay. Here’s a list of hit songs that I’ve posted with a look at what makes them tick. You’ll find tips on writing basics, how to essay, use these ideas in songs of your own. You don’t need to reinvent the wheel every time you write a song. Stand on the shoulders of critical, giants; use what others have discovered and stephen jay gould build on it. Make it your own!
Don’t worry that you’ll end up sounding like someone else – you’ll always sound just like you . Mla Footnotes. No one else has your creative ideas, your voice, your thoughts, or your talents!
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Revolutions in evolution: Stephen Jay Gould in perspective
2015-16 Report on Plans and Priorities (RPP) The Honourable Steven Blaney, P.C., M.P. Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness. As Canada's Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness, I am pleased to present to Parliament the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) Report on Plans and Priorities for stephen jay gould evolution the 201516 fiscal year. Health Tourism In India Essay? Our Government is committed to advancing public safety throughout Canada. CSC contributes to this commitment by strengthening offender accountability and by providing the tools offenders need to become law-abiding and contributing members of society. Our Government will enhance the continuum of jay gould, mental health care provided to offenders, who are identified as needing care, through assessment, management, intervention and staff training, all with rigorous oversight. We will continue fighting the essay 2012 presence of illicit drugs in federal institutions to decrease the number of drug-related incidents and help offenders address their substance abuse issues. We will continue to put the rights of victims first with a responsive and timely range of services including ongoing outreach, timely notifications, listening and responding to victims’ concerns, and by the full implementation of the Canadian Victims Bill of Rights , which will help CSC to further enhance the support it provides to stephen jay gould evolution victims. This report establishes the anthology way forward for the coming fiscal year, and outlines the important work that CSC does to help enhance public safety. The Honourable Steven Blaney, P.C., M.P. Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness.
Section I: Organizational Expenditure Overview. Minister : The Honourable Steven Blaney, P.C., M.P. Ministerial portfolio : Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness. The purpose of the federal correctional system, as defined in law, is to contribute to the maintenance of evolution essay, a just, peaceful and safe society by carrying out sentences imposed by plot essay, courts through the essay safe and humane custody and supervision of offenders; and by assisting the rehabilitation of offenders and essays their safe reintegration into the community as law-abiding citizens through the provision of stephen evolution essay, programs in critical essays penitentiaries and in the community ( Corrections and Conditional Release Act , s.3). The Correctional Service of Canada, as part of the criminal justice system and respecting the jay gould evolution rule of law, contributes to writing basics public safety by actively encouraging and assisting offenders to jay gould evolution essay become law-abiding citizens, while exercising reasonable, safe, secure and humane control. The Correctional Service of Canada’s (CSC) responsibilities are derived from the Corrections and paper Conditional Release Act and the Corrections and Conditional Release Regulations . Jay Gould Essay? The Act and Regulations direct CSC to be responsible for: the care, custody and supervision of essay, offenders: CSC manages institutions for men and women, mental health treatment centres, Aboriginal healing lodges, community correctional centres, and parole offices where offenders under conditional release are supervised in the community. CSC provides services across the country in small and large urban centres, as well as in remote northern Inuit communities. Stephen Jay Gould? On a typical day during 201314, CSC was responsible for 22,969 offenders, 15,215 of whom were in federal custody (including temporary detainees Footnote 1 ) and 7,754 who were supervised in the community. the provision of interventions: CSC encourages and assists offenders to be accountable for their behaviour and rehabilitation by delivering a continuum of correctional interventions that contribute to successful reintegration into the community. Mla Footnotes? CSC delivers the most relevant, appropriate and effective interventions to stephen essay address the risks and needs of the writing basics offender population while in custody or under community supervision. the preparation of offenders for release: CSC staff work with inmates and partners to establish viable plans to prepare inmates for release. This includes pre-release case preparation, developing release plans, presenting cases to the Parole Board of Canada, and developing community strategies to ensure the safe release of inmates into the community. the supervision of evolution, offenders on conditional release: CSC provides an integrated continuum of supervision, accommodation, employment and intervention in the effective management of offenders, in order to contribute to public safety. public education about the operations of CSC: CSC works to build partnerships with Canadian communities, to foster understanding of correctional programs and processes among Canadians, to boost public support for safe reintegration, and to demonstrate that CSC’s ultimate goal is to contribute to essay public safety.
The Act also requires CSC to develop, implement and evolution essay monitor correctional policies, programs and practices that respect gender, ethnic, cultural and linguistic differences and are responsive to the specific needs of women, men, Aboriginal peoples and other groups. Writing Basics? As well, it requires that CSC provide essential health care services and jay gould reasonable access to thought research non-essential mental health care that will contribute to inmates’ rehabilitation and successful reintegration into essay the community. The Act mandates CSC to provide services to victims of crime, such as information sharing and awareness building to support victims. Writing Basics? CSC constantly assesses and adjusts the allocation of resources to stephen essay ensure effective and efficient offender rehabilitation. CSC strives to achieve administrative efficiencies through streamlining its operations and program delivery. These and other related initiatives optimize available resources for CSC’s key priorities and core mandate, and ensure that the tourism in india essay organization continues to deliver strong public safety results for Canadians. Strategic Outcome and Program Alignment Architecture (PAA) Strategic Outcome: The custody, correctional interventions, and supervision of offenders in communities and in institutions, contribute to public safety. 1.0 Program: Custody 1.1 Sub-program: Institutional Management and Support 1.2 Sub-program: Institutional Security 1.2.1 Sub-sub-program: Intelligence and Supervision 1.2.2 Sub-sub-program: Drug Interdiction 1.3 Sub-program: Institutional Health Services 1.3.1 Sub-sub-program: Clinical and Public Health Services 1.3.2 Sub-sub-program: Mental Health Services 1.4 Sub-program: Institutional Services 1.4.1 Sub-sub-program: Food Services 1.4.2 Sub-sub-program: Accommodation Services 2.0 Program: Correctional Interventions 2.1 Sub-program: Offender Case Management 2.2 Sub-program: Community Engagement 2.3 Sub-program: Spiritual Services 2.4 Sub-program: Correctional Reintegration Program 2.4.1 Sub-sub-program: Violence Prevention Program 2.4.2 Sub-sub-program: Substance Abuse Program 2.4.3 Sub-sub-program: Family Violence Prevention Program 2.4.4 Sub-sub-program: Sex Offender Program 2.4.5 Sub-sub-program: Maintenance Program 2.4.6 Sub-sub-program: Social Program 2.4.7 Sub-sub-program: Integrated Correctional Program Model 2.5 Sub-program: Offender Education 2.6 Sub-program: CORCAN Employment and Employability 3.0 Program: Community Supervision 3.1 Sub-program: Community Management and Security 3.2 Sub-program: Community-Based Residential Facilities 3.2.1 Sub-sub-program: Community Residential Facilities 3.2.2 Sub-sub-program: Community Correctional Centres 3.3 Sub-program: Community Health Services 4.0 Program: Internal Services.
CSC’s priorities stem from its mission, legislative framework and risk profile. They provide specific focus for the organization’s direction, programs and initiatives. All priorities listed below are equally important. Stephen? CSC reviewed and updated its corporate priorities in 2014. Building on previous iterations, CSC’s corporate priorities provide clarity of intervention, reflect CSC’s current operating environment, and position the thought organization for the future. CSC's organizational priorities for 201516 are: Safe management of eligible offenders during their transition from the institution to the community, and while on supervision Safety and security of members of the public, victims, staff and offenders in our institutions and in the community Effective, culturally appropriate interventions for First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders Mental health needs of offenders addressed through timely assessment, effective management and stephen jay gould evolution appropriate intervention, relevant staff training and rigorous oversight Efficient and writing basics effective management practices that reflect values-based leadership in a changing environment Productive relationships with diverse partners, stakeholders, victims’ groups, and others involved in public safety. Strategic Outcome: The custody, correctional interventions, and supervision of offenders in communities and institutions, contribute to public safety. Custody Correctional Interventions Community Supervision. Why is jay gould essay this a priority?
The majority of offenders will be released into Canadian communities. CSC tightened its focus in this priority, revised to stress the importance of safe and effective management of offenders as they prepare for release as well as while they are being supervised in the community. What are the health tourism essay plans for meeting this priority? CSC will continue to achieve this priority by maintaining secure institutional environments to support the delivery of nationally-recognized correctional programs (in both institutions and communities), based on offenders' assessed risks and needs to correct criminal behaviour and reduce reoffending. CSC will continue to improve the reliability and validity of assessment processes, and stephen jay gould evolution provide evidence-based correctional interventions to increase public safety results for Canadians, including the expansion of the 2012 implementation of the Integrated Correctional Program Model. Correctional plans will continue to be developed and regularly updated for all offenders, and will continue to include measures of offender accountability.
CSC will begin implementing the evolution essay Structured Assessment and Intervention Framework to deliver case management assessment, intervention, and supervision in a more efficient and effective way. Health care services will be enhanced in order to meet offenders' individual physical and mental health care needs consistent with professional standards and CSC policies. CSC will continue to offer educational, vocational, employment and social programs, as well as other initiatives to assist in the safe transition of offenders into the community. CSC will continue to support community-based initiatives across the country that contribute to the successful transition of offenders in communities and minimize reoffending. Faith-based services continue to support offenders as they transition from institutions back to communities. CSC will continue to deliver training for parole officers and the gunpowder essay ensure that training components are evidence-based and kept up to date. As well, CSC developed a new National Training Standard for Sentence Management staff to ensure offender eligibility is determined appropriately and in line with law and policy.
Strategic Outcome: The custody, correctional interventions, and supervision of offenders in communities and institutions, contribute to public safety. Custody Correctional Interventions Community Supervision. Why is this a priority? CSC is committed to preventing violent behaviour and to maintaining a safe living and working environment in all CSC facilities, thereby ensuring the safety and security of victims, staff and offenders in its institutions and in the community. The safety of members of the public and victims, as it relates to interactions with offenders or time spent on CSC property, has always been of stephen evolution, prime importance for CSC. This updated corporate priority unequivocally identifies their safety and security as a priority for the organization. What are the plans for meeting this priority? CSC will continue to implement its comprehensive population management approach that includes offender risk and needs assessments, and strategies for the gunpowder plot essay managing occupancy, including temporary accommodation such as double bunking where necessary. CSC will continue to maintain and improve the condition of its facilities. CSC will enhance protocols that increase the safety and security of operational sites, including security intelligence, search plans, dynamic security, and monitoring at principal entrances to prevent entry of drugs and evolution essay other contraband in institutions.
CSC will develop a Segregation Renewal Strategy to reframe how segregation is mla footnotes used in CSC and to strengthen oversight and decision making. CSC will ensure that victims are provided with a safe and secure environment when they are in institutions and will develop protocols to provide them with support and essay access to services in line with legislation. CSC will continue to develop and implement a long-term national approach for the safety of staff who work in the community. CSC will continue to review and evaluate emerging technologies, and where appropriate, adapt them to the correctional environment. CSC's emergency management plans will continue to tourism in india essay enable CSC to react to emergency situations quickly and effectively, should they arise. Strategic Outcome: The custody, correctional interventions, and supervision of offenders in communities and stephen jay gould essay institutions, contribute to public safety. Custody Correctional Interventions Community Supervision. Why is this a priority? Aboriginal offenders, who account for commonwealth 2012 just over 21% Footnote 3 of the stephen evolution overall CSC population, have specific cultural and spiritual needs that must be addressed to support their rehabilitation.
CSC tightened the focus in this priority statement, demonstrating the importance of actively providing support and resources that Aboriginal offenders need to return to and remain in their communities as law-abiding and contributing members of society. What are the plans for essay mla footnotes meeting this priority? CSC will continue to strengthen the Aboriginal Corrections Accountability Framework with the ongoing implementation of jay gould, programs, policies, services and commonwealth essay 2012 interventions that are culturally appropriate and effective, leading to better results for Aboriginal offenders. CSC will continue to enhance its policy framework to address any systemic barriers to effectively managing Aboriginal offenders. In addition, CSC will continue to improve collaboration with Aboriginal communities and partners to strengthen initiatives that support the stephen jay gould safe reintegration of Aboriginal offenders such as the Aboriginal Continuum of Care and Circles of Communication. CSC will strive to the gunpowder plot improve community capacity, strengthen partnerships and promote the use of Section 84 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA) to facilitate the release of stephen essay, Aboriginal offenders who want to return to an Aboriginal community.
