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Call for research papers in law 2013 india

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argumentative essay Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to call for research in law 2013 india, write an argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page. Putting together an argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into a ready-to-use template. All you have to do is fill in the blanks!

In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to create an argumentative essay outline. Compare System! At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started. Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline. That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements.

Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is where you lay the call for research papers in law india, foundation for your impenetrable argument. It’s made up of a hook, background information, and essay, a thesis statement. 1. Papers In Law 2013 India! Hook. Your first sentence is comprised of a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is? A hook is essay on effect of tv a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the for research, attention of buy college universal a martial arts fan.

Let’s say I’m writing an argumentative essay about call for research, why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in improving their diets and the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to essay, eating chicken, fish, and for research, beef and ‘hello’ to critical, eating silk worms, crickets, and caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Call! Background information. The next part of your intro is dedicated to offering some detailed background information on your topic. Distraction! Try answering the following questions: What is the issue at india, hand? Who cares?

Where is this issue prevalent? Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in the United States shun the on effect of tv on children, idea of eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and papers in law india, environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to embrace the essay, many benefits of eating insects.” 3. For Research Papers! Thesis. Distraction Osteosynthesis! Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of papers in law your intro paragraph. This is where you clearly state your position on democracy and justice theory, the topic and give a reason for your stance. For example, “A diet of insects can help fix problems related to for research papers in law india, starvation, obesity, and climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to rely on distraction osteosynthesis, a variety of insects over chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of protein and nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in my thesis statement? Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the three claims I’m going to expand on papers in law india, later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to buy college application essay universal, starvation, obesity, and climate change. Let’s talk about adding those claims to for research papers in law india, our argumentative essay outline now.

Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Now that you have filled in democracy and justice essays theory, the general points of your topic and outlined your stance in the introduction, it’s time to develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of call for research papers 2013 india evidence. Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. 1. What is a claim?

A claim is a statement you make to education system, support your argument. For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the problem of hunger and malnutrition in call papers 2013, the United States.” Great! So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to believe me? This is where evidence comes into play. Compare Essay! 2. What is evidence? For each claim you make, you need to provide supporting evidence.

Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. It is not personal knowledge or anecdotal. For example, “Researchers at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and other micronutrients. Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of evidence to back it. Once again, the exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable. Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to add the next important element of your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Let’s talk about that now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments.

In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the Beef Council of America say that it is too difficult and time consuming to papers 2013, catch crickets, so it is not easy to gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of meat for missouri many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and skip the cricket soup. Call Papers In Law! (By the way—I just made that up. The Beef Council did not say that. Essay Universal! In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now it’s time to call for research in law 2013 india, set the opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to creative writing seminars missouri, researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the best time to harvest crickets is to catch them in the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to 2013, develop the infrastructure to farm crickets in essay on effect, a way that is papers more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah!

The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to sail to the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. Distraction Osteosynthesis! In your conclusion, you are going to accomplish two important tasks. 1. Restate the importance of your issue. Similar to what you did in your introduction, you want to restate why this topic is critical. For Research Papers In Law 2013 India! For example, “Simply by incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the creative writing seminars missouri, sustainability and papers 2013, nutrition of the American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the distraction osteosynthesis, world if your argument is (or is not) implemented.

In the final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of your argument. For Research Papers In Law 2013! What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets. Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients they need to distraction, live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the burden of an unsustainable food system. For Research Papers In Law 2013! Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Download the osteosynthesis, Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Call Papers In Law! Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started. Buy College Essay! Before you go off into the sunset and call for research in law 2013, use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to your course. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay.

If you’re interested in learning more about critical, argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Want even more knowledge? Check out call for research india, this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and critical anthology essays, outline ready to call for research papers in law 2013 india, go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Seminars! Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 2013 500,000 example essays. About the Author.

Naomi Tepper is compare essay a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full. Super! I#8217;m really happy to help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don#8217;t know where to begin. Is this the same as doing an call 2013, argument. Creative Seminars Missouri! This sounds more like an expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in papers 2013 india, your case) has the goal of informing the audience on a specific topic. Usually you don#8217;t take an essay universal, argumentative stance for or against these topics. For more information on for research india, expository writing visit: hi i need some help on an argument . The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help.

Do you think the internet is a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for the internet: #8220;The internet is a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on arguing against the internet: #8220;The internet is an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR, and this is the best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the critical anthology, internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and for research papers 2013 india, evidence 4. It is important to set personal limits on anthology, web use including solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only papers in law specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to writing seminars missouri, pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked?

Then you need to come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Call 2013! Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked). What about people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is this type of punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to support your side.

Find some evidence to support your claims. Lay out how each of the two authors approach the topic of the Crusades. What do they have in common? What is different? Super happy to writing seminars missouri, help! thank you so much for this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an call in law 2013 india, argumentative essay on application essay, freedom of speech rights and for research papers in law 2013 india, the 1st amendment and essays, I have two sides of the argument. I am for freedom of speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and papers in law india, I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in the amendment but I#8217;m on on children, the court#8217;s side of call for research papers restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment.

How should I start out my argument? I think you need to combine your two perspectives into one focused argument. Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to other people? That way, it falls into your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely. Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for education reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on in law india, how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. Missouri! I am not sure where to start from. Call In Law India! Hisome of buy college essay universal these example essays on papers in law india, human trafficking may give you ideas on creative writing missouri, how to for research 2013 india, get started: Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on how is social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users?

I am not sure how to essay on effect on children, start from call for research india, there. Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on how to get started by reviewing some of these example essays on social media: Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the essay you need to end it with a question, something for the reader to continue to think about after reading or is it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. Democracy! I recommend you check out this post on the topic of conclusions: This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down.

I have a question though. Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the call in law india, conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don#8217;t want to essay on effect of tv, leave your readers hanging on to just your opponent#8217;s argument! You can learn more about writing conclusions in this post: Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in for research india, use?

Thank you #128578; Awesome! I love to hear that. That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and one that I intend to on effect, implement in upcoming blog posts. However, at this time I don#8217;t readily have access to a knock out example. Naomi. HELP. I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to call for research papers india, receive state benefits a.e.

T.A.N.F, food stamps.. I#8217;m getting so frustrated and I dont have any idea where to begin.. I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. Creative Seminars Missouri! #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG.

THX so much this helped a ton. You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; You#8217;re welcome! Wow that#8217;s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for an eight grader test. Yasss#8230;This blog is reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. #128578; I#8217;m happy to hear it. #128578; Thanks for your comment. I have to write an argumentative. research essay about the career of my choice, which is for research in law india sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make.

Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in distraction, so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the career of call my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to on effect of tv, make. Am I defending my choice of careers?

Am I talking about call papers in law india, it#8217;s importance in critical, the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to for research india, write an buy college application essay, argumentative paper about it. Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for clues on how to for research india, approach this. If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to defend your choice of careers. Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Then use the rest of your essay to fill out critical anthology essays, those key points. Call For Research 2013! Thanks!

That#8217;s helpful. Here#8217;s what the assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about a successful and realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and compare education essay, accompanying commentary and rhetoric to create an argument that you will eventually present and defend to a group of peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for personal statements, resumes and CVs, and even interviews in which you will be asked about your chosen career path and call for research papers in law, its significance to essay on effect of tv on children, you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and call papers in law 2013, justify your pursuit of any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? YesI do. You#8217;ll also want to find some hard facts and statistics to application, support your claims.

For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to get your degree and weigh that against your potential income. You#8217;ll want to call for research papers 2013 india, start with a clear thesis statement. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the country shouldn#8217;t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to accept Syrian refugees because of anthology essays reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Orif you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to for research in law 2013 india, accept Syrian refugees because of critical anthology essays reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Glad to help! Thanks for your comment. Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and india, disadvantages of using a cell phone. Please help. I need to submit it on buy college application, thursday. Plz Plz help.

This one is papers india pretty straightforward. Missouri! You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. For Research Papers India! Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in A, B, and C with your actual research. Education System! Thank you so much Naomi. This is a great help. Hi ! I need to write a thesis statement on the topic, #8216;Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of J Alfred and Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on call for research in law india, this. I have written Unable to take the osteosynthesis, correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end. To be able to make that correct decision one must have the in law 2013, confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of compare education J. Alfred. Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement.

Thank you. I think you have the right idea, but your version is unclear and a bit repetitive. How about this edit? Being unable to make the right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is india exactly what happened to anthology essays, the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Alfred. Call For Research Papers In Law 2013 India! Thank you Naomi so very much. This is great.

I can go ahead now. You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and missouri, reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. this really works thanks. Glad it worked for you, Rose! Thanks for your comment.

Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and worthy to be argued but not boring. Call Papers 2013 India! I want to do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is texting and driving bad anu advice. thank you so much. I have to osteosynthesis, write an argumentative essay on Poverty and Illiteracy. For Research Papers India! I have already looked up my citations. But I don#8217;t know how to break down my citations. Could you help me please?

I#8217;m not sure whether you need to write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is creative writing missouri how I need to write it. Call Papers In Law 2013 India! Oh lordy this blog is ammmaaazzzinnnng. Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on essay, my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww #8230;I am so grateful to 2013, reach up on critical anthology essays, it. can u send me your project on for research papers 2013, my email [emailprotected] . I#8217;m supposed to create an argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China. Thank you so much. Application Universal! I think this is super helpful. Now my next problem is papers in law 2013 if I can fit it all onto one page. (That#8217;s the essay, limit our teacher gave us. he wants to see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month? You#8217;re not the first student to ask me about call 2013, this Romans v Hans. A topic that large is going to seminars, be very difficult to call for research india, explore in a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in democracy and justice essays in political, concision.

In any caseat the call for research papers in law 2013, risk of sounding sales-ythe Kibin editing team is really good at meticulously cutting an essay down to writing missouri, size if you end up going over that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: I really don#8217;t understand the refuting part. 2013 India! When you refute something, you take your opponent#8217;s argument and on effect of tv on children, rip it to shreds. So for call for research papers in law india example, say your opponent#8217;s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the essays in political, best candidate for U.S. president, you could counter that argument by pointing out that he has zero experience in politics. hello again.

I don#8217;t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to for research in law, ask and power essays in political, see if you could give me a little advice on call 2013 india, some good resources involving work laws for teens. This is really helped a lot. I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for. Thank you! 3. You are so welcome!

Glad to help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to hear that. #128578; Thank you so much. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey! Thanks for the great comment. You really made my day!

I wish you the very best in critical anthology, your English classes. Woot! Happy to help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. #128578; I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Call Papers India! Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of distraction osteosynthesis health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to call for research papers india, get fix? And how long do I have to distraction, wait to get it back. Thank you.

Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. For Research 2013! #128578; Thanks for the comment. To have an essay edited, please visit us here: Our editors can have your essay back in essay on effect on children, as few as 3 hours (depending on for research 2013, word count). I#8217;m in love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I#8217;m kind of pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome! I love hearing this. Writing can be fun as long as you don#8217;t actively dread it. Theory! #128578;


I need this argumentative essay for tmm#8230; if crickets should be added to buy college essay, lunch school I need a sting essay I#8217;m in 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Hi there, the in law india, outline in this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and education system essay, inexpensive. For the rest of your essay, talk about call for research papers, how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!). I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. Power And Justice In Political! It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Thanks. You#8217;re welcome!

Thanks for call for research papers reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to hear feedback like this. Thanks for reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Super! Happy to distraction, help. You#8217;re super welcome! Happy to help.

Thank You sooo much for this blog. For Research In Law! This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better. Essay! THANKS xx. Thanks so much for reading! Happy to help. For Research Papers In Law 2013! I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to essay of tv on children, the knowledge of health practitioners.

Please hook me up!! Your topic is a bit over my head, but you may be able to get the creative juices flowing by call for research papers 2013 india, using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading. My name is Haley and i have to do an buy college application universal, argumentative essay for LA and my topic is#8230;#8230;..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on the topic. If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the call in law, number of women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and places where abortion is illegal. If your paper is pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an unborn fetus being cut short. Creative Seminars! This is very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Call Papers! Thanks for the breakdown.

Happy you found it useful. Compare Education! Thanks for reading! Glad to hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on 2013, smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. I#8217;m going to assume that you are taking a stance in favor of on effect of tv on children smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the health risks of secondhand smoke to call papers 2013, non-smokers. Here is a good source to get you started: A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to reason 1, reason 2, and creative seminars, reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: For Research In Law 2013 India! Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil!

This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is really good. I have been reading about academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks. I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for my 1st university assessment. This is by far the most helpful article I have read. Distraction! Well done and thanks. Heaps. Fantastic!

Happy to help. I have to write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and papers 2013, the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren#8217;t they people too? I#8217;m not sure what exactly im suppose to do or how to start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Do you add in a rebuttal for each of your points?? That is certainly one way to approach an argumentative essay. Take an opponent#8217;s view on compare education, each of for research papers india your arguments and democracy power and justice essays theory, then crush it with your rebuttal.

Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in call in law 2013 india, the same time funny! good way to make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and this will be my first one. I already have a thesis chosen and I#8217;m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi thereyes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to support your stance. Here is a blog post about application, making sure your sources are credible: Thanks for answering but I#8217;m having a difficult time trying to call for research india, find and discern what will be helpful in my paper.

My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of questions. Distraction! Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the best way to state your claim in the introduction?

You might need to papers, also read these posts: Thank you so much for the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this? The argumentative essay outline is 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by essay on effect of tv on children, adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is separate from your thesis statement. The hook is the first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the last sentence in this paragraph. Papers In Law India! Sometimes you will add some background information too. So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement. Here#8217;s a revision of your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE.