CSC will streamline the performance measures of the writing basics Aboriginal Correctional Accountability Framework to focus on reporting relevant correctional outcomes. Strategic Outcome: The custody, correctional interventions, and supervision of offenders in communities and institutions, contribute to jay gould evolution essay public safety. Custody Correctional Interventions Community Supervision. Essay? Why is this a priority? Offenders with mental health needs require care for improved health that will contribute to their rehabilitation and successful reintegration into the community. In order for evolution essay CSC to engage offenders in a rehabilitation process that will address the criminogenic factors that led to criminal behaviour, it must address their mental health needs through assessment, management and intervention. This corporate priority was revised to reflect the five pillars of the Mental Health Action Plan for Federal Offenders announced in essays May of 2014 which are assessment, management, intervention, staff training, and oversight. What are the stephen jay gould evolution plans for meeting this priority? CSC will continue to implement its comprehensive mental health strategy. In 2015-16, it will focus on essay, correctional results for offenders with mental health needs.
CSC will strengthen the continuum of mental health care throughout the duration of offenders' sentences and will increase collaboration with other jurisdictions to provide mental health services for offenders. Strategic Outcome: The custody, correctional interventions, and supervision of offenders in communities and institutions, contribute to stephen jay gould evolution public safety. Why is this a priority? To maximize its operability, CSC must adapt to the changing environment and continuously develop, review and modernize its policies, programs and procedures to deliver on its mandate in the most effective, efficient and economic manner. CSC employs more than 18,000 staff working in institutions, parole offices and headquarters across the country. As a large and decentralized organization, CSC must effectively and efficiently manage a diverse and with segmented operational system and jay gould evolution essay maintain professional standards and operating practices. CSC's management practices are anchored in commonwealth essay 2012 the organization's Values Statement, thus supporting its workforce, workplace and strategic outcome. This corporate priority was revised to add a particular focus on the challenges that arise from managing in a time of jay gould essay, significant change. What are the plans for meeting this priority? CSC will complete the implementation of its Strategic Plan for Human Resource Management that includes recruitment, retention, training, support for gender and linguistic duality and cultural diversity.
CSC will implement its five-year evaluation plan, its three-year audit plan, its research plan and its Performance Management Framework, all of which enhance knowledge and support effective decision making. CSC will enhance management practices by advancing the implementation of the writing basics Treasury Board Policy on Internal Control and continue to improve its costing and financial forecasting approaches. It will continue to streamline the procurement and lifecycle of equipment and modernize food service delivery and preparation. CSC's IM/IT plan will be updated and reviewed to essay ensure it continues to support CSC's requirements. Through all these initiatives, CSC management will promote and reinforce CSC's Values Statement and the Values and Ethics Code for the Public Sector with its employees, and will foster the development of strong, ethical leaders through training, coaching and example. Strategic Outcome: The custody, correctional interventions, and supervision of offenders in essay communities and institutions, contribute to public safety. Custody Correctional Interventions Community Supervision. Why is this a priority? The majority of federal offenders will be released to Canadian communities, and will need assistance and support to adjust to living crime-free in evolution essay society. Partners, stakeholders and with community experts are essential in this endeavour. In the interest of the well-being of offenders and Canadian communities, CSC partners with community-based organizations that reflect the diversity of the offender population in order to facilitate the safe return of offenders to communities.
This corporate priority was revised to incorporate victims' groups as important partners for CSC in the correctional enterprise. Where possible, mediation leading to healing for victims is an important part of offenders recognizing the harm they caused and accepting responsibility for their criminal actions, contributing to stephen jay gould essay the rehabilitation process. What are the plans for meeting this priority? CSC will continue to work on sustaining existing partnerships and writing basics developing new and diverse ones as it implements the Federal Community Corrections Strategy and evolution essay the Integrated Engagement Strategy. CSC will continue to support opportunities to enhance and optimize engagement activities by with mla footnotes, leveraging local, regional and national partnerships such as Citizen Advisory Committees, Victim Advisory Committees and other victims' groups, and the National Ethnocultural Advisory Committee. CSC will also continue to provide information and restorative justice services to victims. CSC continuously examines its internal and external environment to ensure that strategic, organizational, financial, legal and cultural factors are considered in its risk management process. This leads to the identification of risks which are then monitored, managed and mitigated. The risks and response strategies articulated below are captured within CSC’s Corporate Risk Profile.
Further develop and implement the population managementapproach, including Chaplaincy's new service delivery model, and CSC's action plans to address the evolution needs of women and ethnocultural offenders Conduct research to offer empirical and fact-based information to integral research be used by jay gould, decision makers to commonwealth 2012 draft policies and guidelines Continue to implement the Anijaarniq - A Holistic Inuit Strategy focussing on Inuit offenders Implement CSC's Accommodation Plan to stephen jay gould evolution essay ensure the infrastructure meets the needs of the offender population Ensure that the IM/IT Plan reflects CSC's need to manage a complex population. Further develop and implement population management approaches (including the management of double bunking and essay with administrative segregation) Continue interventions to reduce inmate self-injuries and evolution essay deaths in custody Continue to with mla footnotes work with key partners to help prevent contraband and prohibited items (such as drugs and tobacco) from stephen evolution essay coming into institutions Improve security intelligence analysis assisted by greater familiarity with database tools to maximize potential Adapt emerging security-related technologies to the correctional environment Maintain, evaluate, update and implement, as required, emergency management plans (security, strategic emergency, and with contingency) to safeguard the interests and well being of staff and members of the public, protect public and private property, ensure offenders are treated in a safe, secure and humane fashion, and return operational units to stephen jay gould evolution normal operations at the earliest time possible following an emergency. Anthology? Implement CSC's Strategic Plan for Human Resource Management Implement actions to respond to the analysis of results from the 2012 CSC Ethical Climate Survey Implement actions as needed to optimize financial resources. Continue to implement the Federal Community Corrections Strategyto engage appropriate criminal justice and community partners, and to help expand networks Increase volunteer involvement with faith-based organizations to enhance and stephen sustain offender support opportunities Implement CSC's Integrated Engagement Strategy Increase use of royal 2012, communications technologies to jay gould essay maintain engagement with partners including citizens advisory groups, volunteers, ethnocultural advisory committees, victim advisory committees and 2012 other victims' groups, and faith community reintegration project organizations. Continue to engage appropriate criminal justice and stephen essay community partners as part of the Federal Community Corrections Strategy, and to help expand networks Fully implement the integrated correctional program model that holistically addresses the writing basics multiple individual needs and risks of offenders Fully implement the jay gould population management approach Ensure that measures are in place to strengthen offender accountability and motivate offenders to participate in their correctional plans Ensure all correctional program policies and guidelines are up to date and address efficient and effective program delivery. Through the administration of court-imposed sentences to offenders, CSC plays a key role in public safety by implementing a comprehensive set of measures, controls and practices that help offenders to become law-abiding citizens and contributing members of Canadian society upon integral, their return to stephen jay gould evolution essay the community. The accurate identification and effective management of risks lead to the identification of priorities and facilitate the achievement of results. Risk management is a central part of daily business in all areas of CSC’s large, decentralized and writing basics multifaceted work environment. CSC operates in a continuously changing environment that requires a high level of adaptability and transformational skills.
CSC must also take victims into jay gould account. The Gunpowder Plot? Their rights must be considered at the same time as CSC assists offenders to become law-abiding and contributing members of Canadian society. As a high reliability organization, CSC implements processes and stephen evolution essay crisis management methods to integral thought research paper ensure the integrity of its operations. These processes and methods must be current and evolution sustainable 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The Gunpowder? The continuity of CSC operations largely depends on evolution essay, its ability to maintain control of its activities and to manage and the gunpowder plot essay anticipate risks. It does so by stephen jay gould evolution essay, identifying, developing, and tourism assessing innovative ways to ensure the safety and security of staff, offenders and stephen essay the public.
Information, knowledge and technology are used to minimize the occurrence of incidents, and should they occur, to the gunpowder essay manage and learn from them. Stephen Evolution Essay? Clearly articulated responsibilities and robust governance structure ensure that risks are managed appropriately at the operational level as well as at the corporate level. Strategies to reduce risks across hazardous systems continue to thought research paper facilitate the management and sustainability of the correctional environment and the development of organizational resilience. The implementation of measures, systems, and controls increases CSC’s high reliability capacity and facilitates the management of corporate risks. Corporate risk management guides decision making, and audit, evaluation and research planning.
The risk analysis and jay gould management process is ever evolving in order to mitigate potential risks, and to ensure delivery of core business that contributes to public safety. This integrated approach allows CSC to essay with handle risk-related challenges, ensure operational sustainability and fulfill its mandate. Note: The 2014-15 Forecast Spending is as of the end of November 2014. Alignment of essay, Spending With the Whole-of-Government Framework. Departmental Spending Trend Graph (dollars) Note: The 2014-15 Forecast Spending is as of the end of November 2014. Description of Figure. Departmental Spending Trend. Anthology? The above profile illustrates CSC’s Actual Spending for the last two years, Forecasted Spending for 2014-15 and Planned Spending for the next three years. Section II: Analysis of Programs by stephen evolution, Strategic Outcome. Health In India? The custody, correctional interventions, and supervision of offenders in communities and institutions, contribute to public safety. The Custody Program contributes to public safety by providing for the day-to-day needs of essay, offenders, including health and safety, food, clothing, mental health services, and physical health care.
It also includes security measures within institutions such as drug interdiction, and appropriate control practices to prevent incidents. Further develop and implement population management strategies in order to enhance public safety. Sub-program 1.1: Institutional Management and Support. The Institutional Management and essay 2012 Support Program contributes to public safety through the day-to-day management of operational activities and institutional services for offenders in custody. Key activities include administering, operating and maintaining institutions; establishing operational processes and procedures; managing allocated financial and jay gould human resources; directing and royal overseeing the delivery of integrated correctional operations; monitoring the effectiveness of institutional security activities; considering threats, risks, vulnerabilities and physical security requirements and controls; managing the intelligence function for institutions; ensuring coordination across the criminal justice system; providing a safe environment for staff and inmates; and essay making decisions and recommendations related to offenders within delegated authorities. Improve institutional safety and security by monitoring and implementing action plans arising from critical essays findings related to audits, board of investigation reports, coroners’ inquiries and evaluations related to safety and security incidents within institutions. Jay Gould? Sub-program 1.2: Institutional Security. The Institutional Security Program contributes to public safety through the development, implementation of, and compliance with, policies and procedures designed to ensure the safety and security of staff, offenders and the public, while meeting the security requirements of the essay mla footnotes diverse inmate population. Key activities include dynamic security, security intelligence, segregation, perimeter control, and the prevention and control of jay gould evolution, contraband and drugs.
Ensure effective, timely and proper cell assignment to essay mla footnotes support safe supervision strategies and jay gould evolution reduce the number of institutional security incidents. Adapt emerging security-related technologies to the evolving correctional environment. Maintain, evaluate, update and implement, as required, emergency management plans to enhance CSC’s ability to react to emergency situations. Develop a Segregation Renewal Strategy in order to reframe how segregation is used in CSC. and strengthen oversight and decision making. Sub-sub-program 1.2.1: Intelligence and Supervision. The Intelligence and Supervision Program contributes to the gunpowder public safety through the provision of security and the gathering, analysis, and sharing of stephen essay, intelligence. This is done by identifying and managing illegal activities and threats to security for offenders in institutions and in the community in conjunction and cooperation with external partner agencies. Key activities include gathering and sharing information and critical intelligence to prevent security incidents, eradicating illegal activity and supporting the case management process; continually assessing threats and risks to identify and jay gould evolution mitigate internal and external threats to the safety of individuals (inmates, staff and public) and institutions; collaborating, liaising and sharing information with justice partners both domestically and internationally; identifying and managing security threat groups; and preventing, intercepting, and eliminating illegal or threatening activities. Reinforce and formalize key national, regional and local public safety partnerships to prevent the introduction of contraband and unauthorized items into institutions and to critical anthology ensure the stephen essay safety and security of institutions and our communities.
Enhance the capacity of preventive security and intelligence to respond to and prevent threats and risks that exist in royal commonwealth essay operational setting and contribute to public safety and national security. Stephen? Sub-sub-program 1.2.2: Drug Interdiction. The Drug Interdiction Program contributes to public safety through the development, implementation, and coordination of activities included in Correctional Service Canada’s national drug strategy. This is royal commonwealth essay 2012 done to ensure a safe, drug-free institutional environment for inmates, which is a fundamental condition for their successful reintegration into society as law-abiding citizens. Key activities include assessing risk related to drug use and trafficking, detecting and deterring drug use and/or trafficking of drugs, using security services such as urinalysis, drug detector dogs, ion mobility spectrometry, and other services or devices, and reviewing the imposition of administrative measures.
Strengthen operational policies and/or procedures to eliminate the entry of illicit materials to reduce the trafficking and supply of drugs in institutions thereby reducing drug-related incidents and helping offenders complete their correctional plans. Stephen Evolution? Sub-program 1.3: Institutional Health Services. The Institutional Health Services Program contributes to public safety by providing essential health care and reasonable access to critical anthology non-essential mental health care to inmates, in stephen jay gould essay accordance with professionally accepted standards, to promote, improve and maintain offender health in institutions. These health services are delivered across the continuum of writing basics, care, from intake to stephen evolution release, while considering the needs of vulnerable populations. Key activities include disease prevention, health education as well as screening, diagnosis, treatment, release planning and the administration, development and implementation of policy and programs to maintain and improve program delivery. Maintain CSC’s health accreditation status as per Accreditation Canada standards, including the Continuous Quality Improvement Program, to ensure that health services are available to all offenders in institutions in accordance with professionally accepted standards. Plot? Sub-sub-program 1.3.1: Clinical and Public Health Services. The Clinical and Public Health Services Program contributes to public safety by providing essential health care to stephen jay gould evolution essay inmates, to integral research promote, improve and maintain inmates' health within institutions, in accordance with professionally accepted standards.
These services are delivered across the continuum of care from intake to essay release, while considering the needs of vulnerable populations. Key activities across the continuum of care include disease prevention and control, health promotion, screening and assessment, primary health services, acute hospital care, referral to medical specialists, treatment, provision of medications, pharmacy services and release planning. Health In India Essay? Percentage of newly admitted inmates receiving voluntary infectious disease screening at intake: Bloodborne and Sexually Transmitted Infections, Tuberculosis. Bloodborne and Sexually Transmitted Infections (BBSTI) 85% - 90% Tuberculosis (TB) 85% - 90% Percentage/Number of inmates: with HIV infection that are on treatment started with HEP C treatment with Tuberculosis on treatment. HIV 80% - 85% HEP C - 200 (marker) TB - 150 (marker) Continue monitoring the application of the essential services framework to stephen jay gould essay ensure CSC provides offenders with essential health care that conforms to essay professionally accepted standards, respects gender, cultural and linguistic differences and is responsive to the special and specific needs of women, Aboriginal people and persons requiring mental health care. Sub-sub-program 1.3.2: Mental Health Services. Stephen Jay Gould Evolution? The Mental Health Services Program contributes to public safety by in india, providing inmates with essential mental health care and reasonable access to non-essential mental health care to promote, improve and maintain offender health in evolution accordance with professionally accepted standards. These services are delivered across the continuum of care from essay intake to release, while considering the needs of vulnerable populations. The continuum of care is reflected through CSC’s comprehensive Mental Health Strategy developed to enhance its capacity to address and respond to the mental health needs of offenders. Key activities include mental health screening at intake, primary and intermediate mental health care in institutions, intensive care at Regional Treatment Centres, release preparation and stephen transitional care for release to the community. Percentage of writing basics, target staff trained in: the stephen jay gould essay Fundamentals of plot essay, Mental Health and the Suicide Self-Injury Intervention Refresher.
Implement the mental health population approach by refining CSC’s model of mental health service delivery in order to maximize the stephen essay efficiency and effectiveness of mental health services, and to contribute to offender mental health, safe institutions and successful reintegration to the community. Research? Collaborate with Health Canada, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and other partners on identifying research priorities and jay gould evolution essay reviewing best practices connected with the delivery of mental health services in federal correctional facilities that serve women. Sub-program 1.4: Institutional Services. The Institutional Services Program contributes to public safety through the daily operations of critical essays, institutions. This program aims to provide safe, secure and jay gould evolution essay humane living conditions for inmates. Key activities include accommodation support, engineering services, provision of food services and clothing, institutional maintenance, fleet management, telecommunications, environmental protection and sustainable development, fire safety protection, and maintenance of security electronics. Continue to maintain and improve, where required, the condition of the infrastructure. Essay? Update the 2012-2015 Sustainable Development Strategy and implement additional measures where required. Jay Gould? The Food Services Program contributes to public safety by providing nutritionally balanced meals to offenders in institutions.
Meal preparation is based on appropriate nutrition standards for Canadians such as Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide . The program meets the essay needs of offenders requiring specific diets for their faith or for therapeutic reasons. Key activities include setting the overall policy direction for jay gould essay the delivery of tourism in india, food services; monitoring food services activities to ensure adherence to standards; ensuring all activities related to stephen jay gould evolution the ordering, storage, preparation and service of critical essays, food and disposal of waste meet food safety standards; and planning for essay food service within the established budget. Maintain sustainable food services where inmates’ dietary needs are met in accordance with the Canada Food Guide. Sub-sub-program 1.4.2: Accommodation Services. The Accommodation Services Program contributes to public safety through maintenance and with repair of institutional vehicles, buildings/structures, and lands as well as related basic services for offenders. This is done so that institutions can meet their operational requirements including the provision of safe and clean living and evolution essay working conditions for staff and for offenders in custody. Key activities include the provision of basic necessities to offenders, technical support, housekeeping, laundry services, engineering services, environmental services, waste management, electrical, water and sewage, heating/co-generation of power, plumbing, fire protection, motor vehicle maintenance and operations, carpentry, masonry, painting, welding and millwright, general labour, general maintenance, and writing basics landscaping. Strengthen the management of facilities through improved governance, processes and information systems. Program 2.0: Correctional Interventions. The Correctional Interventions Program contributes to public safety through assessment activities and program interventions for federal offenders that are designed to assist their rehabilitation and facilitate their successful reintegration into the community as law-abiding citizens.
The program engages Canadian citizens as partners in CSC's correctional mandate, and provides outreach to stephen jay gould victims of crime. Strengthen relationships with the external members of the tourism in india Commissioner’s National Aboriginal Advisory Committee through consultations, in order to maximize their contributions to the enhancement of Aboriginal correctional policies, programs and operations in CSC. Stephen Jay Gould? Continue the focus on and use of essays, Pathways Initiatives as a key Aboriginal culturally-based environment for all security levels. Continue to strengthen the Case Management Framework in jay gould essay providing evidence-informed assessment and interventions relative to offender risks and needs. Review and the gunpowder essay revitalize the peer support program in women’s institutions.
Sub-program 2.1: Offender Case Management. The Offender Case Management program contributes to public safety through a dynamic process that includes interventions to assess, clarify, counsel, plan programs for, and supervise offenders throughout their sentences. Key activities include sentence management, intake assessment, penitentiary placement, offender personal development, transfers, the development and stephen jay gould essay management of health in india essay, correctional plans, and institutional and community supervision. Implement the Structured Assessment and Intervention Framework to improve and modernize training, tools, skills, reporting and quality assurance practices within the realm of case management - with the overall goal of maximizing assessment and intervention activities. Continue implementing the Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections through engaging sectors and regions and working with community partners to improve results in Aboriginal corrections. Continue to implement strategies to enhance the jay gould evolution successful reintegration of writing basics, Inuit offenders into society such as providing culturally-relevant service to Inuit offenders. Sub-program 2.2: Community Engagement. The Community Engagement Program contributes to public safety by increasing citizens’ understanding of the federal correctional process and enhancing CSC’s partnerships with Canadian communities.
Key activities include raising public awareness and improving confidence in stephen evolution federal corrections; providing victims with information; negotiating partnership agreements with various stakeholders; and creating collaborative working relationships with diverse segments of the community including citizens, non-governmental agencies, other government departments, and offenders who have successfully reintegrated into the community. Strengthen community engagement through sustaining existing partnerships and developing new and diverse ones with partners and stakeholders at local and national levels to share information and provide support for offenders which contribute to the safe reintegration of offenders into Canadian communities. Continue to engage victims of crime within the correctional process by writing basics, providing notifications, raising awareness, receiving information from essay victims, and including their concerns in decision making. Prepare for and implement the proposed Canadian Victims Bill of Rights , whose impact on the number of registered victims remains unknown at this time. Strengthen collaborative work by initiating the implementation of the CSC’s Integrated Engagement Strategy to promote, build and commonwealth essay 2012 maintain strong relationships with community partners so as to help successful reintegration of offenders to Canadian communities. Where achievable, increase use of communications technologies to enhance engagement with partners and stakeholders, including citizen advisory groups, victims, faith community reintegration organizations, and other partners. The Spiritual Services Program contributes to public safety by providing spiritual intervention and guidance to offenders, and by developing and maintaining faith-community reintegration partnerships. It also includes providing culturally relevant assistance to jay gould evolution essay First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders regarding ceremonies, traditional teachings, traditional medicines or sacred grounds within institutions or in the gunpowder the community through the services of Aboriginal Elders. The program increases the likelihood of success for a safe and wholesome release of offenders back into the community.
Key activities include directing and coordinating religious services and sacramental ministry; spiritual and cultural teachings for First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders; creating, coordinating, and delivering religious activities; interpreting the needs and concerns of persons affected by the criminal justice system to the community; educating the community concerning its role in reconciliation, and establishing and maintaining partnerships to help offenders live in the community as law-abiding citizens. Increase volunteer involvement with faith-based organizations to enhance and sustain offender support opportunities. CSC will continue to evolution essay foster these external partnerships to ensure that the religious and spiritual needs of offenders are identified and addressed with respect to CSC’s legal obligations. Maintain relationship with the Interfaith Committee on integral thought research, Chaplaincy to ensure the religious and spiritual needs of offenders are met, and partnerships with individual faith groups are strengthened. Sub-program 2.4: Correctional Reintegration Program Footnote 29. The Correctional Reintegration Program contributes to public safety by providing programs and implementing policies that are specifically designed to support offender rehabilitation and reintegration, and that involve structured interventions grounded in stephen jay gould essay evidence-based, social and psychological research.
Operating from a cognitive-behavioural approach, correctional programs are designed to address risk factors that contribute to writing basics reoffending. Key activities include the stephen evolution development, implementation, delivery and effective management of nationally recognized correctional programs. The Gunpowder Plot? Continue the development and implementation of stephen, initiatives to improve and enhance reintegration program delivery that target the criminogenic needs of offenders at intensity levels commensurate with the risk levels to reduce recidivism. Fully implement the Integrated Correctional Program Model that holistically addresses the multiple individual needs and risks of offenders in order to enhance efficiency and effectiveness of correctional program delivery and thus improve public safety results. Ensure all correctional program policies and guidelines are up to date, and address efficient and writing basics effective program delivery so that the stephen jay gould essay framework for program delivery remains relevant. Sub-sub-program 2.4.1: Violence Prevention Program Footnote 30. The Violence Prevention Program contributes to writing basics public safety through structured interventions designed to assist the rehabilitation of stephen jay gould evolution essay, offenders convicted of violent crimes. The Violence Prevention Program addresses factors directly linked to offenders’ violent behaviour.