We live in 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn#8217;t affect our lives in the ways they did before. And Justice Theory! One of these outdated gender roles is the for research in law india, idea that only boys can ask girls outgirls should be able to ask boys out too. this is very useful#8230; but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the system, racism in america and how effect to people ) can you help me , please. Racism in America is a huge problem and a huge topic. I think your first step is to narrow your research focus. Call For Research In Law 2013 India! First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against distraction osteosynthesis a particular minority group? In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the effects in call for research papers 2013 india, these groups and regions? What are some common findings/themes? Here is another post specifically about democracy power and justice in political theory, writing a research paper: This blog is Amazing!

Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to papers 2013 india, use #8220;eating insects#8221; example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha! I#8217;m so sorry to have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to work#8230; nutty and a bit bitter. Thanks for reading! This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the platform. With all due respect, I would really love to speak with you about possibly including some of the information on the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook.

If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to this comment. Critical! @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi AlishaThanks for your kind comment. I#8217;m totally in papers in law 2013, favor of you using the content from this post in your textbook with attribution. Best of luck on this very important project, and if you need to education system, discuss, you can easily reach me at [emailprotected] You#8217;re going to call 2013 india, have to take a stance for or against school uniforms and offer credible evidence to support your stance. I#8217;d suggest reading this post on how to write a thesis statement : Thank you for writing all these helpful hints! I#8217;m currently writing one for college with the topic of legalizing lane splitting for motorcycles.

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leisure essay The river of human life is divided into 2013 india, two streams; occupation and leisure--or, to express the thing more accurately, that occupation, which is prescribed, and may be called the business of life, and that occupation, which arises contingently, and not so much of absolute and set purpose, not being prescribed: such being the more exact description of these two divisions of human life, inasmuch as the latter is often not less earnest and intent in its pursuits than the former. It would be a curious question to ascertain which of these is of the highest value. To this enquiry I hear myself loudly and vehemently answered from all hands in favour of the first. This, I am told by unanimous acclamation, is the business of life. The decision in favour of osteosynthesis, what we primarily called occupation, above what we called leisure, may in a mitigated sense be entertained as true. Man can live with little or no leisure, for millions of human beings do so live: but the species to which we belong, and call for research in law 2013 india, of consequence the individuals of that species, cannot exist as they ought to exist, without occupation. Granting however the paramount claims that occupation has to our regard, let us endeavour to arrive at a just estimate of the value of leisure.

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Next follows arithmetic, with perhaps some rudiments of algebra and geometry. Afterward comes in due order the acquisition of languages, particularly the dead languages; a most fortunate occupation for those years of man, in which the memory is democracy power and justice essays most retentive, and call for research papers in law 2013, the reasoning powers have yet acquired neither solidity nor enlargement. Such are the occupations of the schoolboy in his prescribed hours of buy college application universal, study. But the schoolboy is cooped up in an apartment, it may be with a number of for research papers 2013 india, his fellows. He is seated at a desk, diligently conning the portion of learning that is doled out to him, or, when he has mastered his lesson, reciting it with anxious brow and unassured lips to the senior, who is to correct his errors, and pronounce upon the sufficiency of his industry. Buy College Essay! All this may be well: but it is a new and india, more exhilarating spectacle that presents itself to democracy power and justice essays in political theory our observation, when he is dismissed from call in law 2013 his temporary labours, and distraction, rushes impetuously out to the open air, and gives free scope to his limbs and his voice, and is no longer under the eye of a censor that shall make him feel his subordination and dependence. Meanwhile the question under consideration was, not in which state he experienced the most happiness, but which was productive of the greatest improvement. The review of the human subject is conveniently divided under the call for research papers in law 2013, heads of body and mind.

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Unhappy is the wretch, whose condition it is to be perpetually bound to the oar, and who is on effect on children condemned to labour in one certain mode, during all the hours that are not claimed by for research in law india, sleep, or as long as the muscles of his frame, or the fibres of his fingers will enable him to persevere. Apollo himself, says the poet, does not always bend the bow. There should be a season, when the compare system, mind is free as air, when not only we should follow without restraint any train of thinking or action, within the bounds of call for research papers 2013, sobriety, and democracy and justice essays, that is not attended with injury to others, that our own minds may suggest to us, but should sacrifice at the shrine of intellectual liberty, and spread our wings, and take our flight into untried regions. It is good for man that he should feel himself at some time unshackled and call in law, autocratical, that he should say, This I do, because it is prescribed to me by the conditions without which I cannot exist, or by the election which in past time I deliberately made; and this, because it is dictated by the present frame of my spirit, and is therefore that in osteosynthesis which the call for research in law 2013, powers my nature has entailed upon me may be most fully manifested. In addition to distraction osteosynthesis which we are to consider, that a certain variety and mutation of employments is best adapted to humanity. When my mind or my body seems to be overwrought by one species of occupation, the substitution of another will often impart to me new life, and make me feel as fresh as if no labour had before engaged me.

For all these reasons it is to be desired, that we should possess the inestimable privilege of 2013, leisure, that in the revolving hours of every day a period should arrive, at which we should lay down the compare education system essay, weapons of call papers 2013, our labour, and engage in a sport that may be no less active and strenuous than the occupation which preceded it. A question, which deserves our attention in this place, is, how much of every day it behoves us to give to regular and stated occupation, and how much is the just and compare, legitimate province of leisure. It has been remarked in a preceding Essay 1 , that, if my main and leading pursuit is literary composition, two or three hours in the twenty-four will often be as much as can advantageously and effectually be so employed. But this will unavoidably vary according to papers 2013 the nature of the occupation: the period above named may be taken as the MINIMUM. Such, let us say, is the portion of time which the man of letters is called on to devote to literary composition. It may next be fitting to enquire as to the humbler classes of society, and buy college essay universal, those persons who are engaged in the labour of the hands, how much time they ought to be expected to consume in their regular and stated occupations, and how much would remain to papers them for relaxation and essays, leisure. It has been said 2 , that half an hour in the day given by every member of the community to manual labour, might be sufficient for supplying the whole with the absolute necessaries of for research india, life. But there are various considerations that would inevitably lengthen this period. In a community which has made any considerable advance in the race of civilisation, many individuals must be expected to be excused from any portion of manual labour.

It is not desirable that any community should be contented to supply itself with necessaries only. There are many refinements in life, and many advances in literature and critical essays, the arts, which indispensibly conduce to the rendering man in society a nobler and more exalted creature than he could otherwise be; and these ought not to be consigned to neglect. On the other hand however it is certain, that much of the ostentation and a multitude of the luxuries which subsist in call in law 2013 india European and creative writing, Asiatic society are just topics of regret, and that, if ever those improvements in civilisation take place which philosophy has essayed to delineate, there would be a great abridgment of the manual labour that we now see around us, and the humbler classes of the community would enter into the inheritance of a more considerable portion of in law, leisure than at present falls to their lot. But it has been much the habit, for anthology essays, persons not belonging to the humbler classes of the community, and who profess to call for research papers 2013 speculate upon compare education system, the genuine interests of human society, to call papers 2013 suppose, however certain intervals of leisure may conduce to the benefit of writing missouri, men whose tastes have been cultivated and refined, and for research papers in law, who from education have many resources of literature and reflection at all times at their beck, yet that leisure might prove rather pernicious than otherwise to the uneducated and the ignorant. Let us enquire then how these persons would be likely to employ the remainder of their time, if they had a greater portion of leisure than they at present enjoy.--I would add, that the individuals of the humbler classes of the community need not for ever to merit the appellation of the uneducated and ignorant. In the writing seminars, first place, they would engage, like the schoolboy, in active sports, thereby giving to their limbs, which, in rural occupation and mechanical labour, are somewhat too monotonously employed, and contract the stiffness and experience the waste of a premature old age, the activity and freedom of an athlete, a cricketer, or a hunter. Nor do these occupations only conduce to the health of the body, they also impart a spirit and call papers 2013 india, a juvenile earnestness to the mind. In the education system essay, next place, they may be expected to for research papers 2013 india devote a part of the day, more than they do at present, to their wives and families, cultivating the domestic affections, watching the expanding bodies and minds of their children, leading them on in the road of improvement, warning them against the perils with which they are surrounded, and observing with somewhat of a more jealous and parental care, what it is for which by their individual qualities they are best adapted, and in what particular walk of life they may most advantageously be engaged. The father and the son would grow in a much greater degree friends, anticipating each other's wishes, and sympathising in each other's pleasures and pains. Thirdly, one infallible consequence of a greater degree of leisure in the lower classes would be that reading would become a more common propensity and amusement. It is the aphorism of one of the most enlightened of creative seminars, my contemporaries, The schoolmaster is abroad: and many more than at present would desire to store up in their little hoard a certain portion of the general improvement.

We should no longer have occasion to say, Rich with the spoils of papers in law india, time, did ne'er unrol. Nor should we be incited to fear that ever wakeful anticipation of the illiberal, that, by the too great diffusion of the wisdom of the wise, we might cease to have a race of men adapted to the ordinary pursuits of compare education essay, life. Our ploughmen and artificers, who obtained the improvements of intellect through the medium of leisure, would have already received their destination, and formed their habits, and would be disposed to consider the call for research in law, new lights that were opened upon them, as the ornament of existence, not its substance. Add to which, as leisure became more abundant, and the opportunities of application essay universal, intellectual improvement increased, they would have less motive to repine at their lot. It is principally while knowledge and information are new, that they are likely to intoxicate the brain of those to whose share they have fallen; and, when they are made a common stock upon which all men may draw, sound thinking and sobriety may be expected to be the general result. One of the scenes to which the leisure of the laborious classes is seen to induce them to resort, is the public-house; and call for research papers, it is inferred that, if their leisure were greater, a greater degree of distraction osteosynthesis, drunkenness, dissipation and riot would inevitably prevail. In answer to this anticipation, I would in the first place assert, that the merits and call for research papers 2013 india, demerits of the public-house are very unjustly rated by the fastidious among the more favoured orders of society. We ought to consider that the opportunities and amusements of the lower orders of society are few. They do not frequent coffee-houses; theatres and education system essay, places of public exhibition are ordinarily too expensive for them; and they cannot engage in rounds of visiting, thus cultivating a private and familiar intercourse with the few whose conversation might be most congenial to them.

We certainly bear hard upon persons in this rank of society, if we expect that they should take all the severer labour, and have no periods of unbending and amusement. But in call in law 2013 india reality what occurs in the public-house we are too much in the habit of calumniating. If we would visit this scene, we should find it pretty extensively a theatre of eager and earnest discussion. It is here that the ardent and unwashed artificer, and the sturdy husbandman, compare notes and critical anthology, measure wits with each other. It is their arena of intellectual combat, the for research 2013, ludus literarius of their unrefined university. It is distraction here they learn to for research in law india think.

Their minds are awakened from the sleep of ignorance; and their attention is turned into a thousand channels of improvement. They study the art of compare system, speaking, of question, allegation and rejoinder. 2013 India! They fix their thought steadily on the statement that is made, acknowledge its force, or detect its insufficiency. They examine the most interesting topics, and form opinions the result of that examination. They learn maxims of buy college application, life, and become politicians. They canvas the call in law 2013, civil and criminal laws of their country, and learn the essays, value of political liberty. They talk over measures of call for research, state, judge of the creative writing seminars, intentions, sagacity and sincerity of public men, and are likely in time to for research in law india become in no contemptible degree capable of estimating what modes of conducting national affairs, whether for the preservation of the rights of all, or for the vindication and assertion of justice between man and man, may be expected to be crowned with the power and justice in political, greatest success: in a word, they thus become, in the best sense of the word, citizens. As to papers 2013 india excess in creative writing seminars missouri drinking, the same thing may be expected to occur here, as has been remarked of late years in better company in England.

In proportion as the understanding is cultivated, men are found to be less the papers in law 2013 india, victims of power in political, drinking and the grosser provocatives of sense. The king of Persia of old made it his boast that he could drink large quantities of liquor with greater impunity than any of his subjects. Such was not the case with the more polished Greeks. In the dark ages the most glaring enormities of that kind prevailed. Under our Charles the Second coarse dissipation and riot characterised the highest circles. Rochester, the most accomplished man and the greatest wit of our island, related of himself that, for five years together, he could not affirm that for call papers in law, any one day he had been thoroughly sober. In Ireland, a country less refined than our own, the period is not long past, when on creative writing convivial occasions the master of the house took the key from his door, that no one of his guests might escape without having had his dose. No small number of the contemporaries of papers 2013 india, my youth fell premature victims to power essays the intemperance which was then practised.

Now wine is merely used to excite a gayer and papers, livelier tone of the spirits; and inebriety is scarcely known in the higher circles. In like manner, it may readily be believed that, as men in the lower classes of society become less ignorant and obtuse, as their thoughts are less gross, as they wear off the vestigia ruris, the remains of critical anthology, a barbarous state, they will find less need to set their spirits afloat by this animal excitement, and will devote themselves to those thoughts and that intercourse which shall inspire them with better and more honourable thoughts of our common nature.

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2015-2016 Winter Session (Undergraduate Courses) Major and Honours Seminars. These are course descriptions only. You may register for call in law india, these courses via the power and justice essays theory, Student Service Centre . Call Papers? Pre-Major and essays, Second-Year Elective Courses. Note: English 220 is designed to focus on major English writers of call for research in law india prose, poetry, and drama before the 18th century. It lays a foundation for further studies in English at education essay the 300 and 400 levels.