Key activities include the development, implementation, delivery and management of national correctional programs designed to protect society by health tourism essay, preventing violent behavior. Continue to plan, deliver, and evolution essay monitor nationally-recognized correctional programs to address violence at intensity levels commensurate with the assessed risk. Writing Basics? Sub-sub-program 2.4.2: Substance Abuse Program Footnote 31. The Substance Abuse Program contributes to public safety through structured interventions designed to assist the rehabilitation of offenders convicted of crimes complicated by substance abuse. The Substance Abuse Program addresses factors directly linked to offenders’ criminal behavior, alcohol and drug use. Key activities include the development, implementation, delivery and management of national correctional programs designed to protect society by preventing substance abuse and crime. Continue to plan, deliver, and monitor nationally-recognized correctional programs to address substance abuse at intensity levels commensurate with the assessed risk.
Sub-sub-program 2.4.3: Family Violence Prevention Program Footnote 32. The Family Violence Prevention Program contributes to public safety through structured interventions designed to assist the rehabilitation of offenders convicted of violent crimes against intimate partners. The Family Violence Prevention Program addresses factors directly linked to offenders’ violent behaviour. Key activities include the development, implementation, delivery and management of stephen evolution, national correctional programs designed to royal protect society by preventing domestic violence. Continue to plan, deliver, and monitor nationally-recognized correctional programs to address family violence at intensity levels commensurate with the jay gould essay assessed risk.
Sub-sub-program 2.4.4: Sex Offender Program Footnote 33. The Sex Offender Program contributes to public safety through structured interventions designed to assist the rehabilitation of offenders who are at risk to commit sexual offences. The Sex Offender Program addresses factors directly linked to offenders’ criminal sexual behaviour. Key activities include the development, implementation, delivery and management of national correctional programs designed to protect society by preventing sexual offences. Continue to plan, deliver, and monitor nationally-recognized correctional programs to address sexual violence at intensity levels commensurate with the assessed risk. Sub-sub-program 2.4.5: Maintenance Program Footnote 34.
The Correctional Maintenance Program contributes to in india public safety through structured interventions designed to assist the rehabilitation of offenders who have completed national correctional programs. It addresses empirically-validated factors directly linked to offenders’ criminal behaviour. Key activities include the development, implementation, delivery and management of stephen jay gould essay, national correctional programs designed to protect society by preventing crime. Continue to the gunpowder plot essay plan, deliver, and stephen jay gould evolution monitor maintenance programs that are included as part of nationally-recognized correctional programs. The Social Program contributes to public safety by critical anthology essays, providing structured and unstructured activities to jay gould evolution encourage offenders to adopt healthy and positive lifestyles and to learn how to use time constructively. It provides offenders with opportunities to learn and practice social skills, necessary for personal and social development. These interactions encourage offenders to identify their own strengths as well as areas that need improvement, to help prepare them for reintegration into the community as law-abiding citizens. 2012? Key activities include the development, implementation, delivery, and management of social programs. Provide structured and unstructured activities, such as recreation, self-help, and stephen evolution essay life skills training to encourage offenders to participate in social programs and to gain social skills that help them reintegrate into the gunpowder plot essay the community. Explore the feasibility of expanding the opportunities for stephen evolution contact with family and support persons through the use of modern technology, such as video communication.
Sub-sub-program 2.4.7: Integrated Correctional Program Model Footnote 35. The Integrated Correctional Program Model contributes to public safety through three distinct correctional program streams for men offenders: a multi-target program, an Aboriginal multi-target program, and commonwealth essay 2012 a sex offender program, all of which include a maintenance component. The multi-target nature of the stephen jay gould evolution program streams allows CSC to more holistically address the writing basics individual needs and risks of offenders. Key activities include the development, implementation, delivery, and management of the integrated correctional programs. Stephen Jay Gould Evolution? Participation in the Integrated Correctional Program Model contributes to reduced re-offending and facilitates the writing basics safe and timely reintegration of stephen evolution, offenders into the community. Continue to plan, deliver, and monitor the Integrated Correctional Program Model to essay target and address the stephen jay gould evolution offenders’ risks and essay mla footnotes needs in an efficient and holistic manner. The Offender Education Program contributes to public safety by providing offenders with basic literacy, academic, and personal development skills thereby improving their capacity to jay gould evolution effectively participate in correctional programs. Commonwealth Essay 2012? It also offers them an opportunity to jay gould improve their education qualifications, increasing their likelihood of successfully reintegrating into plot the community.
Continue to develop and monitor the plans and evolution results of education programs in essay order to provide offenders with the basic literacy, academic, and personal development skills that are needed for safe reintegration into the community. Stephen Jay Gould Essay? Sub-program 2.6: CORCAN Employment and Employability. The CORCAN Employment and Employability Program contributes to health public safety by helping offenders develop and enhance their employment skills to meet the specific demands of the stephen jay gould evolution essay labour market, thereby improving their chances of employment and safe release into the community. Key activities include employment training and career planning programs for inmates as well as employment and job placement services for offenders after release. It is designed to allow offenders to acquire skills and develop the pro-social attitudes and behaviours that are valued by employers.
This is a key part of CSC’s efforts to actively support offenders to become law-abiding citizens. Note: The Planned Spending does not include expenditures funded from paper CORCAN Revolving Fund. The above financial table only includes expenditures that are funded by stephen jay gould evolution, CSC appropriation, mainly the Correctional and Training Fee paid to CORCAN and the inmate remuneration expenditure. Note: The Planned FTEs include CORCAN’s FTEs that are funded from the CORCAN Revolving Fund. Provide offenders with marketable employment skills such as “learning to work” and on-the-job skills development along with certified apprenticeship hours and vocational certificates certified through various partnerships that will assist offenders to be employment ready upon release. The Community Supervision Program contributes to public safety through the administration of community operations, including the health provision of accommodation options, establishment of community partnerships and provision of community health services as necessary. Jay Gould? Community supervision provides the structure to assist offenders to safely and successfully reintegrate into society. Strengthen management and community capacity by implementing the Federal Community Corrections Strategyto identify and address specific targets to increase community capacity and thus enhance the thought safe reintegration of offenders under supervision in evolution essay the community. Critical Anthology Essays? Sub-program 3.1: Community Management and Security. The Community Management and evolution essay Security Program contributes to public safety by supervising and managing offenders in the community, and by gathering, analyzing, and sharing intelligence.
Key activities include supervising offenders, updating correctional plans, the Community Staff Safety Program, Electronic Monitoring, the writing basics National Centralized after hours Duty Office, the After Hours Victim Notification Program and the Correctional Service of Canada Tip Line program. Explore the use of technology and software to enhance the safety of evolution, community staff members and the public. Continue to implement electronic monitoring services to augment CSC’s ability to supervise offenders in order to reduce convictions under supervision, thus contributing to safe Canadian communities. Sub-program 3.2: Community-based Residential Facilities. The Community-based Residential Facilities Program contributes to public safety by providing a structured and supportive environment during the gradual reintegration process. The program provides accommodation for with offenders on stephen jay gould evolution, parole, statutory release, temporary absence and Long Term Supervision Orders. Note: Salary expenditures for critical essays offender supervision in the community, including the delivery of correctional programs, is accounted for evolution under the Program 2.0. Therefore, there are no FTEs reported under this section and the expenditures are non-salary expenditures. Implement strategies to provide the health in india flexibility required to appropriately respond to future offender population requirements.
Enhance community accommodation for offenders in conjunction with community partners to establish the most appropriate accommodation options for offenders who are on conditional release, particularly those with special needs and/or with a residency requirement, and to respond to operational needs. Sub-sub-program 3.2.1: Community Residential Facilities. The Community Residential Facilities Program contributes to public safety by providing accommodation for offenders in what are commonly known as “halfway houses” as well as Hostels, Private Home Placements and Treatment Centres. Community Residential Facilities are operated by non-profit community-based agencies under contract with CSC and promote the successful reintegration of offenders into the community. Stephen Evolution? Key activities include providing supervision, intervention, support, monitoring and accommodation for writing basics offenders on release.
Manage Community Residential Facility contracts to provide a continuous, integrated continuum of offender accommodation services allowing for improved planning in stephen jay gould essay response to offender needs to support safe supervision strategies that provide the flexibility required to essays appropriately respond to future offender population requirements. Sub-sub-program 3.2.2: Community Correctional Centres. The Community Correctional Centres program contributes to public safety by managing federally-operated community-based residential facilities that provide a 24-hour structured living environment for the purpose of safely reintegrating offenders into the community. Community Correctional Centres accommodate offenders under federal jurisdiction who have been released to the community on unescorted temporary absences, day parole, full parole, work releases, statutory release, as well as those subject to Long-Term Supervision Orders. Ensure community accommodations for higher risk offenders by providing a structured living environment and appropriate supervision for evolution essay those who have a residency requirement, thereby assisting in their successful and safe reintegration into the community. Sub-program 3.3: Community Health Services.
The Community Health Services Program contributes to public safety by providing essential health services for offenders residing in a Community Correctional Centre, in accordance with professionally accepted standards. CSC pays, on a fee-for-service basis, the costs associated with essential health services for non-insured offenders in the community. In addition, as part of its Mental Health Strategy, CSC provides, at some community sites, mental health services to offenders with significant mental health challenges to contribute to their safe reintegration into critical essays the community. Key activities include providing specialized mental health support and services to address mental health needs (e.g., crisis intervention and counselling), and links to community agencies. Collaborate with other jurisdictions on mental health in order to provide continuity of mental health services to offenders in the community. Internal Services are groups of related activities and resources that are administered to support the needs of jay gould essay, programs and other corporate obligations of an organization. Internal services include only those activities and resources that apply across an organization, and not those provided to the gunpowder plot a specific program. The groups of activities are Management and Oversight Services; Communications Services; Legal Services; Human Resources Management Services; Financial Management Services; Information Management Services; Information Technology Services; Real Property Services; Materiel Services; and Acquisition Services. Promote the Values and Ethics Code for the Public Sector and the CSC Values Statement by continuing to update existing values and ethics training components embedded in various CSC learning programs, as well as maintaining specialized training in Values and stephen evolution essay Ethics.
Continue to collaborate with key stakeholders and increase awareness of Internal Disclosure and services of the Office of Conflict Management among staff and managers to promote the concept of plot, respectful workplaces and engage staff in working together toward this achievement. Stephen Jay Gould Essay? Hold regular and open consultations with provincial / territorial partners at both regional and national levels to ensure that information is shared among the various jurisdictions, thus contributing to effective communications within the royal 2012 Canadian criminal justice system. Continue to evolution essay support evidence-based corrections through the implementation of the 201516 Research Plan Implement CSC’s Strategic Plan for Human Resource Management 2015-2018. Continue to integral thought research implement the National Recruitment Retention Action Plan for health professionals. Stephen Jay Gould Evolution Essay? Continue to implement strategies that improve the wellbeing of health tourism in india, all staff.
Expand the management mentoring initiative to newly appointed Wardens and Deputy Wardens. Evolution? Fully implement block training Footnote 44 across CSC and finalize the centralization of the Correctional Training Program at the CSC Training Academy in Regina. Review and reassess the governance of women’s corrections. Essay With? Advance CSC’s multi-year action plan to implement the Treasury Board Policy on Internal Control and continue to enhance processes to monitor, analyze, and report on the financial situation Implement financial strategies in response to budgetary constraints and continue to enhance the jay gould resource allocation model. Continue to implement the CSC/Parole Board Canada IM/IT 201417 Business Plan. Essay? Finalize the standardization for materiel management across the organization, and jay gould strengthen contracting management. Section III: Supplementary Information. Consolidated Future-Oriented Statement of Operations. Integral Thought Research? The consolidated future-oriented condensed statement of operations provides a general overview of CSC’s operations. The forecast of financial information on expenses and revenues is prepared on evolution, an accrual accounting basis to strengthen accountability and to improve transparency and financial management.
Because the consolidated future-oriented condensed statement of operations is prepared on an accrual accounting basis, and the forecast and planned spending amounts presented in other sections of the Report on Plans and Priorities are prepared on an expenditure basis, amounts differ. A more detailed consolidated future-oriented statement of operations and associated notes, including a reconciliation of the net cost of operations to the requested authorities, can be found on plot, the Correctional Service of Canada’s website Endnote v . For the Year Ended March 31. CSC’s 2015-16 planned expenses are projected to be $2,469,054,000. These expenses include planned spending presented in this Report on Plans and Priorities and also include expenses such as amortization, services provided without charge and accrued employee future benefits. CSC’s planned revenues are projected to be $38,868,000 in 2015-16. Revenues are primarily generated by the CORCAN revolving fund. The supplementary information tables listed in the 201516 Report on Plans and Priorities can be found on the Correctional Service of Canada’s website. The tax system can be used to achieve public policy objectives through the application of special measures such as low tax rates, exemptions, deductions, deferrals and credits. The Department of Finance Canada publishes cost estimates and projections for these measures annually in the Tax Expenditures and Evaluations Endnote x publication. The tax measures presented in the Tax Expenditures and Evaluations publication are the responsibility of the Minister of Finance. Section IV: Organizational Contact Information.
Correctional Service of Canada website: http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca. 340 Laurier Avenue West. budgetary expenditures: Include operating and capital expenditures; transfer payments to other levels of government, organizations or individuals; and payments to Crown corporations. Departmental Performance Report: Reports on an appropriated organization’s actual accomplishments against the plans, priorities and expected results set out in the corresponding Reports on Plans and Priorities. These reports are tabled in Parliament in the fall. full-time equivalent: Is a measure of the extent to which an employee represents a full person#8209;year charge against essay, a departmental budget. Full-time equivalents are calculated as a ratio of essay with mla footnotes, assigned hours of work to scheduled hours of work.
Scheduled hours of work are set out in collective agreements. Government of evolution, Canada outcomes: A set of 16 high-level objectives defined for the government as a whole, grouped in four spending areas: economic affairs, social affairs, international affairs and government affairs. Management, Resources and Results Structure: A comprehensive framework that consists of an organization’s inventory of plot, programs, resources, results, performance indicators and evolution governance information. Programs and results are depicted in their hierarchical relationship to each other and to the Strategic Outcome(s) to 2012 which they contribute. The Management, Resources and Results Structure is developed from the Program Alignment Architecture. non-budgetary expenditures: Include net outlays and receipts related to loans, investments and advances, which change the composition of the financial assets of the stephen essay Government of Canada. Essay? performance: What an organization did with its resources to stephen essay achieve its results, how well those results compare to what the organization intended to achieve and how well lessons learned have been identified. performance indicator: A qualitative or quantitative means of measuring an output or outcome, with the intention of gauging the performance of an organization, program, policy or initiative respecting expected results. performance reporting: The process of communicating evidence-based performance information. Performance reporting supports decision making, accountability and transparency. planned spending: For Reports on Plans and Priorities (RPPs) and Departmental Performance Reports (DPRs), planned spending refers to those amounts that receive Treasury Board approval by February 1. Therefore, planned spending may include amounts incremental to planned expenditures presented in the Main Estimates. A department is expected to be aware of the authorities that it has sought and essay with mla footnotes received. The determination of planned spending is stephen jay gould evolution essay a departmental responsibility, and departments must be able to defend the expenditure and accrual numbers presented in their RPPs and DPRs. plans: The articulation of strategic choices, which provides information on how an organization intends to achieve its priorities and associated results. Generally a plan will explain the logic behind the strategies chosen and tend to focus on actions that lead up to the expected result.
priorities: Plans or projects that an organization has chosen to focus and report on during the planning period. Priorities represent the things that are most important or what must be done first to thought research support the achievement of the desired Strategic Outcome(s). program: A group of related resource inputs and stephen jay gould evolution activities that are managed to meet specific needs and to achieve intended results and that are treated as a budgetary unit. Program Alignment Architecture: A structured inventory of an organization’s programs depicting the hierarchical relationship between programs and the Strategic Outcome(s) to which they contribute. Writing Basics? Report on Plans and Priorities: Provides information on jay gould evolution, the plans and 2012 expected performance of appropriated organizations over a three-year period. These reports are tabled in Parliament each spring. results: An external consequence attributed, in part, to an organization, policy, program or initiative. Results are not within the control of stephen, a single organization, policy, program or initiative; instead they are within the area of the organization’s influence. Strategic Outcome: A long-term and enduring benefit to Canadians that is linked to the organization’s mandate, vision and core functions. sunset program: A time-limited program that does not have an ongoing funding and policy authority. When the program is set to essay expire, a decision must be made whether to evolution continue the program. In the case of a renewal, the decision specifies the scope, funding level and duration. target: A measurable performance or success level that an organization, program or initiative plans to achieve within a specified time period. Targets can be either quantitative or qualitative. whole-of-government framework: Maps the financial contributions of federal organizations receiving appropriations by aligning their Programs to a set of 16 government-wide, high-level outcome areas, grouped under four spending areas.
Temporary detainees are held in custody in cases of suspension of a conditional release. Type, updated, refers to priorities that were revised and updated, building on their previous iterations to provide clarity of intervention, reflect CSC’s current operating environment, and position the organization for the future. Calculation based on population numbers (total number of offenders in institutional and essay community) represented in stephen jay gould CSC’s 2013-14 Departmental Performance Report. The net increase in planned spending of $27.5M from 2016-17 to 2017-18 is mainly due to adjustments related to reprofiling of royal, capital funds from previous years. Therefore, it has no impact on the FTEs. The net increase in jay gould evolution planned spending of $27.5M from 2016-17 to writing basics 2017-18 is mainly due to adjustments related to reprofiling of capital funds from previous years. Therefore, there is no impact on the Planned FTEs. “Anticipated Ranges” are reported as a percentage, a number, or a rate per 1,000 offenders. When dealing with deaths in custody, escapes, or drugs in institutions, CSC’s objective is zero.
It is necessary, however, to put that objective in the context of stephen jay gould evolution, reality, therefore, CSC’s results will be compared to the anticipated range, as this range fully considers the reality of CSC’s past and current operational context. Total number of grievances by inmates that were upheld (i.e. Critical Anthology Essays? with a final grievance decision of UPHELD), per stephen jay gould, total number of essay, grievances that were submitted by inmates. Critical safety incidents include all deaths in custody where cause of death is jay gould evolution essay suicide or accident. Serious safety incidents include the following incident types: attempted suicide; self-inflicted injuries; accident; damage to royal commonwealth essay government property; fire; medical emergency; medical emergency not attributable to evolution essay assaultive behavior; damage to property of other person; hunger strike; or protective custody request. Research Paper? Minor/moderate safety incidents are incidents of lesser impact where no person involved in the incident incurred an injury of major or serious bodily harm. It includes self-inflicted injuries; accident; damage to government property; fire; medical emergency; medical emergency not attributable to assaultive behavior; damage to property of jay gould evolution essay, other person; hunger strike; or protective custody request. Critical security incidents are comprised of all non-natural security-related deaths. Critical security incidents include the following types of death: murder; use of force; awaiting coroner’s report; and undetermined. Serious security incidents include security incidents that are violent, major disturbances, and escapes. Minor/Moderate security incidents include any security incident that did not result in actual death, or major or serious bodily harm. Serious security charges (which include only those charges that resulted in essay mla footnotes a “guilty” finding) are laid when an offender commits, attempts or incites acts that are serious breaches of security, are violent, harmful to others, or repetitive violations of rules. “Median days in stephen evolution segregation” measures the median duration (in days) that offenders are held in involuntary segregation within federal institutions.
Critical drug-related incidents are offender deaths in critical federal institutions due to overdose. Serious drug-related incidents include any drug-related incident where at least one person involved in the incident incurred an injury of major or serious bodily harm. Minor/moderate drug-related incidents include any drug-related incident where there was at least one identified instigator who committed the incident, or one identified victim and did not have any person involved in the incident who incurred an injury of major; serious bodily harm; or death (that did not result in actual death). The net increase in planned spending of $27.5M from 2016-17 to 2017-18 is mainly due to adjustments related to reprofiling of capital funds from previous years. Therefore, there is no impact on the Planned FTE. Total number of living condition grievances that were upheld (i.e. with final grievance decision of UPHELD) per total number of living condition grievances submitted. Total number of evolution, food services grievances that were upheld (i.e. with final grievance decision of UPHELD) per total number of food services grievances submitted. The net increase in planned spending of $27.5M from 2016-17 to royal essay 2017-18 is mainly due to adjustments related to reprofiling of jay gould evolution, capital funds from previous years. Therefore, there is no impact on essay 2012, Planned FTEs. Total number of accommodation services grievances that were upheld (i.e. with final grievance decision of UPHELD) per total number of accommodation services grievances submitted. This indicator represents the “median” average percentage of sentence served prior to first release, whereby 50% of sentences served prior to first release are shorter than the median, and 50% are longer than the median.
Initial penitentiary placements uninterrupted represents the percentage of offenders who did not experience any of the following interruptions to their correctional progress within 90 days of initial penitentiary placement: security level changes; segregation placements of 30 days or more; major/serious bodily injuries from incidents; non-natural deaths; or escapes from custody. Based on 22,969, the number of essay, offenders under federal jurisdiction as reported in CSC’s 2013-14 DPR. Standards are established in consultation with the integral research paper Interfaith Committee on Chaplaincy. They refer to the number of hours of service delivery per 150 200 offenders, The full implementation of the Integrated Correctional Program Model will have an impact on the distribution of financial and human resources amongst the sub-sub-program elements under sub-program 2.4. Future Reports on Plans and evolution essay Priorities and Departmental Performance Reports will be adjusted accordingly. For planned spending and FTEs, refer to the footnote at Sub-Program 2.4. Plot Essay? For planned spending and FTEs, refer to the footnote at Sub-Program 2.4. For planned spending and FTEs, refer to the footnote at Sub-Program 2.4.
For planned spending and stephen evolution FTEs, refer to the footnote at Sub-Program 2.4. For planned spending and FTEs, refer to the footnote at writing basics, Sub-Program 2.4. For planned spending and FTEs, refer to stephen jay gould evolution essay the footnote at Sub-Program 2.4. Total number of offenders who obtained community employment prior to Warrant Expiry Date (WED) per the total number of offenders who reached WED with an writing basics, identified employment need who were available for employment in the community. Stephen Evolution? The indicator represents the total amount of time that offenders are employed in the community per critical anthology, the total amount of time that offenders are supervised in the community. The indicator is restricted to those offenders with an stephen essay, identified employment need who are available for employment in the community. The number of convictions resulting in death committed by offenders during supervision per 1,000 offenders supervised in the community. The number of mla footnotes, serious convictions committed by offenders during supervision per 1,000 offenders supervised in the community.
Serious convictions on supervision include any offence listed on Schedule I of the Criminal Code of Canada Offence Schedule (serious or violent offences). Jay Gould Evolution? The number of minor/ moderate convictions committed by offenders during supervision per 1,000 offenders supervised in the community. Minor/ moderate convictions on supervision include any offence listed on the gunpowder essay, Schedule II of the Criminal Code of stephen, Canada Offence Schedule (drug-related offences) as well as any non-scheduled offences. The indicator represents the number of incidents that occurred in with mla footnotes Community-Based Residential Facilities (Community Correctional Centres and Community Residential Facilities) per 1,000 offenders residing in such facilities. The data represent the number of events per 1,000 offenders over a one year period, where a fail to jay gould essay return to a Community Residential Facilities is recorded. A fail to return to Community Residential Facility event occurs when an offender leaves the Community Residential Facility without authorization, does not return or is late returning to the Community Residential Facility where he/she is residing after having signed out. The data represent the number of events per 1,000 offenders over a one year period, where a fail to return to a Community Correctional Centre is recorded.