This course is for research papers required for the English literature major. This course focuses on selected English writers of poetry, drama, and prose from the 14th to the late 18th centuries. The following literature will be studied: The General Prologue in Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales ; Shakespeare’s King Lear ; selections from John Milton’s Paradise Lost ; Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko ; Part 4 of Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels ; Jane Austen’s Emma . On Children? Class discussion of each work will sometimes focus on in law 2013 india, its treatment of social, political, and economic issues of the period in which it was written: for instance, the alleged corruption of the late medieval Church and the questioning of conventional gender roles in the early modern period. Power In Political? Joseph Black et al., eds., The Broadview Anthology of British Literature , Concise Edition, Volume A, Second Edition (The Medieval Period, The Renaissance and the Early Seventeenth Century, The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century) William Shakespeare, King Lear (Broadview) Jane Austen, Emma (Broadview) The texts will be available at the UBC Bookstore in a specially priced, shrink-wrapped package.

Note: English 220 is call for research papers in law india designed to focus on major English writers of prose, poetry, and drama before the 18th century. It lays a foundation for further studies in English at the 300 and 400 levels. This course is required for the English literature major. This course is a survey of English Literature from medieval times through the Renaissance and the Enlightenment to the beginning of the Romantic period and the rise of the English novel. In part, it will be a study of successive changes in English society and culture, and creative writing seminars, accompanying changes in literary form and focus.

We will consider, among other things, patterns of continuity, influence, innovation and revolt. The course is intended to provide students with a range of scholarly and critical tools for the study of literary and other texts, and a substantial knowledge of a wide range of literature. Students will learn to papers employ strategies of close reading, library research, and education essay, textual analysis supported by reasoned argument, and we will explore some aspects of critical theory in 2013 india relation to democracy and justice in political specific texts. Students will engage in call in law 2013 india lively discussion in class, and be encouraged to evolve their own ideas, and to defend them effectively. Our focus will include the political and cultural history relevant to particular works, including matters of religious, philosophical, aesthetic and social importance. We will also investigate ideas concerning class, nationality, and gender identity current in these centuries. While remembering that literature is produced within specific material conditions influencing its production, and usually with reference to other literary works, we will also approach our texts as distinct imaginative constructs. The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Major Authors, Vol.

1, 9th Edition Shakespeare, Antony and Cleopatra Jane Austen, Persuasion. Please note that both non-anthologized texts are available at free online sites: However, the anthology essays, hard copy texts I order for you will have accompanying introductions and for research papers, notes which will be invaluable as study guides. “The Dream of the Rood”; “The Wanderer”; Geoffrey Chaucer, “General Prologue” and “The Wife of Bath’s Prologue and Tale”; William Shakespeare, Othello , and Antony and Cleopatra ; John Donne (selected poems); Margaret Cavendish, “The Hunting of the Hare; John Milton, selections from Paradise Lost , Alexander Pope, “The Rape of the critical essays, Lock”; Samuel Johnson, “A Brief to Free A Slave”; William Blake, selections from call in law 2013, The Songs of Innocence and Experience and The Marriage of Heaven and Hell ; Samuel Taylor Coleridge (selected poems), Jane Austen, Persuasion. one in-class essay (30%) one term paper involving library research and essay, a formal bibliography (40%) and a final exam (30%) Additional supplementary marks for class participation may be awarded at the discretion of the instructor. Note: English 220 is designed to focus on major English writers of prose, poetry, and drama before the 18th century. It lays a foundation for further studies in English at the 300 and 400 levels. This course is required for call for research papers 2013, the English literature major. This is a course in Renaissance Literature, with some Chaucer and essay, Donne thrown in for good measure. There are two marked assignments and a final examination. Canterbury Tales (Chaucer): a bawdy tale (“The Miller’s Tale”), and two fairy tales, one moral (“The Wife of Bath’s Tale”), and call papers in law india, one genocidal (“The Prioress’s Tale”). The Jew of Malta (Christopher Marlowe): imagine Breaking Bad with a Jewish merchant as the anti-hero instead of a middle-aged chemistry teacher.

Hamlet (Shakespeare): a revenge tragedy. It looks different back-to-back with Marlowe. Coriolanus : the system, Shakespearean equivalent of a war movie, complete with a weird “bromance” between two enemies, Coriolanus, (Roman general), and papers, Aufidius, (Volscian general). The Sonnet: originally imported from Italy, it became the signature genre of the writing missouri, English Renaissance. Truly elegant courtship was essentially impossible without some facility in this poetic form. John Donne: erotic poems with religious undertones, and religious poems with erotic ones. “The Miller’s Tale”, “The Wife of Bath’s Tale”, “The Prioress’s Tale”. (Chaucer). (In course package.) The Jew of Malta . (Marlowe).

Hamlet . (Shakespeare). Coriolanus . (Shakespeare). Elizabethan Poetry: An Anthology. Papers 2013? (Dover Thrift Edition). (Contains sonnets.) John Donne: Selected Poems. Education? (Dover Thrift Edition). Literature in for research 2013 india English to the Eighteenth Century. Note: English 220 is designed to focus on major English writers of prose, poetry, and buy college application, drama before the 18th century. It lays a foundation for further studies in call for research 2013 india English at the 300 and 400 levels. This course is required for the English literature major. This course offers a historical survey of British literature and society, addressing events ranging from the system, Sutton Hoo Burial (ca.

700) to the execution of Jonathan Wild (1725). Readings from Beowulf to The Beggar’s Opera illuminate shifts in call class hierarchies, codes of conduct, gender norms, and application essay universal, local settings, enabling us to for research in law observe continuities and differences in cultural modes (oral to print), linguistic variables (Anglo-Saxon to Modern English), literary genres (heroic epic to mock-epic), and principal characters (warriors to creative writing criminals). By situating British literature in its historical contexts, we analyze the dynamic relationships between cultural tradition and social change, extending to the reinterpretations afforded by recent adaptations, performances, and readings. Throughout, students cultivate spoken and written skills in literary criticism through close engagement with texts as they also compare and call in law, contrast issues, themes, and styles across historical periods. Distraction? Texts (subject to minor modifications): The Longman Anthology of British Literature . Call In Law 2013 India? General editor David Damrosch. 4th A ed. New York: Longman, 2010. Democracy Essays In Political Theory? Includes separate volumes 1A to call for research papers in law 1C: The Middle Ages ; The Early Modern Period ; The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century . Assignments: (subject to compare education system minor modifications) This course focuses on selected English writers of poetry, drama, and prose from the 14th to the late 18th centuries.

The following literature will be studied: The General Prologue in Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales ; Shakespeare’s King Lear ; selections from call papers in law 2013 india, John Milton’s Paradise Lost ; Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko ; Part 4 of Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels ; Jane Austen’s Emma . Distraction Osteosynthesis? Class discussion of each work will sometimes focus on its treatment of papers in law social, political, and economic issues of the period in which it was written: for instance, the alleged corruption of the distraction, late medieval Church and the questioning of conventional gender roles in the early modern period. In Law 2013? Joseph Black et al., eds., The Broadview Anthology of British Literature , Concise Edition, Volume A, Second Edition (The Medieval Period, The Renaissance and the Early Seventeenth Century, The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century) William Shakespeare, King Lear (Broadview) Jane Austen, Emma (Broadview) The texts will be available at the UBC Bookstore in essay on effect of tv on children a specially priced, shrink-wrapped package. The description for this course is 2013 not available. Please contact the instructor. This survey will concentrate on expressions of sacred and secular love and desire in the medieval and early modern periods. Texts we#8217;ll study include #8220;Caedmon#8217;s Hymn;#8221; #8220;The Wife#8217;s Lament;#8221; the writings of the mystics Julian of compare education essay Norwich and call in law india, Margery Kempe; poems from Donne#8217;s Songs and Sonets and Elegies; Shakespeare#8217;s Twelfth Night. As a case study in form, we#8217;ll trace the evolution and scope of the sonnet in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (Wyatt, Surrey, Spenser, Sidney, Shakespeare, Donne, Wroth, Milton). We#8217;ll also acquire a technical knowledge of the mechanics of buy college application essay poetry: metre and rhythm, syntax and line, diction, metaphor, rhetoric. In Law? We#8217;ll approach these poems and plays from the perspective of working poets—as if we were writing them. For your term paper you#8217;ll have the option to write your own sonnet.

The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Major Author s Vol. A. The Middle Ages through the Restoration and the Eighteenth Century . General Ed. Critical Essays? Stephen Greenblatt. Twelfth Night , Oxford UP. This course surveys British Literature from the papers in law 2013, eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries. It aims to introduce students to a wide sampling of literary works of poetry, fiction, and drama across the period. While these works engage a diverse variety of topics, in reading them we will also want to keep in mind such themes as art and imagination, memory and history, the individual in and justice essays in political theory society and freedom and repression.

While taking care to situate these texts in their historical and cultural contexts, we should also, where appropriate, allow ourselves to approach them with a sense of openness and humour. Course Requirements and Policies: Mary Shelley, Frankenstein (Penguin) Virginia Woolf, To the Lighthouse (Penguin) George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty-Four (Penguin) Kazuo Ishiguro, The Remains of the Day (Vintage) The Broadview Anthology of British Literature, Concise Edition, Vol. B. SECOND EDITION. Materials unavailable elsewhere will be provided electronically or by handout. “Till we have built Jerusalem, / In England#8217;s green pleasant Land” (William Blake, “Preface to Milton, a Poem ”) This course examines English literary writing across several centuries as it slowly becomes aware of the call in law india, idea of the anthropocene: that human activities have so woven change into osteosynthesis, the planet that they are marked in the geological epic, and that the scope and scale of environmental change is a dominating concern for our species and call for research, all others. Essay? We will trace evolutions in what Lawrence Buell calls our environmental imagination, and arrange our study under categories such as environmental justice, biopower, and new materialisms. What happens when human empire reaches its limit? When profit interests are brought to for research papers 2013 answer for the spoilage effects of a culture of abundant consumption? How does nature, through its changing poetics, begin to write back to buy college essay universal industrialization and the forces of india extinction? The course reads writers from William Blake to on effect of tv on children Alan Moore with attention to their agenda to give humanity a larger view of its own course and future. Papers India? Along the way, we will study poetics, writerly techniques, literary terms, history and theory which will prepare you for more advanced study in the English major, or to work critically and analytically with verbal texts in any field.

The Norton Anthology of essay of tv on children English Literature: Volumes D,E,F (packaged together), 9th Ed. Additional materials will be distributed in class and/or via Connect. English 221 focuses on the writings of what historian Eric Hobsbawm has called “the long nineteenth century” and more selectively explores their twentieth- and twenty-first century aftermath. The years from 1789-1914 saw not only global war (not once but twice!), but also major revolutions in Europe and the Americas, the flourishing and for research, abolition of the slave trade in Britain and North America, the rapid development of scientific and critical essays, historical thought, and papers india, the serious emergence and spread of on effect on children democratic ideals, as well as the challenges of nationalism, imperialism, and call papers, mass migration, industrialization on a large scale, and the rise (and rise, and rise) of a global economy. This was also the period that saw the emergence of mass literacy and mass entertainment in the English-speaking world, initially in the form of power and justice essays print. To the extent that these events and processes were global phenomena, they necessarily took place oceanically, subject to the sea as, to quote Kate Flint, “a space of translation and transformation, rather than of straightforward transmission”: a dangerous, unstable, sometimes seemingly magical space. Organized according to a loose chronology and shaped by a series of historical moments to which large numbers of British writers responded, this course will ask you to call for research papers 2013 india read with openness and imagination while considering questions of newness, transformation, and fluidity: it will ask you to try to think about old media at a time when they were new ones, and to conceive of application essay universal old and new worlds alike as newly worldly. Above all else, we will consider how and why writers took up the experience of rapid change and how this experience is reflected in the forms as well as the themes of their work.

All necessary critical and historical background will be provided in papers india class discussion and by online resources. I will also make suggestions for further reading. Democracy Power And Justice In Political? Mary Shelley, Frankenstein (Penguin–ISBN 978-0199537150) George Eliot, The Mill on the Floss (Oxford–ISBN 978-0199536764) A.S. Byatt, Morpho Eugenia , in Angels and Insects (Vintage–ISBN 9780679751342) Norton Anthology of English Literature , 9th ed., Volume 2. Assignments and call for research in law 2013 india, evaluation: Assignments for this section of English 221 will form a developmental sequence leading to the writing of a ten-page scholarly essay. In your written and seminars missouri, oral work alike, you will practise paying close attention to the rich writtenness of our readings; you will develop your skills in well-supported and papers 2013, (in your essay) sustained scholarly argument; you will hone your awareness of and collegial engagement with your audience; and you will be expected to pay some attention to the historicity of essay texts and the critical conversations surrounding them. Call For Research In Law India? I will look for evidence of growth in your ideas and your explanation and distraction, defense of them in the course of your essay’s development.

Literature in Britain: the 18th century to the present. Note: English 221 provides students with a survey of British poetry, drama, fiction, and non-fictional prose from the 18th century to the present. This course, together with the required English 220, is one of four 200-level courses that may be taken to call for research in law be eligible for an English major with a literature emphasis. This course offers a historical survey of British literature and society, addressing events ranging from the French Revolution (1789) to the destruction of the Twin Towers (2001). Writers from Edmund Burke to essay on effect on children Zadie Smith illuminate shifts in class hierarchies, (post)colonial bonds, gender norms, and local settings, enabling us to observe continuities and differences in cultural modes (print to digital), linguistic variables (Modern English to World English), literary genres (tracts to podcasts), and call for research papers in law, principal characters (monarchs to immigrants). By situating British literature in its historical contexts, we analyze the dynamic relationships between cultural tradition and social change, extending to the reinterpretations afforded by recent adaptations, performances, and readings. Throughout, students cultivate spoken and democracy essays in political, written skills in literary criticism through close engagement with texts as they also compare and contrast issues, themes, and styles across historical periods. TEXTS (subject to minor modifications): The Longman Anthology of British Literature . General editor David Damrosch.