A fail to return to Community Correctional Centre event occurs when an offender leaves the Community Correctional Centre without authorization, does not return or is late returning to the Community Correctional Centre where he/she is residing after having signed out. “Block training” refers to a delivery model for providing ongoing national, operational and standardized training for front-line correctional officers, in order to meet training requirements related to essay mla footnotes their duties. CSC’s ‘’Block training’’ model is adapted to each region’s geographical situation and stephen jay gould evolution essay is implemented with respect to cost-effective considerations. Excludes: Compliance, Foundation, Support, Life-Cycle Replacement, Program Management and GC Standardization.
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Stephen Jay Gould and the Rhetoric of Evolutionary Theory
essay on jay gould essay, world views Index To Other Beliefs . World Religions, Postmodernism, Evolution, Atheism, New Age etc. by Jerry Solomon. . the cherished premises or assumptions you hold about ultimate reality, human beings, and the relationship between the two. Please Note: Each coloured link within the article will lead you to a related topic on a different page of this site. However while the text is part of the original article, the links are not. Writing Basics? The author of this article may, or may not, agree with the views expressed on those pages, or anything else on this site.. In two national surveys conducted by evolution Barna Research, one among adults and one among teenagers, people were asked if they believe that there are moral absolutes that are unchanging or that moral truth is in india, relative to the circumstances. By a 3-to-1 margin (64% vs.
22%) adults said truth is always relative to the person and their situation. The perspective was even more lopsided among teenagers, 83% of whom said moral truth depends on the circumstances, and evolution essay only 6% of whom said moral truth is absolute. “Christians have very gradually become disturbed over permissiveness, pornography, the public schools, the breakdown of the family, and critical anthology finally abortion. But they have not seen this as a totality - each thing being a part, a symptom of a much larger problem. They have failed to see that all of this has come about due to a shift in the world view - that is, through a fundamental change in the overall way people think and view the world and life as a whole. This shift has been away from a world view that was at least vaguely Christian in people's memory (even if they were not individually Christian) toward something completely different - toward a world view based upon the idea that the final reality is impersonal matter or energy shaped into its present form by impersonal chance”. [Francis A. Stephen Evolution? Schaeffer, A Christian Manifesto, 1981] (All Paths.. One Destination? ) A friend of research paper, mine recently told me of a conversation he had with a good friend we will call Joe. Joe is jay gould evolution essay, a doctor. He is not a Christian. This is how the conversation went: Joe, you're an critical excellent doctor. You care deeply about your patients.
Why do you care so much for people since you believe we have evolved by chance? What gives us value? Joe was stunned by the question and couldn't answer it. His world view had taken a blow. The concept of evolution, a world view has received increasing attention for the past several years. Many books have been written on the subject of world views from both Christian and non-Christian perspectives. Frequently speakers will refer to the term. On occasion even reviews of movies and essay music will include the stephen jay gould evolution essay, phrase.
All this attention prompts us to ask, What does the term mean? and What difference does it make? It is essay, our intent to stephen answer these questions. And it is our hope that all of us will give serious attention to our own world view, as well as the essay with mla footnotes, world views of those around us. What is a World View? What is a World View ? A variety of definitions have been offered by numerous authors.
For example, James Sire asserts that A world view is a set of presuppositions (or assumptions) which we hold (consciously or subconsciously) about the basic makeup of our world. Phillips and essay Brown state that A worldview is, first of all, an explanation and interpretation of the world and research second, an application of this view to life . In simpler terms, our worldview is a view of the world and a view for stephen jay gould, the world . Walsh and Middleton provide what we think is the most succinct and understandable explanation: A world view provides a model of the world which guides its adherents in the world . With the realization that many subtleties can be added, this will be our working definition. The Need for a World View. World views act somewhat like eye glasses or contact lenses. That is, a world view should provide the royal commonwealth essay, correct prescription for making sense of the world just as wearing the correct prescription for your eyes brings things into focus.
And, in jay gould evolution either example, an incorrect prescription can be dangerous, even life-threatening. People who are struggling with world view questions are often despairing and even suicidal. Thus it's important for us to give attention to the formulation of the essay, proper world view. Arthur Holmes states that the need for a world view is fourfold: the need to unify thought and jay gould essay life; the need to define the good life and find hope and meaning in life; the need to guide thought; the writing basics, need to guide action. Yet another prominent need for the proper world view is to help us deal with an increasingly diverse culture. We are faced with a smorgasbord of world views, all of stephen evolution essay, which make claims concerning truth. We are challenged to sort through this mixture of world views with wisdom.
These needs are experienced by all people, either consciously or unconsciously. All of us have a world view with which we strive to meet such needs. The proper world view helps us by orienting us to the intellectual and philosophical terrain about health tourism essay, us. World views are so much a part of jay gould evolution, our lives that we see and hear them daily, whether we recognize them or not. For example, movies, television, music, magazines, newspapers, government, education, science, art, and all other aspects of culture are affected by world views. If we ignore their importance, we d o so to writing basics our detriment. Testing World Views. A world view should pass certain tests.
First, it should be rational. It should not ask us to believe contradictory things. Second, it should be supported by evidence. It should be consistent with what we observe. Third, it should give a satisfying comprehensive explanation of jay gould, reality. It should be able to explain why things are the health in india, way they are. Essay? Fourth, it should provide a satisfactory basis for living. It should not leave us feeling compelled to borrow elements of another world view in order to live in this world. Components Found in essay mla footnotes All World Views.
In addition to putting world views to these tests, we should also see that world views have common components. These components are self-evident. It is important to keep these in mind as you establish your own world view, and stephen essay as you share with others. There are four of them. First, something exists . Essay? This may sound obvious, but it really is an important foundational element of essay, world view building since some will try to deny it. But a denial is self- defeating because all people experience cause and effect. The universe is rational; it is predictable. Second, all people have absolutes . Again, many will try to deny this, but to deny it is to assert it. All of us seek an infinite reference point. For some it is God; for others it is the state, or love, or power, and for plot essay, some this reference point is stephen jay gould evolution, themselves or man. Third, two contradictory statements cannot both be right . This is a primary law of logic that is critical essays, continually denied.
Ideally speaking, only one world view can correctly mirror reality. This cannot be overemphasized in light of the prominent belief that tolerance is the ultimate virtue. Stephen Jay Gould Evolution? To say that someone is wrong is labeled intolerant or narrow-minded. A good illustration of this is when we hear people declare that all religions are the same. It would mean that Hindus, for example, agree with Christians concerning God, Jesus, salvation, heaven, hell, and a host of other doctrines. This is nonsense.
Fourth, all people exercise faith . All of us presuppose certain things to be true without absolute proof. These are inferences or assumptions upon which a belief is based. This becomes important, for example, when we interact with those who allege that only the scientist is completely neutral. Some common assumptions are: a personal God exists; man evolved from inorganic material; man is essentially good; reality is material. As we dialogue with people who have opposing world views, an understanding of these common components can help us listen more patiently, and they can guide us to make our case more wisely. Six World View Questions. Have you ever been frustrated with finding ways to stir the thinking of a non-Christian friend? We are confident the following questions will be of critical essays, help. And we are also confident they will stir your thinking about the subject of world views.
We will answer these questions with various non-Christian responses. Christian responses will be discussed later in evolution this article. First, Why is there something rather than nothing? Some may actually say something came from writing basics nothing. Stephen Evolution Essay? Others may state that something is here because of impersonal spirit or energy. And many believe matter is eternal. Second, How do you explain human nature? Frequently people will say we are born as blank slates, neither good nor evil. Another popular response is that we are born good, but society causes us to behave otherwise. Third, What happens to a person at essay mla footnotes death? Many will say that a person's death is just the disorganization of evolution, matter.
Increasingly people in our culture are saying that death brings reincarnation or realization of oneness. [Also See The Answer to Death] Fourth, How do you determine what is writing basics, right and wrong? Often we hear it said that ethics are relative or situational. Others assert that we have no free choice since we are entirely determined. Some simply derive oughts from what is. And of essay, course history has shown us the tragic results of a might makes right answer. Fifth, How do you know that you know? Some say that the mind is the center of our source of royal commonwealth 2012, knowledge. Things are only known deductively. Others claim that knowledge is only found in stephen jay gould essay the senses. We know only what is perceived.
Sixth, What is the meaning of history? One answer is that history is determined as part of a mechanistic universe. Another answer is that history is a linear stream of events linked by anthology cause and effect but without purpose. Yet another answer is that history is meaningless because life is jay gould, absurd. The alert Christian will quickly recognize that the the gunpowder, preceding answers are contrary to his beliefs. There are definite, sometimes startling differences. World views are in jay gould essay collision. Thus we should know at least something about the world views that are central to the conflict. And we should certainly be able to articulate a Christian world view. Examples of World Views.
In his excellent book, The Universe Next Door , James Sire catalogs the the gunpowder plot essay, most influential world views of the jay gould essay, past and present. These are Christian Theism, Deism, Naturalism, Nihilism, Existentialism, Eastern Pantheism, and New Age or New Consciousness. Deism, a prominent world view during the writing basics, eighteenth century, has almost entirely left the scene. The Deist believes in stephen evolution essay God, but that God created and then abandoned the universe. Nihilism, a more recent world view, is alive among many young people and writing basics some intellectuals. Nihilists see no value to reality; life is absurd. Existentialism is prominent and stephen jay gould evolution essay can be seen frequently, even among unwitting Christians. The Existentialist, like the Nihilist, sees life as absurd, but sees man as totally free to make himself in the face of this absurdity.
Christian Theism, Naturalism, and New Age Pantheism are the writing basics, most influential world views presently in the United States. Now we will survey each of them. Let's return to the six questions we asked earlier and briefly see how the Christian Theist might answer them. Question: Why is there something rather than nothing? Answer: There is an infinite-personal God who has created the universe out of nothing. Question: How do you explain human nature? Answer: Man was originally created good in God's image, but chose to jay gould evolution essay sin and thus infected all of humanity with what is called a sin nature. So man has been endowed with value by his creator, but his negative behavior is in league with his nature. [See Original Sin..
Fact Or Fable?] Question: What happens to a person at death? Answer: Death is either the gate to life with God or to eternal separation from Him. The destination is dependent upon the response we give to God's provision for health tourism essay, our sinfulness. Question: How do you determine what is jay gould evolution, right and wrong? Answer: The guidelines for conduct are revealed by God. Question: How do you know that you know?
Answer: Reason and experience can be legitimate teachers, but a transcendent source is necessary. We know some things only because we are told by the gunpowder plot essay God through the Bible. Question: What is the meaning of history? Answer: History is stephen jay gould evolution essay, a linear and meaningful sequence of events leading to the fulfillment of God's purposes for man. Christian Theism had a long history in critical anthology Western culture. This does not mean that all individuals who have lived in Western culture have been Christians. Stephen Jay Gould Essay? It simply means that this world view was dominant; it was the most influential. And this was true even among non-Christians. With Mla Footnotes? This is no longer valid.
Western culture has experienced a transition to what is called Naturalism. Even though Naturalism in various forms is ancient, we will use the term to refer to a world view that has had considerable influence in a relatively short time within Western culture. The seeds were planted in the seventeenth century and began to flower in essay the eighteenth. Most of essay, us have been exposed to Naturalism through Marxism and what is evolution essay, called Secular Humanism. What are the basic tenets of this world view? First, God is irrelevant. This tenet helps us better understand the term Naturalism; it is in direct contrast to Christian Theism, which is based on supernaturalism . Second, progress and evolutionary change are inevitable. Critical Essays? Third, man is autonomous, self-centered, and will save himself. Fourth, education is the stephen jay gould essay, guide to tourism life; intelligence and freedom guarantee full human potential. Fifth, science is the ultimate provider both for knowledge and stephen evolution essay morals.
These tenets have permeated our lives. Essay Mla Footnotes? They are apparent, for example, in the media, government, and education. We should be alert constantly to their influence. After World War II Postmodernism began to replace the confidence of Naturalism. With it came the conclusion that truth, in any real sense, doesn't exist. This may be the next major world view, or anti-world view, that will infect the culture. It is stephen jay gould, presently the rage on many of our college campuses. In the meantime, though, the past few decades have brought us another ancient world view dressed in Western clothing.
New Age Pantheism. Various forms of Pantheism have been prominent in Eastern cultures for thousands of years. But it began to have an effect on the gunpowder plot essay, our culture in essay the 1950s. There had been various attempts to introduce its teachings before then, but those attempts did not arouse the integral, interest that was stirred in jay gould that decade. It is now most readily observed in what is called the New Age Movement. What are the basic tenets of this world view? First, all is one. There are no ultimate distinctions between humans, animals, or the rest of creation. Second, since all is one, all is god. All of life has a spark of the gunpowder plot essay, divinity. Third, if all is one and evolution essay all is god, then each of us is god.
Fourth, humans must discover their own divinity by experiencing a change in consciousness. We suffer from a collective form of metaphysical amnesia. Fifth, humans travel through indefinite cycles of birth, death, and reincarnation in order to work off what is essay, called bad karma. Sixth, New Age disciples think in stephen jay gould terms of with, gray, not black and white. Thus they believe that two conflicting statements can both be true. On the popular level these tenets are presently asserted through various media, such as books, magazines, television, and movies. Perhaps the jay gould, most visible teacher is Shirley MacLaine. But these beliefs are also found increasingly among i ntellectuals in fields such as medicine, psychology, sociology, and education. We have very briefly scanned the subject of world views.
Let's return to a definition we affirmed in the beginning of this article: A world view provides a model of the world which guides its adherents in writing basics the world . If your model of the world includes an evolution essay infinite-personal God, as in Christian Theism, that belief should provide guidance for your life. If your model rejects God, as in Naturalism, again such a belief serves as a guide. Or if your model asserts that you are god, as in New Age Pantheism, yet again your life is being guided by essay with such a conception. Evolution Essay? These examples should remind us that we are living in a culture that puts us in touch constantly with such ideas, and many more. They cannot all be true. Thus some of us may be confronted with the need to think more deeply than we ever have before. Some of us may need to purge those things from thought our lives that are contrary to essay the world view of Christian Theism. Essay With? Some of us may need to better understand that our thoughts are to be unified with daily life.
Some of stephen essay, us may need to better understand that the mla footnotes, good life and hope and meaning are found only through God's answers. Some of us may need to let God's ideas guide our thoughts more completely. And some of us may need to let God's guidelines guide our actions more fully. Paul's admonition to the believers in ancient Colossae couldn't be more contemporary or helpful in light of our discussion. He wrote: See to it that no one takes you captive through philosophy and empty deception, according to the tradition of men, according to the elementary principles of the jay gould evolution essay, world, rather than according to Christ (Col. 2:8). 1. James W. Sire, The Universe Next Door (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1988), 17.
2. W. Royal Commonwealth Essay 2012? Gary Phillips and William E. Stephen Essay? Brown, Making Sense of Your World (Chicago: Moody Press, 1991), 29. 3. Brian J. Walsh and J. Richard Middleton, The Transforming Vision (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1984), 32. 4. Arthur F. Holmes, Contours of a World View (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983), 5. Worldviews – Some Basics. But some may object that such a view of Christianity is critical anthology essays, too intellectual or esoteric, or might say that Christianity by its very nature doesn't allow being forced into some set of philosophical ideas. It's true that one can present an overly philosophical picture of Christianity, one that makes it seem very remote from real life. But does that invalidate the stephen evolution, cognitive element? Note that the apostle Paul had no problem with considering the critical, rational aspect of the stephen jay gould essay, faith. There must be knowledge of integral paper, Christianity in order to live it out. Read Eph. Stephen Evolution Essay? 1:17,18.
In Colossians we see how Paul gave his readers intellectual grounds for rejecting the philosophy of the day (cf. 1:9ff). There are a couple of reasons for thinking of Christianity in health world view terms. Stephen Jay Gould Evolution? Over a hundred years ago church historian James Orr called for mla footnotes, such a perspective because first, Christianity does involve a lot of interconnected beliefs which cannot be picked and chosen in a cafeteria-style fashion. He says, He who with his whole heart believes in stephen Jesus as the Son of God is thereby committed to much else besides. He is committed to a view of writing basics, God, to a view of man, to stephen essay a view of sin, to a view of Redemption, to a view of the critical essays, purpose of God in creation and history, to a view of human destiny, found only in jay gould Christianity. This forms a 'Weltanschauung,' or 'Christian view of the world,' which stands in marked contrast with theories wrought out from a purely philosophical or scientific standpoint. Christianity, thus, by its nature forms a worldview. Second, Orr says, since Christianity as a whole is under attack, it must be defended as a whole; not just as individual doctrines but the whole concept of supernatural, revealed religion. Tourism Essay? The opposition which Christianity has to encounter, says Orr, is no longer confined to special doctrines or to points of supposed conflict with the natural sciences--for example, the relations of Genesis and geology--but extends to the whole manner of stephen jay gould, conceiving of the world and of man's place in with it, the manner of conceiving of the entire system of things, natural and moral, of which we form a part. How shall we evaluate a worldview?
We have every right to expect that a true description of reality will be rational, be supported by evidence, provide the widest explanation for jay gould essay, all of reality, and accord with human experience. Regarding its rational nature, it must both not contradict itself and be coherent as a system. Writing Basics? Regarding evidence, it must not only be consistent with and explain the facts of nature and history, but it must give an adequate explanation for jay gould, special occurrences in history (I'm thinking here specifically of the person and work of Jesus, including His life, death, and resurrection). Critical Essays? A worldview answers the why question in its ability to explain what we see around and within ourselves. Regarding human experience, it must both explain what we know of ourselves and answer our deepest longings and aspirations. Furthermore, we should not be surprised at stephen essay supernatural elements such as miracles and commonwealth essay prophecies, and reports of such should withstand investigation as far as we're able. Finally any truths revealed which couldn't be known otherwise--even though transcending what we can know on our own and being difficult to understand--should not conclusively contradict what we know in the range of human experience. Let's turn now to a consideration of our four worldviews.
Several factors were involved in this transition. Jay Gould Evolution Essay? One was the flowering of science, specifically Newtonian physics, which supposedly gave a rational, orderly explanation of the world, thereby removing the mysterious, supernatural elements. Another factor was the health in india essay, religious wars a century or two before which had a souring effect on people's attitudes about organized religion. Finally, there was a growing awareness of other peoples and religions which made Christianity seem provincial rather than universal. Jay Gould Evolution? Divine law gave way to natural law. Now there was revealed religion coming from God, and natural religion discovered in nature. Royal Essay 2012? And natural religion, believed to jay gould essay be neutral and universal, became the norm for what could be accepted as true revealed religion. How was it that deists retained belief in God? According to one writer, the Newtonian view of the with mla footnotes, cosmos seemed to demand a God; the intricate order of the universe suggested an stephen essay intelligent designer.
In fact, this made God seem bigger than ever. However, God was removed from an active part in human affairs. Critical Essays? His transcendence was emphasized at the expense of His immanence. Also, although God was the author of natural law, He receded behind the battery of secondary causes with which men have daily to stephen jay gould essay do. God was seen as too big to be involved in writing basics the trivial experiences of man's life. There was no real concern on God's part for the details of stephen, our lives and no divine purpose in history. Knowledge of God was emptied of most of its concrete religious connotations.
Contrasted with Christian Theism. Second, deists saw man as just a part of the thought research, clockwork universe, operating according to strict laws. Stephen Jay Gould Essay? While man was recognized as a creation of God and made in His image, he wasn't seen as essentially a sinner. Gone was the sense of the drama of human interaction with God over concerns about sin and essay mla footnotes grace and judgment. Man was now in charge of jay gould evolution essay, himself.
However, he was not truly free for man was locked in the natural system of cause and effect. Third, because the world was not seen as fallen, but rather as God created it to be, the natural order reflected what was good and right. As Pope said, One truth is clear, whatever is, is right. Not every deist went this far, however. Ethics was very important to essay deists; they didn't turn morality over to the subjective realm. Stephen Jay Gould Evolution? But wrongdoing wasn't against God so much as against some abstract ethical principles discernible in integral paper nature. However, the halfway position of deism made it incapable of standing as a serious worldview for very long. Deists believed they knew things about God, but they were limited to empirical knowledge; that is, knowledge obtained through nature. If we only gain knowledge from nature, we cannot see the whole picture, and there are certainly things about God which can't be known unless He tells us (which is jay gould essay, what revelation is). Thought Research Paper? It would seem that they were presupposing certain things about God learned from stephen special revelation without giving credit where it was due. Thus, one needed to essay either keep God in the picture and acknowledge His significance, or remove Him altogether.
The latter was the response of naturalism. Since that worldview was considered in the previous article, we'll move next to nihilism, a frame of mind growing out of naturalism. Now that God was pushed to the edge of human experience, why not remove Him altogether? He had lost all practical value; why believe in Him at jay gould all? Thus was ushered in naturalism, the essay, belief that there is only one order of existence and that is nature; there is no supernatural order. This view was discussed in stephen essay the earlier article, so I won't develop it here. Many, however, didn't see the clear benefits of this freedom.
Naturalism produced an emptiness it couldn't fill. Are we really just another stage of essay with mla footnotes, evolutionary development? Is this present reality all there is? Is there no permanent, transcendent value in the universe? The worldview--or perhaps we should say, mindset-- which emerged was nihilism . Nihilism isn't really a philosophy because it doesn't present any kind of a systematic conception of the essay, world. It is royal 2012, more anti-philosophy than philosophy because it is essentially denial--denial of real value in anything. Evolution Essay? There is no real right and wrong, no beauty, no knowledge, etc.
A name very often associated with nihilism is that of Friedrich Nietzsche, the health tourism in india, 19th century philosopher. Having decided that God was dead, Nietzsche saw that with God's death went the jay gould, high values of Western man which were based upon belief in God. He also recognized the loss of freedom which this loss entailed. Integral Thought? That we are just the natural products of evolution, just materialistic bodies and minds means that there is no real freedom at all. We are determined parts of a determined universe. Another explanation for the rise of nihilism brings in the social and political elements. After going through many isms this century, many people have decided that one simply cannot put one's confidence in any of them, so they simply adopt a basic pragmatism, the idea that workability is all that matters. German theologian Helmut Thielicke made this comment:
In a world that is saturated and infested with pragmatism, the question inevitably arises whether everything is not pseudo, whether everything is jay gould, not--at best--a productive lie, and thus whether at the tail end of this parade of idols there is Nothing , a Nothing which is anthology essays, always dressed up in some new ideology, but still nothing but nothingness. James Sire mentions Breath , a play by Samuel Beckett, as a prime example of evolution essay, nihilism in theater. There are no actors, just a pile of rubbish on the stage. The light on the stage dims, then brightens, then dims again. There are no words, only a 'recorded' cry opening the play, an inhaled breath, an writing basics exhaled breath and an identical 'recorded' cry closing the play.
For Beckett life is such a 'breath.' Nihilism, then, is evolution, a philosophy of loss; those who toy with it as a trendy worldview either don't understand it or haven't tried to. As one writer said, Nietzsche replaces easy-going atheism with agonized atheism. Contrasted with Christian Theism. But all this is to say what the nihilist already knows! Sincere nihilists haven't just adopted this worldview because they like to be trendy. They are simply reflecting back in their words the way they see the world, and the gunpowder they grieve over it.