4th 5th ed. New York: Longman, 2012. Includes separate volumes 2A to 2C: The Romantics and Their Contemporaries ; The Victorian Age ; The Twentieth Century and Beyond . Assignments (subject to india minor modifications): The description for this course is not available. Please contact the instructor. Literature in Canada. Distraction? Working with an anthology designed to establish a workable Canadian cultural literacy, we’ll investigate the ways in which a national cultural imaginary has been invoked and produced in recent decades in for research 2013 india English-speaking Canada. How does shared memory shape, define and compare education, revise various claims in this country to identity, place and culture? In 1965, Northrop Frye famously argued that Canadians are more perplexed by the question of “Where is here?” rather than “Who am I?” Reading a selection of for research papers india fiction, essay, poetry and graphic works, as well as electronic and critical essays, audio-visual media, we’ll interrogate depictions of history and place, and at the forms of belonging and of displacement that many writers articulate, and call for research papers, also challenge. We’ll also discuss the complex and vital relationships among race, gender and voice in recent Canadian writing.

How do our literatures re-imagine various senses of universal community, nation, land, or culture? How exactly does this writing even profess to be “ours”? Laura Moss and Cynthia Sugars, eds., Canadian Literature in call for research papers india English: Texts and buy college application essay universal, Contexts (Volume 2) Pearson/ Penguin Academics, 2009. Call For Research In Law 2013? Chester Brown, Louis Riel: A Comic-Strip Biography . Drawn Quarterly, 2006. Short Essays / Projects (2): 20% each Term Paper / Project: 30% Final Exam: 20% Response Blog: 10% Literature in Canada. #8220;Is it possible to imagine being named by a place? And – were we to contemplate such a thing – how would we come to merit that honour?#8221; – Don McKay, The Muskwa Assemblage.

Canadian identity “is less perplexed by the question ‘Who am I?’ than by some such riddle as ‘Where is here?’” #8212; Northrop Frye. “The city as we imagine it, the soft city of illusion, myth, aspiration, and nightmare, is as real, maybe more real, than the hard city one can locate on maps, in statistics, in monographs on seminars, urban sociology and demography and architecture.” #8212; Jonathan Raban. National identity, regional identity, local identity, community identity, familial identity, peer identity, gendered identity, student identity, place-specific identity. While entertaining the many nested spheres of call for research papers in law 2013 india identity politics in a Canadian context, we’ll investigate what it means to live here . Texts are cultural artefacts; as such, they make claims about and against distraction osteosynthesis culture, and creatively detail how humans manifest their cultures or worldviews. Call For Research India? “Literature in Canada” is a class about the process of and justice in political theory reading literature, and the different ways in call in law which people (scholars, students) go about making meaning of writing seminars it. This class is also about in law india, students finding interesting and creative ways to read and contextualize literature. Lastly (and perhaps most importantly), writing is thinking, and thinking is writing . Renovating Heaven , Andreas Schroeder Canadian Literature In English: Texts and Contexts (Volume II), eds. Essay Of Tv On Children? Moss and Sugars Connect Online Course Page @ Literature in the United States. This course introduces students to the major literary movements of the for research 2013, nineteenth-century United States. The course focuses on four broad areas: the development of American literary nationalism and transcendentalism; the literature of anti-slavery and early labour activism; and literature that addresses race and buy college application universal, gender inequity.

We will study the works of Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Emily Dickinson, Frederick Douglass, Harriett Jacobs, and Henry James, among others. Nina Baym, et al. The Norton Anthology of American Literature (Shorter Eighth Edition) (2-Volume Set), 2012. ISBN-13: 978-0393918885 / ISBN-10: 0393918882. In-Class Midterm: 20% Midterm Rewrite: 20% Bibliographical Assignment: 20% Participation: 10% Final Exam: 30% Literature in the United States. This course surveys some of the great innovators in the U.S. India? novel since World War II, ranging across the stalwarts of realism, postmodernism, and the proliferation of important multicultural voices in the American canon. Power Essays Theory? Questions we will address include: What have been the major innovations in fictional form in the U.S. in the past sixty years, and what forces seem to have driven them? What structures have writers developed in this era to demonstrate new layers of call for research papers in law india guilt, innocence, and moral complexity?

Does the novel, as informational and imaginative medium, have authority in this era? If so, what sort of distraction authority is it? What difference has the explosion in prominent ethnic writers within U.S. literature, especially from the 1960s forward, made for definitions of call in law india “American culture”? How do the power, stability, and prosperity of many postwar U.S. lives connect to those killed and displaced by slavery, westward expansion, and war? Vladimir Nabokov, Lolita (1955) Thomas Pynchon, The Crying of Lot 49 (1966) Toni Morrison, Jazz (1992) Chang-rae Lee, A Gesture Life (1999) Jennifer Egan, A Visit From the Goon Squad (2010) A sixth novel: TBA. Critical? Work will include two formal papers (4-5 pp., 6-7 pp.), a few short close-reading assignments, participation in class discussions, and a final exam.

World Literature in English. Call For Research 2013 India? Along with discourses on cultural globalization, there has been discussion of #8220;global#8221; novels—novels that sell well across countries, win international prizes, draw literary scholars#8217; attention, and get taught repeatedly in university courses. How are these novels read in these various contexts? What draws readers to stories set in places and cultural situations about which they might have no or very little knowledge? What is it about the novel as a genre, its structures of osteosynthesis fictional narrative, and the authors#8217; choices of style that enable these texts to papers in law become global phenomena? We will discover that many of these internationally successful texts offer their own critical perspectives on the history and on effect of tv on children, dynamics of transnational movements. Our investigation of each novel in this course will be threefold: (1) we will discuss what questions about transnational relations the novels themselves raise, (2) we will analyze public discussions about these novels, and for research in law 2013, (3) we will study the critical issues that literary scholars debate in distraction their research about 2013 india, these texts. collaborative presentation on one novel Research paper (5 pages) Final exam.

Tsitsi Dangarembga, Nervous Conditions (1988) Chimamanda Adichie, Purple Hibiscus (2003) Arundhati Roy, The God of Small Things (1997) Aravind Adiga, The White Tiger (2008) Xiaolu Guo, A Concise Chinese-English Dictionary for compare education, Lovers (2007) Teju Cole, Open City (2011) World Literature in English. Monuments and memorials mark heroic turning points in the life of a nation, state or people and claim to be the final word in social struggle. But how do we memorialize a war or a fact like slavery or colonization when the papers in law india, argument and creative writing seminars missouri, the wounds are still open? Architecture and museums are called upon to for research papers in law 2013 india draw such periods of trouble to a close, yet memorialization can take many forms: statues, installations, museums, exhibitions, film or literary works. We will read literary accounts that register the trouble with memory alongside interesting cases of education politically charged memorials. To approach this question we will look at four cases: South Africa after apartheid, USA after Vietnam, Algeria after revolution and Lebanon after civil war. Works by Annie Coombes, Yvette Christianse, Lauren Berlant, Hoda Barakat, Mona Hatoum, Assia Djebar, Walid Ra’ad, and Rachid al-Daif along with essays in architecture, anthropology, critical theory, and urban studies.

This course will look at classics of literature from around the world. It will pay special attention to works that – well beyond their first appearance – have resonated with listeners and readers, captured fundamental human experiences, and travelled between cultures. Textbook: The Norton Anthology of in law 2013 World Literature , shorter third edition, 2nd vol. Education System Essay? The readings (all in the textbook) will include. Call In Law India? Novellas by Joseph Conrad and Leo Tolstoy Stories by Gustave Flaubert, Franz Kafka, Albert Camus, Rabindranath Tagore, V. S. Naipaul, Zhang Ailing, Lu Xun, Chinua Achebe, Ngugi wa Th’iongo, Isabel Allende Plays by Moliere, Henrik Ibsen, and Antonin Chekhov Non-fiction and poetry by Basho and others. 2 in-class essays: 2 x 15 = 30 points 1 term paper: 30 points 1 final exam: 40 points.

The purpose of this course is to get you acquainted with narrative, lyric and conceptual poetriestheir techniques, formal vocabularies and anthology essays, their rich and varied traditions#8212;so that you can learn to read various kinds of poems with depth, complexity and pleasure. The pedagogical focus of papers in law 2013 this course is to experience poetry by reading it aloud, talk about how poems work and move toward careful and sustained literary analysis (attention to on effect of tv formal features, historical and theoretical contexts) so that you can develop critical competence. The hope is call for research papers 2013 india that this course will not only make you a better reader of poetry, but inspire you to keep on reading it! We#8217;ll read a wide selection of poems from our Canadian Literature in English: Texts and Contexts anthology, as well as other poems not included in and justice essays in political the anthology. Recitation Short Talk (20%) You can choose to either recite a lyric poem or present to the class a concrete or conceptual poem for call for research 2013 india, this assignment. Essay On Effect? Either way, you must deliver a 10-minute short, lively talk about how the poem works and what it means and/or what theories or assumptions about call for research, poetry it takes for granted. Short Close Reading (20%) Research Paper (30%) Exam (30%) Canadian Literature in English Texts and Contexts , Volume 2, Eds. Sugars and Moss How to Read (and Write About) Poetry by Susan Holbrook. “You are a born story-teller,” said the old lady. Essays? “You had the sense to see you were caught in a story, and the sense to see that you could change it to another one.” A. S. Byatt, “The Story of the call in law 2013 india, Eldest Princess” Why do we tell stories? The very phrase “telling stories” is synonymous, to quote the Houyhnhnms in Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels , with saying “the thing which is not.” Yet most story-tellers are trying to express “the thing which is,” however they might define that in socio-political and/or aesthetic terms. In this course we will explore story-telling—our own and others’.

What kinds of stories are told by writers, readers, and literary critics? Are all story-tellers caught in stories of some kind? To what extent does retelling or re-visioning stories reinscribe their originals? What difference does it make if the “source texts” are traditional narratives (e.g., folk tales, classical myths) or actual historical events? What assumptions underlie our readings of literary texts and compare system, the numerous critical and theoretical approaches to literary interpretation?

What does the popularization and for research papers in law 2013, commodification of texts—from the re-visioning of “Beauty and the Beast” in osteosynthesis every medium to the transformation of “classic” literature into film—tell us about the texts themselves, the societies that produced them, our own society, and ourselves? Some of the for research 2013, texts that we will be studying self-consciously question the nature of “story,” “history,” and “truth”; some (equally self-consciously) rewrite traditional folk, classical, biblical, and literary narratives. All raise questions about the nature of story-telling, interpretation, identity, and society. Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont, “Beauty and democracy and justice essays, the Beast” and call, other (very brief) selections from Magazin des Enfans: or, the Young Misses Magazine (1765 edition available online through UBC Library); if you find the typesetters’ use of the long “s” problematic, you may use D. Application Universal? L. Ashliman’s transcription of “Beauty and call in law india, the Beast” dash/beauty.html a student-choice adaptation of “Beauty and compare education system, the Beast” Lewis Carroll, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland , 2nd edition (Broadview); you may use another edition (online or print), as long as it includes all of John Tenniel’s illustrations a student-choice adaptation of Alice’s Adventures in for research in law 2013 Wonderland Oscar Wilde, “The Happy Prince,” “The Nightingale and the Rose,” “The Selfish Giant,” “The Birthday of the Infanta” (available online); if you wish to education essay purchase a collection I recommend Oscar Wilde, The Complete Short Stories (Oxford World’s Classics) Iris Murdoch, Under the Net (Penguin) Angela Carter, “The Courtship of Mr Lyon,” “The Tiger’s Bride” (available online) A. In Law? S. On Children? Byatt, “The Story of the Eldest Princess” (out of print); we will read the story together in call for research papers in law 2013 india class and the two collections in which the story appears, Caught in a Story: Contemporary Fairytales and Fables and The Djinn in the Nightingale’s Eye , will be on reserve in Koerner Library Michael Ondaatje, Anil’s Ghost (Vintage) Barbara Kingsolver, Flight Behavior (Harper) You are welcome to use Kindle editions where they are available. one in-class essay several short (250-300 words) response papers one term paper (c. 2500 words) and annotated bibliography final exam participation in one group presentation informed class participation (oral or written) This course will explore the features of prose fiction from unreliable narrators, unrepentant characters, dark settings and curious subjects.

Modernism will be the backdrop, war and intrigue the distraction osteosynthesis, shadow themes. Selected texts to be studied in call for research papers in law 2013 india depth will include. James, Henry. The Spoils of anthology Poynton , 1897. Stoker, Bram. Dracula , 1897. Call For Research Papers In Law 2013? Conrad, Joseph. Creative Missouri? The Secret Agent , 1907.

Ford, Ford Madox. Call In Law? The Good Soldier , 1915. Fitzgerald, F. Anthology Essays? Scott. Papers In Law India? The Great Gatsby , 1925. Findley, Timothy. The Wars , 1977. Foer, Jonathan Safran. Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close , 2005. Topics in the Study of Language and/or Rhetoric.

This course introduces the study of the ways that language functions in society. Critical? We will be studying how language is used in different walks of life and how different social factors determine the use of language. Some of the topics covered include dialect and register, language and power, language and gender, diglossia and bilingualism, lingua francas and code-switching, to name a few. Call For Research In Law India? During the course, you will be required to work with examples gathered from corpora like COCA and the BNC. You will also gather real-life data yourself in power in political theory order to demonstrate and verify claims about social factors and their effects on language use. There will be an assignment on texting as a particular manifestation of language use in contemporary society.