How can we respond to jay gould evolution essay nihilism? We can start out by pointing out the anthology essays, existential inconsistencies nihilists exhibit. Essay? For one thing, although they say there is no meaning to anything, they indicate what they think is tourism in india, meaningful by stephen essay the time and effort they put into various activities. The art of anthology essays, nihilism, such as Dada , for example, attempts to say something; it is purported to have meaning . If it doesn't mean anything, it can't convey the image of the world nihilism wants to essay reveal. Second, all their assertions about meaninglessness are supposed to be statements about the way the world is . But if there is no knowledge, nihilists can't know the way the world is. Plot Essay? Third, it simply flies in the face of everything our being seems to require--meaning, value and dignity being three examples. Very few people can live out a completely nihilistic worldview. Jay Gould Evolution Essay? The most thoroughgoing cynics will apply themselves to anthology essays something --even if it's small--which they consider meaningful, even if it is stephen, crying out against the meaninglessness of life.
To feel the despair of the loss of meaning and value indicates that one really wants such things. Health Essay? What can the nihilist do? He can take his life so he doesn't have to face such an absurd world. He can keep on living but keep his philosophy of no value and his life of value-seeking separate. Or he can look for something to give life value and meaning. In existentialism we find a worldview which seeks to stephen jay gould evolution essay find meaning in an absurd universe. Writing Basics? To that we now turn. Existentialism is a worldview (or really a collection of evolution essay, worldviews) which holds, in essence, that our choices determine what we are. We create our own meaning and value. Royal Commonwealth Essay 2012? Existence precedes essence , it is said. What we do, the choices we make, determine our essence.
Existentialists, thus, seek to create their own meaning in jay gould evolution a meaningless world. (I should note here that there are theistic and atheistic forms of existentialism. Here we will only consider the atheistic variety.) The real problem, they thought, was a false understanding of the human condition itself which kept people from true happiness. We are alone in a vast and scary universe that doesn't care a whit about us. Writing Basics? This realization produces anguish, an interplay between a sense of dread on one hand and evolution the exhilaration of complete freedom on the other. We don't know why we exist or what our destiny is; we aren't told where we come from or given the value of integral thought research paper, anything. It is all up to us--to me --to decide.
Even though I can have no confidence that the stephen jay gould, universe will suit itself to my ideas and desires, I must do something--I must act. I am condemned to make of myself whatever I can. And to writing basics be authentic I must be true to myself and my own chosen values above all. Existentialism, then, is first of evolution essay, all a theory of value. Research Paper? It focuses on the human condition and what makes for a good life. This has made it popular with many who are sensitive to the plight of humanity living in a very impersonal world. Existentialism proved to be very attractive in this country in jay gould evolution essay the '60s. It gave individuals the freedom to toss aside convention and tradition and royal commonwealth essay 2012 make their own rules.
We see traces of it in the prevalent notion that we, individually, are the final authorities for value in our own lives, in our emphasis on experience over reason, in stephen evolution essay our live-for-the moment attitude. The theme of writing basics, turning one's back on traditional morality in favor of determining one's own life was seen in the movie Pleasantville, the story of stephen jay gould, two young people who are transported into the world of plot, Pleasantville, a black and jay gould evolution white TV show. With Mla Footnotes? Their lives only turn into color when they begin to express their sexuality. Stephen Jay Gould? The girl eventually finds herself in the healthy area of academics, but this is integral thought research paper, a choice she alone makes; she is in charge of her own existence. Contrasted with Christian Theism. There's nothing wrong with taking note of our predicament, with noting the dangers to life, and with being resolved to stand firm in stephen jay gould evolution the face of a seemingly absurd world.
The problems come with believing we are all alone, and that the essay with, burden of our lives rests upon jay gould us. God has taken on the burden of our present and future lives. We aren't on our own. With existentialism there is no basis for judging actions or for critical, making the major decisions of life beyond the simple affirmation, I choose it. It is rather easy for us to evolution essay consider the worldviews already discussed from a distance.
Probably few who read this article are deists or nihilists or even existentialists. These can be safely tucked away in royal commonwealth 2012 the cupboard of tried and forgotten worldviews by most of us (even though many of us can find elements of one or another in our own thinking). The situation is quite different with respect to postmodernism, the stephen jay gould, last worldview we'll consider, because it describes the basic mindset of turn-of-the-century Western mankind. We are all immersed in the sea of postmodernism whether we know it or not, and its presuppositions are rooted so deeply in our thinking that even those who are Christians often reveal postmodern attitudes. Postmodernists believe that when knowledge was reduced to computation, something was lost. There were several problems with Enlightenment rationalism. First, newfound knowledge gained through science and the resulting development of technology led people to think that man could solve the major difficulties of life without any transcendent help.
It was found, however, that reason didn't have the health tourism, potency it was thought to have. With all our learning and technology, we still didn't have the jay gould evolution, power we desired over our lives. Natural disasters and major wars such as the two World Wars in this century made people realize that we aren't able to fix everything that ailed us simply through reason. These and other factors such as new mysteries discovered by science served to undermine our ability to really know what is true. In fact, postmodernists veer away from the classical understanding of essay, truth, that is, the correspondence of propositions with external reality. Stephen Jay Gould Evolution Essay? Some very influential postmodernists now espouse pragmatism, the belief that workability is paper, all that can be hoped for. This, I would venture to say, is how many if not most Americans think today. Another postmodern characteristic regarding truth is stephen jay gould, this. In keeping with its rejection of the individualistic attitude characteristic of tourism essay, modernism, postmodernism holds that truth isn't found in the workings of the individual mind, but in the group. As one writer noted, Truth consists in the ground rules that facilitate personal well-being in community and the well-being of the community as a whole.
Our thinking like all other aspects of our being is stephen jay gould evolution essay, shaped by our community. Commonwealth? Politically and sociologically this means, for example, that the individual is expected to conform in his or her thinking to that of the larger group. Still another problem which resulted from the secularized nature of knowledge and from the loss of confidence in knowing truth in general was the loss of the knowledge of ultimate truths. Evolution Essay? There can be no totalising metanarratives, that is, no big stories or explanations of the way things are which encompass everything. This can be both liberating and frightening: liberating in the sense that one needn't feel bound by any system of integral thought research paper, thought; frightening in the sense that we are in the dark about what is true. This is a bit like eating in a cafeteria where one can choose from a variety of foods without having any confidence in the nourishing value of any of it. A second problem with Enlightenment rationalism was the separation of fact from stephen jay gould essay value.
The mathematical mindset of Enlightenment didn't permit the intrusion of judgments about value; that was something separate. What grounds were left, then, upon which to make judgments? Thus the ethical dilemma of postmodernism: How does one make judgments without having any grounds for judgment? One writer argues that the Holocaust itself was a model of Enlightenment thinking. Essay? In the world of the evolution essay, death camps, says author Thomas Docherty, everything was rationalized. There was the desire to master nature seen in determining which races and kinds of people should survive and plot which shouldn't. The process was very orderly and efficient. The tools of evolution essay, technology, also, were used efficiently to advance the Nazi cause.
They even used reason as their greatest ally in accomplishing their goals. Thus, the ideals of Enlightenment rationalism could be put to fundamentally evil purposes. Third, with the secularization of reason in the Enlightenment there developed a growing pessimism about the future. With no transcendent Being to royal commonwealth consult, who was to know where history was going? And who was to say whether the direction being taken was truly progress ? No longer do we know with any certainty the point towards which history is stephen jay gould essay, supposedly progressing, says Docherty. Humanity has embarked upon a secular movement whose teleology is uncertain.
Postmodernism, then, leaves us without knowledge of ultimate truths, with no basis for value judgement, and with no basis for confidence in the future. In general, then, the postmodern mood is pessimistic. How, then, do we know what we should believe and the gunpowder plot do? With no knowledge of why we're here or where we're going to guide us, and no grounds for determining value coming from some transcendent source, people have grown to believe that we must simply choose for ourselves what will be true for stephen jay gould evolution, us. The will is royal commonwealth essay 2012, now introduced into knowledge.
The questions postmodernists ask are: What do I choose to believe? and What do I choose to jay gould evolution essay do? The postmodern mindset has shown itself in several areas of life. One is a change in understanding language. Language is now thought to be socially constructed; it conveys what the group says it does. Literature, then, is understood as reflecting the biases of a writer and tourism in india his cultural group: the writer was obviously saying what would benefit himself or his group. It's up to the reader, then to deconstruct the text to find the real meaning. Stephen Essay? Since the writer is essay with mla footnotes, trying to perpetuate his will on the reader, the reader adopts a suspicious mindset and looks for political demons behind every tree. Since the meaning of a text is determined by the reader, a text can have as many interpretations as readers.
In art, there was a move to jay gould evolution the abstract, because it was thought that we couldn't accurately represent the essay, essence of whatever the essay, object is being painted, for instance. Those things which couldn't be represented accurately had to be presented abstractly. Also, since there are no rules anymore in general, there are none which define or delimit good art. The artist discovers what she's doing as she does it. Architecture was one of the first areas in which postmodernism showed its face. With the demise of a modernism which always looked to the future, and, again, the the gunpowder essay, loss of any rules, architecture moved from a functionalistic, forward-looking style to an eclectic style. Old buildings are restored, since the past can be appreciated, too. Several different styles can be mixed together.
As one writer said, postmodern design is historically and stylistically pluralistic. Earlier I spoke of the fact that even Christians espouse postmodern beliefs without realizing it. Stephen Jay Gould Evolution? It is so much a part of the thinking of young people today that even some in the church accept without even thinking about it a true for you but not for me mindset. Essays? A young woman who taught high school Sunday School at an evangelical Baptist church in Dallas told a newspaper reporter that she believed what the Bible taught, but that it wasn't necessarily true for stephen jay gould, everyone. Perhaps she doesn't understand the claims of Scripture, but more likely she has fit Christianity into essay with, the framework of my truth, your truth. Contrasted with Christian Theism. As I've noted, postmodernism is a mood rather than a full-fledged worldview. Something must fill the vacuum created by stephen jay gould evolution the demise of modernism. This is what excites some Christian thinkers. For now the essay 2012, door blocking out the supernatural has been thrown open, providing an avenue for Christians to announce the stephen jay gould evolution essay, good news that in Christ is found truth, value, and hope for the future, indeed, for all the human race. James W. Sire's The Universe Next Door (3rd ed., InterVarsity Press, 1997), has provided an almost indispensable guide in understanding worldviews.
The choice of views considered in this program were taken from this text. Tourism In India? James Orr, The Christian View of God and essay the World (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1948), 3. Essay? Orr, 6,7. Evolution Essay? [I pray] that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the commonwealth, Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of jay gould evolution essay, Him. I pray that the health in india essay, eyes of evolution, your heart may be enlightened, so that you may know what is the writing basics, hope of His calling, what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints. Orr, 4. Ibid., 4. Waring, v-viii. Ibid., x. Ibid., xiii. Ibid., xiii. Sire, 44. Ibid., 46. Quoted in Sire, 48.
Thielicke, 25. Ibid., 29. Sire, 76. Bloom, quoted in Sire, 93. Robert C. Solomon, ed., Existentialism (New York: The Modern Library, 1974), ix. Published in English by the University of essay, Minnesota Press, 1984. Docherty, 1,2.
One theologian of our day sees modernism as having ended on July 15, 1972 when a housing project based upon modernistic principles of functionality was demolished. Still another marks its demise with the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Cf. Gene Edward Veith, Postmodern Times: A Christian Guide to mla footnotes Contemporary Thought and stephen Culture (Wheaton, IL; 1994), 27,39. Perhaps this wide time span points to the way philosophies can take years to essay come to fruition in the public sphere. Thomas Docherty, ed., Postmodernism: A Reader (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1993), 5. Docherty, 5. Stanley J. Grenz, A Primer on Postmodernism (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996), 14. For more on this the reader might wish to consult my article Where Did I Go?: The Loss of the Self in jay gould evolution Postmodern Times. Docherty, 26. Ibid., 12,13. Ibid., 10.
Ibid., 6. Veith, 114. Mary A. Jacobs, Truths Under Construction, Dallas Morning News , 31 May, 1997. Research? Another major difference is over the matter of human nature and stephen evolution essay identity. In postmodern thought, the self is lost, whereas Christian theology sees us as distinct individuals with permanent identities (even though we might experience changes in our personalities, vocations, lifestyles, etc.).