The course is for research papers in law 2013 relevant for compare education system, all students who are interested in the English language. Since an understanding of language in society has implications for language used in literary texts, the course has value not only for students preparing to focus on language, but also for those who are mainly interested in literature. Objectives: After completing this course, you should have acquired the necessary understanding to describe particular socially determined varieties and the descriptive skills to account for grammatical and phonetic variety. In this respect, the course will be excellent preparation for call for research papers in law 2013 india, students wishing to take senior language courses in the English department, for instance Stylistics (ENGL322A) or The History of the English Language (ENGL320). Wardhaugh, Ronald 2006 An Introduction to Sociolinguistics . Critical Essays? 5th ed. Maldon, Oxford Carlton: Blackwell. (Referred to as IS in the syllabus).

Crystal, David 2008 Txtng The gr8 db8. Oxford, New York, etc.: Oxford University Press. Crystal, David 2003 The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language . Call For Research? 2nd ed. New York, Melbourne, etc.: Cambridge University Press. Evaluation : For this course, regular class attendance is seminars missouri crucial as successive exercises and the tests build upon each other, forming an call papers in law 2013, integrated whole. Weekly exercises assigned in system essay class will contribute to your final grade. There will also be a midterm test, one collaborative assignment with a presentation component and for research 2013, a final exam. Please note: Everything covered in the course is required for critical anthology essays, purposes of the final exam and will feature in it, directly or indirectly.

Topics in the Study of Language and/or Rhetoric. Rhetoric and Power surveys various ways that language creates hierarchies, distributes authority, and call india, maintains rank. Along with learning some fundamental rhetorical concepts, we will examine how language helps to create, maintain, and subvert the social order in and justice essays in political theory a variety of contexts, such as current governmental controversies, courtroom interrogations, and online. We will analyze a selection of language types ranging from the 2013 india, comic to distraction the coercive, including insults, legalese, and war discourse. Readings : The primary book for this course is Kenneth Burke’s A Rhetoric of call india Motives (Univ. of California Press, 1969; ISBN: 0520015460). Additional readings include a variety of other essays, book chapters, and documents. Essay? Course Requirements : a series of short response papers, an oral presentation, and a final paper/project. Introduction to Indigenous Literatures. This course is an introduction to 2013 contemporary writing by critical Indigenous writers in Canada.

Through critical engagement with a variety of texts (fiction short and longer, non-fiction, poetry, drama) within the in law 2013 india, context of culturally respectful dialogue, we will study some Indigenous literary strategies of representation, empowerment and healing as part of the work of decolonization. We will consider some of the strategies used by writers like Mosionier, Clements and Wagamese in the representation of impacts of colonization and the assertion of sovereignty by Indigenous peoples. Lectures, discussion, small group work and several films will constitute the format of the course. Assignments will include occasional pop quizzes, one journal response, a research essay and a final exam. Required Texts (provisional) Beatrice Culleton Mosionier, In Search of April Raintree , ed. Cheryl Suzack Richard Wagamese, For Joshua Marie Clements, Burning Vision Leanne Simpson, Islands of Decolonial Love Thomas King, The Truth About Stories Lynda Gray, First Nations 101 Course pack of selected poems, essays, etc.

This course approaches the protean subject of media through a number of intersecting vectors: communication; medium; information; archive; digital; biomediation. Students will participate via panels and creative writing seminars missouri, projects and will be assessed through quizzes and a final exam. Note that students in the Bachelor in Media Studies Program have priority registration in this course. Major, Honours and Upper-Level Courses. In Rhetoric, Revolution, Dissent we will learn about call papers in law 2013 india, how mass-movements use and essay, design persuasive messages, images, and events, with a concentration on the visual styles of call papers in law persuasion prevalent in current electronic media.

With a contemporary emphasis on documents that have emerged from the ongoing “Global Spring,” course readings will include: 1.) primary documents (manifestos, memes, organizational programs, speeches, and websites) drawn from both recent movements (e. g. Occupy Wall Street and Idle No More) and creative writing, more distant historical events (e. g. the U.S. Civil Rights Movement and the French Revolution); 2.) a survey of pertinent scholarly rhetorical criticism; 3.) a survey of visual design. To learn about how manifestos function, for example, we will read a selection from critic Janet Lyon’s book Manifestoes: Provocations of the Modern in call for research in law 2013 india conjunction with reading the “Idle No More Manifesto” and the “Declaration of the Occupation of New York City” alongside the “Manifesto of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army” and the U.S. “Declaration of Independence.” By assessing both more and less successful persuasive tactics, strategies, and genres, the course will teach students how communication strategies help to stimulate and maintain resistance and revolt (or not). Students will complete a series of visualization projects that will entail analyzing the rhetoric of a mass movement’s primary documents, and then creating memes, infographics, comics, confections, icons, etc. based on the movement’s means of persuasion. Readings : Readings will include graphic design critic Edward Tufte’s Beautiful Evidence , an anthology of mass movement and revolutionary primary documents, and various articles and essays on critical anthology essays, rhetoric and rhetorical criticism. Course Requirements : an oral presentation, a series of visualization projects with accompanying justification papers, and a final portfolio project/paper. Call Papers India? Rhetoric of osteosynthesis Science, Technology and Medicine. The central question for rhetorical study in general is, #8220;In this (particular) situation, who is call for research papers 2013 india persuading whom of essay what, and what are the call for research in law 2013 india, means of persuasion?#8221; The starting point for the question is the understanding that we are, each of us, engaged in acts of persuasion all the timeeven if all we mean to application essay universal do is, as rhetorician Kenneth Burke says, #8220;direct the attention#8221; of an audience.

The notion of pervasive persuasion, though, is complicated when we consider the papers in law 2013, realms of science and medicine—when discourse is taking place in spaces we typically don’t think of as rhetorical: for example, in the pages of scientific journals, in laboratories, in working groups tasked with arriving at diagnostic categories, in meetings of the FDA, and so on. This course looks at persuasion in contemporary science and medicine. Given the prominence of missouri health topics in public discourse currently, we will be especially interested in the rhetoric of call for research in law health and medicine. Anthology? We will consider, for papers in law 2013, example, questions like these: #8220;What is the process of classification by which some states/conditions become diseases and others do not?#8221;, #8220;What are the means, and on children, what are the effects, of for research papers 2013 pharmaceutical advertising?#8221;, #8220;How has the Internet helped to shape the contemporary health subject?#8221;, and #8220;How does public discourse on health affect the personal experience of illness?#8221; By the critical anthology essays, end of this course, students will have developed a rhetorical-theoretical lens through which they can assess more critically scientific and medical information available through professional, public, and social media. They will understand the various ways that persuasion can affect both the production and the communication of in law 2013 scientific/medical knowledge. They will be able more confidently to participate in public discussion of matters of science and health policy. Science students will acquire an additional means to osteosynthesis reflect on their own practice. Note: English 309 requires no special preparation in for research papers india rhetorical theory or in on effect of tv on children science and medicine. Tentative, and for research india, partial, reading list: Kuhn, Thomas. Excerpt from The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago, 1962) Burke, Kenneth. “Terministic Screens.” In Language as Symbolic Action (Berkeley, 1966) Latour, Bruno, and Steve Woolgar. “Documents and Facts.” In Laboratory Life: The Construction of distraction osteosynthesis Scientific Facts (Princeton, 1979) Halloran, Michael. “The Birth of Molecular Biology: An Essay in the Rhetorical Criticism of Scientific Discourse.” Rhetoric Review (1984) Prelli, Lawrence. “The Rhetorical Construction of for research papers india Scientific Ethos.” In Rhetoric in the Human Sciences . (Sage, 1989) Solomon, Martha. “The Rhetoric of Dehumanization: An Analysis of Medical Reports of the Tuskegee Syphilis Project.” The Western Journal of Speech Communication (1985) McCarthy, Lucille Parkinson, and compare education system essay, Joan Page Gerring. “Revising Psychiatry’s Charter Document DSM-IV .” Written Communication (1994) Emmons, Kimberly K. “Depression, a Rhetorical Illness.” Black Dogs and call papers in law, Blue Words: Depression and Gender in the Age of Self-Care (Rutgers, 2010) Dumit, Joseph. “Responding to Facts.” Drugs for Life: How Pharmaceutical Companies Define Our Health (Duke, 2012) Segal, Judy Z. “Internet Health and the 21st-Century Patient: A Rhetorical View.

Written Communication (2009) Belling, Catherine. Democracy And Justice Essays In Political? “Be Responsible.” A Condition of Doubt: The Meanings of Hypochondria. (Oxford, 2012) Solomon, Miriam. “Epistemological Reflections on the Art of Medicine and Narrative Medicine.” Perspectives in Biology and papers in law 2013 india, Medicine (2008) Ceccarelli, Leah. “Manufactured Scientific Controversy: Science, Rhetoric, and Public Debate” Rhetoric and Public Affairs (2011) Oreskes, Naomi, and power and justice in political theory, Erik M. Conway. “Denial Rides Again.” Merchants of Doubt (Bloomsbery, 2010) Malkowski, Jennifer. “Confessions of a Pharmaceutical Company: Voice, Narrative, and A A Gendered Dialectics in the Case of Gardasil.” Health Communication 29 (2014) History and Theory of Rhetoric. Rhetoric is the for research, art of buy college application essay universal persuasion or influence—and the study of that art. Rhetorical theory offers a method for discovering the means of persuasion in public and private life, in institutional and social settings, across a range of media and genres. There is no better way to understand rhetorical theory and method than to study rhetoric#8217;s history—and its ancient history is an excellent place to start. Aristotle’s definition of call for research papers in law india rhetoric as “the faculty of discovering, in creative the particular case, what are the available means of persuasion” provides a strong beginning for rhetorical study, and his categories and for research papers in law india, terms provide a reliable procedure for rhetorical analysis. Our attention will move back and forth between Classical rhetorical theory and its contemporary revisions and applications. Our primary texts are ancient—but we will also read contemporary rhetorical theory and criticism, and consider the rhetorics of advertising, journalism, politics, law, and public discourse more generally. Can the terms of a 2500-year old theory be useful to an analysis of social media? (Yes!) The central question for power essays in political, rhetorical study is, “ In this case , who is persuading whom of what, and what are the means of for research papers in law 2013 persuasion?” Central questions about rhetorical beings (that is, all of us) are, #8220;How do we come to believe what we believe?#8221; and #8220;What does it take to make us change our minds?#8221; We will take up those questions, along with other, more specific, ones: “How can eloquence itself render a speaker unpersuasive?” and “What do people say to get audiences to trust them?” Plato’s Phaedrus Aristotle’s Rhetoric Selections from seminars, Plato#8217;s Gorgias #8212; and from works by Gorgias (the Sophist), Isocrates, and call for research in law 2013 india, Cicero Contemporary articles including (tentatively) the following: Carolyn Miller and democracy and justice in political, Dawn Shepherd. “Blogging as Social Action: A Genre Analysis of the Weblog” (2003) Barbara J. Blakely. “iPods, Viagra, and call papers 2013, the Praiseworthy Life: Epideictic Rhetoric in Technology and Medical Print Advertising” (2011) Lisa Storm Villadsen. “Speaking on Behalf of Others: Rhetorical Agency and Epideictic Functions in application essay Official Apologies” (2008) Susanna Dillipane, “Race, Rhetoric, and Running for President: Unpacking the papers, Significance of Barack Obama’s ‘A More Perfect Union’ Speech” (2012) Leah Ceccarelli, “Manufactured Scientific Controversy: Science, Rhetoric, and Public Debate” (2011) Carol Cohn. “Sex and education system essay, Death in the Rational World of Defense Intellectuals” (1987) Virginia Chappell. “Expert Testimony: ‘Regular People,’ and Public Values: Arguing Common Sense at a Death Penalty Trial#8221; (1995) Plato, Gorgias (the whole thing; any translation) This course examines the development of rhetorical theory within the context of the major epochs of in law india western European intellectual history. Critical Anthology? Beginning with St.

Augustine and his advocacy of rhetoric as essential to spreading Christianity in the early medieval period, the course will move through the Renaissance, the Enlightenment, and Modernism. For Research In Law 2013 India? By reading and applying major rhetorical theories advanced in education each historical period, we will learn how writers such as Desiderius Erasmus, Baldesar Castiglione, Giambattista Vico, Friedrich Nietzsche, and papers in law 2013, Kenneth Burke (among others) conceived the compare system essay, arts of persuasion, argumentation, and style. English 311 is a companion course to English 310: The History and Theory of Rhetoric Classical Rhetoric. Readings : Readings will include several book-length works, including Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier and in law india, Vico’s New Science , as well as a handful of shorter essays and extracts. Course Requirements : a midterm exam, a final exam, and a series of short response papers. The activity of conversation is central to our lives and to the construction of on children our social identities.

Yet in call for research 2013 formal linguistic studies, casual conversation is often overlooked in writing seminars missouri favour of written texts or instances of spoken text involving a single speaker. This course introduces discourse analysis techniques for call, the analysis of language events involving interaction between two or more speakers. Discourse analysis is defined here as the analysis of texts above the sentence level. Drawing on a range of critical anthology essays linguistic and semiotic approaches, we will study dialogue as a semantic activity. We will explore techniques for analyzing language at a variety of linguistic levels, from micro-patterns in the grammar of call papers india conversation, to turn-taking, to osteosynthesis text type (genre). The general goals of the course will be: Developing skills in using analytic techniques to describe and interpret dialogue in context. Developing skills in seeing pattern frequency and functional variety in spoken texts. Finding how natural language can be viewed as a resource for social interaction and activity. Designing and 2013 india, producing a research project involving the collection and analysis of conversational or natural language data.

There will be a number of in-class and take-home assignments and students will be encouraged to collect and analyze their own data. 9 credits of English Language or Linguistics recommended but not required. Essays? English 330a and 331 recommended but not required. Eggins and Slade 1997/2005. Analysing Casual Conversation , Cassell.

Additional readings may be assigned. Midterm assignment, 15% Class Participation , 8% Learning activities, 12% (6 activities worth 2% each) Presentations, 10% Quiz, 15% Final Paper/Project, 40% In the English 318 course we study the historical evolution of English from its pre-history to the Old English period (449-1100). The course starts with a general introduction to the historical study of English, including an overview of the in law, current structure of the language, the notion of language change, and language typology. By following the development of English from its origins to the end of the 12th century, we study the changes in linguistic structure ranging from the level of sound and its relationship with spelling (phonology and graphology), the level of words, including principles of word formation (morphology), loanwords, relevant aspects of word classes (the lexicon), word meaning (semantics) to the level of sentence structure (syntax) in order to learn about the dynamic, ongoing development and creative flexibility of the English language. The approach taken in on children the course is papers in law 2013 descriptive and is not situated exclusively in any specific linguistic theory.

Students will be required to learn the International Phonetic Alphabet and to use it when describing the level of sound. Students will also be expected to acquire a degree of compare essay familiarity with grammar that will allow them to understand changes from one historical period to the next. The course involves studying the textbook portions assigned for each week as well as a substantial amount of analysis of papers in law india English language examples from the seminars missouri, exercises in the textbook and other exercises posted on call for research papers in law 2013 india, the course website on essay on effect on children, Connect or provided in class. Brinton, Laurel J. Leslie Arnovick. The English Language: A Linguistic History. 2nd ed. Oxford, etc.: Oxford University Press(2011).ISBN 978-0-19-543157-5. No previous linguistics or language courses are required, but ENGL321, 330 and 331are helpful preparation for this course.

The ENGL319 course complements the ENGL318 course, accounting for the remaining part of the historical overview of the English language. Course requirements and assessment: The course mark is based on two tests, the last of which is the final exam, and one assignment. The tests are not cumulative. For Research 2013 India? The tests and the assignment contribute equally to the final mark. Both of the application, tests must be written and the assignment must be submitted to pass the course. In the English 319 course we follow the development of English from the time of the papers, Norman Conquest to the present day.

The course provides an overview of the historical evolution of English from the Middle English period (1100-1500), the Early Modern English Period (1500-1800) and essays, the Late Modern English Period (1800-21st century). In each period, we study the changes in linguistic structure ranging from the for research in law 2013, level of sound and its relationship with spelling (phonology and graphology), the level of words, including principles of word formation (morphology), loanwords, relevant aspects of word classes (the lexicon), word meaning (semantics) to the level of sentence structure (syntax) in order to learn about the dynamic, ongoing development and creative flexibility of the English language. The approach taken in the course is seminars descriptive and is not situated exclusively in any specific linguistic theory. Students will be required to know the International Phonetic Alphabet when describing the level of sound. They will also be expected to be sufficiently familiar with grammar to for research papers understand specific changes from one historical period to the next. The course involves studying the textbook portions assigned for buy college universal, each week as well as a substantial amount of analysis of English language examples from the exercises in the textbook and other exercises posted on the course website on Connect or provided in class. Brinton, Laurel J. Leslie Arnovick. In Law 2013 India? The English Language: A Linguistic History. 2nd ed. Oxford, etc.: Oxford University Press(2011).ISBN 978-0-19-543157-5.

No previous linguistics or language courses are required, but ENGL 321, 330 and 331are helpful preparation for this course. The ENGL318 course complements the ENGL319 course, accounting for the preceding part of the historical overview of the English language. Course requirements and creative writing missouri, assessment: The course mark is based on two monthly tests, the last of call papers india which is the final exam, and one assignment. The tests are not cumulative. The tests and the assignment contribute equally to the final mark. Both of the essay, tests must be written and the assignment must be submitted to pass the call for research papers in law 2013, course. This course provides an introduction to English grammar and usage.

The course will take a descriptive linguistic approach with a focus on syntax, semantics and discourse. We will begin with the study of basic sentence structure. We will classify parts of speech and on effect of tv on children, identify transitivity patterns and grammatical functions. We will describe in call for research papers detail the structure of noun phrases and verb phrases, with specific attention to patterns of modification. We will then analyze coordination and application essay, subordination in clauses. Throughout the course, consideration will be given to: Developing consciousness of the natural rhythms of language Applying knowledge of grammar for call for research papers in law india, self-expression Understanding the relevance of grammar for everyday communication and the usefulness of prescriptive rules. The emphasis will be on learning to do grammatical description and understanding how the rules of English grammar are applied for effective communication. Pre-requisites: Six credits of First Year English or the equivalent are required.

Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey Pullum. Osteosynthesis? A Student#8217;s Introduction to English Grammar. Paperback. Cambridge University Press. 2005. The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) . (This is available free online through the for research papers in law india, UBC Library, at creative writing Select Indexes and Databases and enter Oxford English Dictionary. You will need to be on campus or connect through the proxy server to access the search screen. Crystal, David.

2003. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the call for research papers in law india, English Language . 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Critical Essays? There will be 2 tests worth 21% each, a final group project (10%) and a final assignment (30%). There will also be a series of short, practical activities worth 10% in total. One of papers in law 2013 these will be graded (4%), and the others will be given grades for completing them. Learning and applying activities: 10% Test 1: 21% Test 2: 21% Final collaborative project on writing seminars, complex sentences: 10% Final assignment (text analysis): 30% Participation: 8% This course presents a traditional grammatical description of Present-day English.

We will classify parts of speech and identify their grammatical functions. We will analyze the noun phrase and the verb phrase, observing how modification works in call in law 2013 English. Finally, we will describe the clausal processes of coordination and subordination. Throughout,we will consider the nature and usefulness of prescriptive rules of grammar, especially with regard to eighteenth-century goals for standardization. Berk, Lynn. 1999.

English Syntax: From Word to Discourse. Oxford University Press. Friend, Jewel A. 1974. Traditional Grammar. Southern Illinois University Press. UBC Bookstore Text Packet. Oxford Canadian Dictionary . 2001. Anthology Essays? Edited by Katherine Barber. Oxford University Press.

This section of ENGL 321 is being offered through Distance Education. The description for this section can be found here. The Stylistics course offers an introduction to the study of literary stylistics. This comprises three main activities: identifying specific linguistic features, analyzing these linguistically and interpreting their communicative function in the reading and understanding of the text. Stylistic features relating to the three genres of poetic, narrative and dramatic texts are introduced during the call papers india, course. For each genre, we study some of the typical stylistic techniques characterizing the compare, genre and analyze a number of texts demonstrating them.

There are two principles informing the analyses: (i) the tendency towards extra regularity, or parallelism, and (ii) that towards irregularity, or deviation, which underlies many of the communicative devices in literary texts. In the case of poetry and papers in law 2013, drama, there are two workshops, one devoted to each genre, in which you have the opportunity to apply what you have learnt about the genre in osteosynthesis some detail to a specific text. When it comes to narrative, you are free to select a short story of your own choice to try your hand at call papers a detailed stylistic analysis in a formal, written essay. Education System Essay? The course is offered from a descriptive perspective, an approach not situated exclusively in any specific linguistic theory. Much of the activity in the course involves attentive reading of literary texts, by means of for research papers workshops, the term paper and exercises to be assigned in democracy essays theory class and for homework. Simpson, Paul 2014 Stylistics: A Resource Book for Students , 2nd ed. Papers In Law 2013? London New York: Routledge. Short, Mick 1996 Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and creative writing seminars missouri, Prose . For Research Papers 2013 India? London and New York: Routledge. One of the writing seminars missouri, following grammar books: Borjars, Kersti Kate Burridge 2010 Introducing English Grammar , 2nd ed. London: Hodder Education.

Leech, Geoffrey, Margaret Deuchar and Robert Hoogenraad 2006 English Grammar for Today . 2nd ed. Houndmills, Basingstoke and call papers 2013, New York: Palgrave. Prerequisites: None, although English 330, 331 or 321, Linguistics 200/201 or 420 or equivalent courses are recommended. 3. Class participation (exercises) 15% 4. Term paper proposal 2% Objectives: By the writing, end of the for research india, course, you should be able to critical anthology essays give a general account of the main principles and procedures involved in describing the call for research in law, style of a text. Osteosynthesis? You should also have acquired a substantial amount of linguistic terminology and skills for the analysis of literary examples.

You should be able to apply the principles and skills you have learned to hone your interpretative accuracy and call in law 2013, scope when reading literature. Education? This section of ENGL 322 is being offered through Distance Education. The description for call papers in law 2013, this section can be found here. The course will introduce students to education essay recent theories which view our understanding of the meaning of language expressions and other forms of communication in the broader context of the nature of call papers in law 2013 human thought. We will rely on recent theories of distraction meaning to show how underlying cognitive concepts structure our understanding of for research 2013 india language, literature, and art, but also artifacts of popular culture, advertising, media, or film. Distraction? Throughout the course, we will consider theories of call for research papers 2013 india meaning alongside recent work linking linguistic, cultural and literary studies to human cognition. We will start with the theory of conceptual metaphor, which defines metaphor, metonymy, and other tropes in a new way and education system essay, uses the same theoretical constructs to papers in law 2013 talk about everyday usage, the language of distraction advertising and of the media, and about the figurative language of literature. In the second part of the course we will introduce the theory of conceptual integration (or blending), which attempts to explain various mechanisms of in law 2013 construction of meaning and human creativity. In class, we will devote much attention to close analysis of texts and compare essay, other cultural artifacts, in search of specific cognitive mechanisms leading to in law 2013 india their interpretation.

The course is primarily addressed to English majors, but students interested in osteosynthesis various forms of communication, including the discourse of their own discipline or a language other than English are also welcome. The theories to be studied have very broad applications. Students will be required to grasp the theoretical concepts and use them in their own analyses of data samples. No prior knowledge of linguistics or specific theories is for research in law india required. Barbara Dancygier and Eve Sweetser. Figurative Language. Cambridge University Press, 2014. Course Requirements include: In this course, we study the sound system of creative writing English ( phonology ) and word formation and papers 2013 india, classification in missouri English ( morphology ). Call Papers In Law? We begin by essay on effect studying how speech sounds are articulated and we learn to call 2013 transcribe English speech sounds using the democracy essays in political, phonetic alphabet. We identify both the distinctive sounds of English and the sound combinations possible in English, as well as the call for research 2013, patterns of democracy in political stress, intonation, and syllabification. We turn next to an analysis of the meaningful units in language– affixes and roots– and examine how they combine to form words, are grammatically modified, and can be classified into parts of speech. Last, we consider both traditional and structural approaches to the question of for research papers in law india word meaning ( semantics ), giving some attention to democracy power and justice essays theory cognitive approaches to meaning.

In English 330, emphasis is placed upon for research in law, the description of English rather than on any particular theory of linguistics. Required text: L.J. Brinton and D.M. Brinton, The Linguistic Structure of Modern English (Benjamins 2010). Third-year standing and completion of the writing requirement in one’s Faculty. No previous linguistics or language course is of tv on children required.

ENGL 330 and 331 may be taken concurrently or in reverse sequence. The written work required in this course includes: Students will expected to complete ungraded, self-testing homework exercises, and as needed, these will be discussed in class. Practical applications of the course: Because of the call papers 2013 india, understanding of the language imparted by this course, it has practical applications for the teaching of English, either to those for whom English is a native language or those for whom it is an additional language. It also has applications for osteosynthesis, the stylistic analysis of call 2013 texts (literary or non-literary) since it provides the precise concepts and creative writing missouri, necessary language for discussing language in a precise way. The course also has value for those who intend to teach writing to others, but it is not intended to assist in call papers in law india the improving of one’s own writing. N.B. Essay Of Tv On Children? This course is not open to call 2013 india students who have taken ENGL 329.

This course explores and democracy essays theory, examines contemporary English linguistic structure at the level of sounds and words. It begins with a study of speech sounds. We study the articulation of sounds in English, methods for phonetic transcription and the possible sound combinations in English (phonology). For Research In Law 2013 India? We then study words, and buy college application essay universal, the processes of word formation and word classification in English (morphology). Finally, we consider word meaning and look at a variety of approaches to appreciating the nuances of meaning in call for research 2013 india English words (lexical semantics). L.J. Brinton and D.M. Brinton, The Linguistic Structure of distraction osteosynthesis Modern English (2010). There will be 3 tests of equal weight (30%) and a class participation mark of 10%. The third test will be scheduled during the examination period. A variety of in-class, homework and test questions will be given, including definitions, fill in india the blanks, problem solving, short answer questions and matching.

Prerequisites: No previous linguistics or language course is required. Students are encouraged to take both English 330A and English 331. N.B. This course is buy college essay not open to students who have taken ENGL 329. The English 331 course provides a comprehensive introduction to the structure of sentences and call for research, their uses in Modern English.We will be studying the essay on children, structure of phrases and the clause functions of phrases, sentence types, finite and non-finite clauses and sub-clauses, the meaning of sentences, information packaging and speech acts. The course is offered from a descriptive perspective, an approach not situated exclusively in any specific linguistic theory.

Please note : Regular class attendance and continued effort are vital. (Please see the call in law india, detailed notes below about the policy regarding class attendance.) This course involves a substantial amount of analysis of English language examples, providing the opportunity to on effect of tv on children practice applying the principles and skills you have learned, and to practice and enhance your problem-solving skills. The course requires the acquisition of for research papers 2013 india a technical vocabulary and of the procedures of linguistic analysis relevant for this purpose. For instance, you will be expected to acquire specific skills and on effect of tv, techniques of call for research india representing diagrams of various linguistic structures, including tree diagrams and labelled bracketing when describing the structure of phrases and buy college universal, sentences. The required skills can only be mastered if you attend class regularly and are committed to do the reading and workbook exercises at a steady pace throughout the term. Brinton, Laurel J. and Donna M. Brinton The Linguistic Structure of Modern English . Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins,2010. (ISBN 978 90 272 1172 9). For Research In Law India? Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language . 2nd ed. Cambridge, New York, etc.: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN: 0 521 53033 4. (On reserve in the UBC library). Crystal, David. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics . 6th ed.

Malden (USA), Oxford (UK), and Carlton (Australia): Blackwell, 2008. ISBN 978-1-405-15296-9. Available online at (On reserve in the UBC library). The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED ) is available free online through the UBC Library, at Choose Indexes and Databases and select Oxford English Dictionary (full text). Students must have 6 credits of first-year English, but no previous linguistics or language courses are required. ENGL321 is a helpful preparation for this course. The course mark is based on democracy power essays theory, three monthly tests, the in law 2013 india, last of critical which is the final exam. The tests are not cumulative.

Homework exercises will be assigned during the term. These will be self-testing and will not be graded. The three tests contribute equally to the final mark, i.e. they are worth approximately 33.33% each. All three tests must be written to pass the course. In this course, we study the principles by which contemporary English operates (beyond the level of the word). The course is taken up primarily with a detailed analysis of English sentence structure ( syntax ) from a generative perspective.

In the remainder of the course, we consider the structure of both phrases and clauses in English. We then look at 2013 india the interaction of syntax and semantics in terms of propositions and theta roles. We end with an examination of the functions and contexts of language use ( pragmatics ), including information structuring, speech act theory, and politeness. L.J. Brinton and D.M. Brinton, The Linguistic Structure of Modern English (Benjamins 2010). Third-year standing and completion of the lower-division writing requirement for their Faculty. ENGL 330 is not a prerequisite for ENGL 331 but is recommended . The written work required in this course includes: three non-comprehensive unit tests; six online quizzes.Self-testing, ungraded homework exercises (on a website accompanying the textbook) are required. Practical applications of the course: Because of the understanding of the language imparted by osteosynthesis this course, it has practical applications for the teaching of English, either to in law 2013 india those for whom English is a native language or those for whom it is an additional language. It also has applications for the stylistic analysis of texts (literary or non-literary) since it provides the precise concepts and necessary language for discussing language in a precise way. The course also has value for those who intend to teach writing to others, but it is buy college universal not intended to assist in the improving of one’s own writing.

English 340 offers a basic introduction to the Old English language situated within its socio-linguistic context. This course combines linguistic study with an papers in law 2013, overview of creative seminars missouri literary production within an oral society. Please come prepared to call papers india enjoy both aspects. By recognizing that language is a vehicle of osteosynthesis culture, you will learn to appreciate Old English as it was used by call in law the early English people we call the Anglo-Saxons. In contrast with Present-day English, which relies on phrases, prepositions, and fixed word order, Old English is anthology essays primarily an inflected language with a more flexible word order. That means that it relies on inflectional endings to convey information about a word’s grammatical role in a sentence.

In this course, we will survey the phonology (pronunciation), morphology (inflectional system and papers 2013, word building processes), syntax (word order), and vocabulary of Old English. While prior knowledge of buy college application essay universal linguistics is not required, we will be using linguistic tools; students should be open to learning how to use them productively. We will begin with a review of call for research in law india grammatical terminology (e.g. parts of speech). This will be followed by an introduction to the nominal and verbal systems of the critical anthology, language. Call Papers 2013 India? You will go on to learn (i.e. memorize) noun declensions, adjective declensions, verb conjugations, and vocabulary. You will learn about “concord,” i.e. how nouns agree with pronouns and adjectives, and writing seminars, how nouns agree with verbs and prepositions. You will translate sample passages in the textbook as homework and we will subsequently go over these translations together in class. Through homework exercises, you will also compose basic sentences in call papers 2013 Old English, but while composition is fun, it is not the focus of this class. Because it is impossible to extract a language from democracy power and justice essays, its social and cultural grounding, we will also investigate the literary tradition of the Anglo-Saxons. Together we will engage in papers in law 2013 an act of creative imagination as we explore what it means to perceive the world through our ears and critical anthology essays, hearing (versus our eyes and reading).

We will read some poetry in translation, and through an introduction to papers 2013 Oral Theory, you will learn about oral-traditional methods of poetic composition. You will learn about the Anglo-Saxon heroic ethic and become familiar with such themes as community, justice, and exile. All your preparatory work will pay rewarding dividends. By the end of this course, you should be able to translate (with the aid of a dictionary) substantial passages of Old English prose such as those found in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles and Old English Bible. You should also be able to comment on oral-traditional structures (both formal and thematic) within a passage of Old English poetry rendered into Present-day English. This course should prepare you for more advanced study of Old English language and literature, especially poetry. On Effect Of Tv? Course content will be conveyed through presentations by the instructor, class discussion, and assigned reading. Please be prepared for each class by completing assigned reading ahead of time and expect to take notes. McGillivray, Murray. 2011.

A Gentle Introduction to Old English . Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press. ISBN 9781551118413, Publication Date: Jan. 1, 2011 Barney, Stephen A. 1985. Word-Hoard: An Introduction to Old English Vocabulary . 2nd edition. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300035063, Publication Date: Jan. 1, 1985 Donaldson, E. Talbot, Howe, Nicholas, Tuso, Joseph.

1998. Call Papers? Beowulf: A Prose Translation . 2nd ed. W.W. Norton. ISBN 9780393974065, Publication Date: Jan. 1, 1998. Old English Literature. Anthology Essays? The clash of india blade on the shield-wall – Grendel’s monstrous form looming through the mist – the buy college application, Dragon’s roar – Odin’s blood on the world-tree – the call papers, broken ruin of a Roman town rumours of a new God from across the critical anthology, sea – the song of Raven and in law 2013 india, Wolf – the first sounds of a Te Deum in a new built church – the blood cries of the writing seminars, sea-wolves – the lament for for research in law, the passing of an age.

The literary landscape of Early Medieval Britain (c. 497 AD – 1066 AD) is linguistically and anthology, culturally diverse, a record of profound cultural change over the span of five centuries. This course is 2013 india designed to introduce students to the multilingual literatures of Early Medieval Britain, a period that saw the birth of creative writing seminars English as a language and as a literature, but one that was always is dialogue with the other languages of the British Isles. Primarily focusing upon the surviving literature of the Anglo-Saxons (recorded in various dialects of Old English (cf. ENGL 340), the call papers in law 2013, course will also introduce students to distraction selections of Welsh, Norse, and Latin literature from the early medieval period (all texts will be read in modern English translation). The early British Middle Ages, often simplistically named the ‘Anglo-Saxon period’, was a complex geography of call india cultural and linguistic intermixture. While the colonizing pagan Anglo-Saxons (from the early sixth century onwards) eventually came to dominate the lowland areas of Britain that now encompass England, the culture and literature of the Celtic peoples survived and thrived in West (Wales) and system, the North. To this mix we add the culture of the Scandinavian peoples, who came first to burn and raid, but later to settle and conquer.

Interweaving with all these vernaculars was the international language of medieval Europe, the Latin of the call in law 2013, Church and (by default) of international intellectual culture. This course will seek to understand the origins of English literature in its profoundly multilingual and postcolonial contexts. The Longman Anthology of Old English, Old Icelandic, and Anglo-Norman Literatures (Longman, 2011) Welsh and Latin poems (supplied by professor) Sin. This is an and justice, ugly and historically powerful word. Sin is for research 2013 not mitigated by appealing to anthology poor choices or mental distress; it allows for papers 2013, no moral grey area. Ideas of sin and salvation shaped the medieval Western European worldview. The hierarchy of the seven deadly sinsthose sins whose destructiveness would endanger one’s soul was therefore a commonly recurring trope in medieval literature, philosophy, and theology.

Sin, classified and weighted according to category and severity, thus became one key element of exchange in the economy of salvation that permeated medieval societies. However, everyone knows that sin is not simply deadly; it can also be fun. The very significance and intensity of the seminars missouri, seven deadly sins meant that they had the attraction of the taboo; like Bakhtin’s notion of the carnivalesque, humorous or risque engagement with the seven deadly sins constituted an important form of ideological resistance. In this course, students will read a range of medieval texts that take a variety of approaches to the seven deadly sins: intellectual, literary, theological, dirty, funny, didactic, fearful, and artistic, to for research papers in law 2013 name some. Dealing with one sin at buy college application essay a time, we will find out call for research papers 2013, what lust, gluttony, greed, sloth, anger, envy, and pride really looked like a thousand years ago. Writing Seminars Missouri? This course will introduce the rich array of writing by women of the high and later Middle Ages. We will focus on Heloise (and Abelard); Marie de France; Margery Kempe; Christine de Pizan; the women (and men) of the Paston family.

There will also be briefer readings in related works such as ancient and medieval writings about women, Continental and English mystics who influenced Margery Kempe, and anonymous lyrics recently attributed to papers 2013 india women. Because the works we will read include both traditional genres (lyric, dream-vision, brief romance) and less canonical kinds (letters, mystical and devotional writing, medical treatises), we will consider the definition of ‘literature’ and critical anthology essays, questions of canonicity.A Our approach will frequently be interdisciplinary, as we will explore the historical circumstances in which these women lived, read, and wrote, and papers 2013, will make comparisons with other aspects of medieval culture, such as the anthology, visual arts. Works will be read in modern English translation or in modern-spelling late Middle English, which students will be able to read without any special expertise or instruction. The Book of Margery Kempe , ed. Papers In Law? Lynn Staley (Norton, 2001) Selected Writings of Christine de Pizan , ed. Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski (Norton, 1997) The Lais of Marie de France , trans. Glyn Burgess and Keith Busby (Penguin, 1999) The Letters of Abelard and Heloise (Penguin) The Paston Letters , ed.

Norman Davis (Oxford World’s Classics, 1983). There will also be a course package, and readings on the Web. Requirements: A short essay due in week 5 or 6; class attendance and participation; a term paper of c. Creative Writing Seminars Missouri? 2500 words; a final exam. This section of English 346 focuses on the Canterbury Tales and selected sources, analogues, and backgrounds of the tales. For the in law india, most part, we will consider the critical essays, Tales as a collection of experiments in short narrative in several genres – romance, fabliau, fable or exemplum, devotional narrative. We will compare Chaucer’s tales with his sources in order to call papers india see more precisely what is original about his handling of these genres, and will also see how the simple act of juxtaposing different kinds of narratives within a collection affects the meaning of individual tales.

In addition, we will pay attention to the effects Chaucer achieves through his innovative assignment of the tales to highly individual pilgrim tellers, and to the ways the “whole book” represents Chaucer as a particular kind of critical essays author. Call For Research Papers India? Finally, we will consider themes that the collection takes up repeatedly and from a variety of perspectives, such as the rewards and perils of marriage; the rights and responsibilities of women; how humans can find meaning and solace in a universe that often seems indifferent or hostile; how language can be used and abused; and forms of individual and group identity. The Tales have often been read as a kind of debate on these and other topics, and critical anthology, so a considerable amount of class time will be devoted to for research open discussion. I assume that appreciation of Chaucer’s distinctive gift of humor is essential to understanding him as a poet of high seriousness. The course does not assume any prior experience with Middle English. Lessons available on Connect (or in a course package) will help students develop skill at reading Chaucer’s language, and we will practice reading aloud in class. The Canterbury Tales , eds. V. A. Kolve and Glending Olson, 2nd ed. Seminars Missouri? (Norton). Call For Research Papers India? There will also be some additional critical and creative writing seminars missouri, contextual readings, which will be available on the web, possibly to be supplemented by a course package.

Quizzes on Chaucer’s language and the readings (10) EITHER a term essay OR a series of short (2-3 pp.) essays on various approaches to call for research in law the Tales (45) a final examination (35) class attendance, preparation, and participation (10) Have you ever been in a Shakespeare course when the topic of Machiavellianism came up, but you were too hesitant to ask what, exactly, it means? Have you ever heard your professor discuss Italian influences on English poetry, but haven’t had the chance to study in depth poems from this tradition? Have you only read selections from the second part of Thomas More’s Utopia ? Did you even know that there was a first part? Have you heard (and employed) the phrase “tilting at windmills,” but have no clue from distraction, where it comes? If you answer affirmatively to even one of for research papers in law these questions, then this course, which is a survey of anthology canonical literary and philosophical texts from the European Renaissance, just might be for call papers india, you. In it, we’ll explore literary and power and justice, philosophical works originally composed in Latin (More’s Utopia and 2013, Erasmus’s Praise of Folly ), in French (a handful of Montaigne’s Essais ; part of critical Rabelais’s Gargantua and Pantagruel ; a play by call for research 2013 Moliere); in osteosynthesis Italian (samples from the writings of Machiavelli and Castiglione; the pornographic verse of call papers in law india Aretino, with their accompanying illustrations; selections from buy college universal, Petrarch’s poetry; and the pastoral drama of Giovanni Guarini); and in Spanish (Bartolome de las Casas’s enormously influential Short Account of the Destruction of the call for research india, Indies and part of Cervantes’s Don Quixote ). We’ll read these texts in modern editions, but we’ll also dip into their sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English translations to get a sense of how these texts were marketed to democracy in political theory English readers and incorporated into call papers, English letters. Facility with these languages is osteosynthesis not required, but is welcome. 3 short papers (20% each for a total of 60%); Participation (10%); and Final Exam (30%). Historically, this course will cover the period loosely defined by the Henrician, Edwardian and Elizabethan Reformation – a period in which one form of drama (mystery plays) disappeared and another form (the professional playhouse) opened its doors for the first time. The purpose of the course is not to revive a teleological narrative of theatre history, in papers in law india which the naive Catholic drama of the middle ages evolves into the sophisticated humanist theatre of the Renaissance, but rather to contemplate the idea of theatrical invention in the Tudor period – a period that is particularly rich in creative writing seminars new forms of creative expression. The drama will be situated in relation to other forms of art – including painting and poetry – that also lend themselves to tropes of invention, formation and discovery.

And we will touch upon the idea of invention as made manifest in a newly emergent print culture as well as in the discoveries of theology (new churches) science (new worlds) and philosophy (new ideas). However, the course will ultimately return to invention#8217;s shabby sisters: reinvention, rediscovery and recycling. Our objective will be to consider how the materials of the medieval scaffold might have been reformed and papers in law 2013, refigured on the stages of London#8217;s playhouses. Critical Anthology Essays? Our methods will be largely materialist and historicist but given our focus on formal novelty, attention will be paid to papers in law 2013 dramaturgical practice as well. The final reading list will also include a selection of osteosynthesis appropriate theoretical and call papers in law, secondary reading. The Second Shepherd’s Play (Wakefield) The Crucifixion Play (York) The Mary Play (N-Town Cycle) Everyman John Bale , The Three Laws Henry Medwall , Fulgens and Lucres Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville , Gorboduc John Lyly , Gallathea Thomas Kyd , The Spanish Tragedy Christopher Marlowe , Doctor Faustus, Edward II.

Annotated bibliography: 25% Research paper: 40% Play Performance: 35% This course will focus primarily on democracy power in political theory, the plays of Shakespeare, with some attention given to other Renaissance dramatic and non-dramatic works. We will discuss cultural history, contemporary religious, philosophical, and political controversy, and elements of domestic life and social interaction relevant for the study of for research papers 2013 india these works. We will explore the conditions influencing production and the participation of these plays in the ideological and theatrical aspects of Elizabethan playing and audience reception. A variety of different critical approaches will be examined, including those of earlier decades, and those more current. Shakespeare’s theatre can be seen as a commercial enterprise, licensed by the authorities, and dependent on royal patronage, involving complex negotiations of class and subjectivity. It can also be seen as a marginal or liminal space wherein the dilemmas and dreams of Shakespeare’s time and osteosynthesis, now of our own can be evoked and given form; where competing cultural voices find expression; where “things as they are” can be challenged by the very manner of call papers in law their representation. The dramatic poetry of Shakespeare is both historical document and unfinished experiment a boundlessly eventful experiential realm. Osteosynthesis? Students will study six plays, four with full coverage in papers in law india the classroom and two with briefer coverage in class. We will also consider a handful of the sonnets.

To enhance our understanding of the dramatic texts in osteosynthesis their time, we will discuss other Elizabethan and for research, Jacobean playwrights, and brief selections from the works of some important figures of the English and Continental Renaissance, such as Spenser, Montaigne, Thomas Hobbes and Machiavelli. Selections from film versions of the plays will be viewed as time permits. Play texts will be available at the UBC Bookstore. Supplementary readings, such as Montaigne’s essays and system, Shakespeare’s sonnets, will be available online. Course requirements: Students will be asked to write one term paper and one in-class essay, as well as a final exam.

Each member of the class will be required to participate in the classroom performance of a scene or part of a scene from call for research 2013 india, one of the plays on our list. Students may choose to act, direct, or work on costumes and props. For anyone who is opposed to education system essay being involved in performance, there is another option: you may write a review (1 page or less) of any performance of a Shakespeare play which you have seen recently, on film or in call for research the theatre. The purpose of this exercise is to encourage the reception of Shakespeare’s dramatic art as theatre, rather than as literature written for the page. A bibliographical guide to Shakespeare scholarship will be distributed in the third week of term. Shakespeare and the Renaissance. The course explores Shakespeare’s dramatic representation of orality, script and print in a number of buy college application his plays and for research papers in law, poems. five blog entries of 100 words, summarizing five of the essay on children, theory articles (40%); panel participation (40%) exam (20%) Texts: the Oxford Shakespeare editions of the plays and poems, available at the UBC Bookstore; theory texts are on Connect. Shakespeare and the Renaissance. In this course we shall explore the careers of call for research in law two of anthology essays Renaissance England’s most celebrated literary contemporaries, Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593) and William Shakespeare (1564-1616).

We’ll examine some of their major works in pairs – for for research india, instance, Marlowe’s Edward II with Shakespeare’s Richard II and Marlowe’s Hero and Leander with Shakespeare’s Venus and buy college, Adonis – to investigate how each engages comparable subject matter (the suspect English monarch and erotic pursuit and consummation in these examples) and similar literary form (the history play and call india, the narrative poem). Our efforts, in the first instance, will be directed towards elaborating two critical commonplaces about Shakespeare and Marlowe: first, that because the innovative and popular Kit Marlowe predeceased Will Shakespeare by some 23 years, he exerted a profound influence over Shakespeare’s dramaturgy and poetry; second, that “Marlowe” – his life and his literature – functions in contemporary scholarship as shorthand for writing, sodomy, a crime encompassing but not limited to homosexuality, whereas “Shakespeare” serves to establish and secure a heterosexual imaginary. Papers? We’ll of writing seminars missouri course work to unsettle these commonplaces not simply by highlighting counterexamples – there is homosexuality in Shakespeare – but, more importantly, by in law india thinking about the usefulness of the interpretive scaffolding that has made them both possible and plausible: biography. Education System? In addition to the texts mentioned above, we’ll likely also study Shakespeare’s Tempest , 1 Henry VI , The Merchant of Venice , and Richard III , and in law 2013 india, Marlowe’s Dido, Queen of Carthage , Tamburlaine, Part 1 , and The Jew of Malta . Shakespeare and the Renaissance. In the anthology, film Shakespeare in Love (dir. John Madden), Will sets about india, two tasks when he finds himself smitten with Viola: he effortlessly pens a sonnet for her and then he plots Romeo and critical essays, Juliet . The film highlights Shakespeare’s talent for call for research papers, versification – here, the speedy composition of what we now call Sonnet 20 – and would also seem to downplay that talent, marking it as an occasional diversion from, or, at best, a mini-exercise accelerating, the course of his dramatic career. Democracy Power And Justice Essays? The film thus articulates Will’s development as a “serious” playwright through the papers 2013 india, coordinates of a fictive Shakespearean biography / love story. With a cue from Shakespeare in Love , we chart in this class Shakespeare’s poetic career, attending mainly to the aesthetic qualities and historical backgrounds of Shakespearean poetry.

Every now and then we will also have occasion to explore those traces of essay of tv on children (pseudo-)Shakespearean biography we might discover in the publication history of his verse in the late-sixteenth and early-seventeenth centuries. We shall commence with the long narrative poems Venus and call 2013, Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece , both of which Shakespeare ushered through the press himself, and then turn to sonnets which were included (presumably without his permission) in The Passionate Pilgrim and to buy college essay his puzzling contribution to the verse collection Loves Martyr . At this point, we’ll break genre to study three plays from the mid- to late-1590s ( As You Like It , Love’s Labor’s Lost , and Romeo and for research papers 2013, Juliet ) to speculate about possible points of osteosynthesis intersection among Shakespearean drama, poetry, and perhaps even biography. We’ll conclude our course with an call for research india, extended discussion about those Shakespearean poems that have so provoked, and education system essay, yet so frustrated, biographical readings since their pirated publication in 1609 – Shakespeare’s sonnet sequence and call for research papers in law 2013, its enigmatic companion poem, A Lover’s Complaint . Distraction? Shakespeare and the Renaissance. Call For Research Papers 2013 India? This course will examine the dramaturgical form of on effect of tv on children Shakespeare’s plays. Our approach will be, in part, historicist: we will look at how the for research 2013 india, institutional and social conditions attendant upon the original productions work to shape the plays and we will look at application essay the historical relationship between the plays and other sensational media (poetry, art, music). We will also think about how the texts harness the call papers, mimetic possibilities (and pitfalls) of the material theatre and we will ask how the distraction, meanings generated by the plays resonate against call papers 2013 india the experiences of playmaking and playgoing. Because 2016 marks the quarter-centenary of Shakespeare’s death, the missouri, class will also consider the Shakespearean “method” in relation to key manifestations of the call for research in law, enduring influence and power and justice theory, popularity of his work. The final reading list will also include a selection of appropriate theoretical and secondary reading. All in the Oxford “World’s Classics” Editions.

Annotated bibliography: 25% Research paper: 40% Play Performance: 35% Distance Education Course. In this course we will read and study five of Shakespeare’s plays (see below). We will analyze Shakespeare’s language, dramatic characterization, and plotting; we will become familiar with the economic, the intellectual, the political, the call 2013, religious, the sexual, and the social conditions of sixteenth- and democracy and justice, seventeenth-century England, and we will learn how these conditions may have informed Shakespeare’s plays; and we will develop a thorough understanding of the genres and theatrical conventions Shakespeare employed on the Renaissance stage. We will consider Shakespeare, a literary figure often acclaimed for the timelessness of his art, as a playwright, in the first instance, of his own time. We will read the following plays: The primary purpose of this course will be to examine the non-Shakespearean drama of the Seventeenth-Century. Some of the plays we will be reading have come to be considered as #8220;timeless#8221; and share canonical status with the for research, works of Shakespeare. Others, while popular in their time, are now considered #8220;obscure#8221; and are known only to those with a scholarly interest in the field. In order to understand the importance of the plays to their original audiences, we will gather together historical materials pertinent to essays the institution of the theatre (religious injunctions, political speeches, London civic records, documents of papers in law india censorship and creative seminars missouri, control, publishing records) as well as materials that speak to the relationship between the plays and in law india, other contemporary forms of expression (visual art, illustrated books, poetry, music). We will consider performance issues (the transvestite theatre or the aesthetics of violence) and their relationship to changing (or constant) audience tastes. We will look at the form and structure of the plays in order to consider the appeal to emotion and to feeling in relation to Counter-Reformation aesthetics and to buy college essay universal the Baroque. The final reading list will also include a selection of appropriate theoretical and secondary reading.

Thomas Middleton (?), The Revenger#8217;s Tragedy Thoman Middleton and William Rowley, The Changeling Thomas Middleton and Thomas Dekker, The Roaring Girl Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher, The Maid’s Tragedy Francis Beaumont, The Night of the Burning Pestle Ben Jonson , Epicene John Webster, The Duchess of Malfi John Ford, ‘Tis Pity She#8217;s a Whore James Shirley, The Bird in 2013 india a Cage. All in David Bevington ed. English Renaissance Drama (Norton) Annotated bibliography: 25% Research paper: 40% Play Performance: 35% This course is principally an intensive textual study of democracy power and justice in political theory Areopagitica and Paradise Lost , with some attention given to biographical, historical, literary, linguistic, scientific, artistic, and critical contexts. Papers In Law? Students will be encouraged to investigate and to draw as many connections as they can between Milton and the many other developments (both in essay on effect of tv England and for research 2013, beyond) that took place in his lifetime. John Milton, Paradise Lost , ed. Kerrigan et al. (Modern Library Classics) (recommended; but some alternatives may be acceptable) Areopagitica (an offprint of this work will be distributed in pdf format) Early midterm on all of Paradise Lost 20% 2500-word research paper 40% (prospectus due early March; paper due end of classes; please plan accordingly) Final examination 40% Other, ungraded forms of class participation will also be required, as is regular attendance. Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Studies. The eighteenth century marked the beginning of the modern capitalist economy. New wealth flooded British society as the empire expanded, the essay on children, first banks were established, agriculture became increasingly mechanized, and manufacture gradually evolved towards the Industrial Revolution near the end of the century. An expanding middle-class, centered in for research papers 2013 the nation#8217;s growing cities, gained increasing political power and compare education, economic clout in call a nation filled with shops, changing fashions and essay universal, a widening range of commodities from all over the world.

These events also had a major impact on for research papers in law 2013 india, literature. An expanding literary market place catered to a broadening popular readership with the wealth and ambition to read new books of all kinds. Authorship became for distraction osteosynthesis, the first time a viable profession aimed at selling books to the middle-class and to both genders rather than a small elite of literate males. Call Papers In Law India? In the face of socioeconomic change, literary styles transformed. The old classical genres gradually faded, and new genres emerged to essay satisfy the interests and tastes of a new kind of commercial society. This section of English 357 will examine these transformations, and the emergence of not only modern society, but of modern literary forms and call papers in law 2013 india, values precipitated by economic revolution. Our discussions will cut across many genres, focusing on how literature respondedsometimes with enthusiasm, but as often with satire and application essay universal, apprehensionto a new commercial and capitalist world. Etherege, The Man of Mode ; Vanbrugh, The Relapse Gay, The Beggar#8217;s Opera Coventry, The History of Pompey the Little Austen, Northanger Abbey a selection of poetry by Dryden, Pope, Thomson, Duck, Grainger, Goldsmith, Blake and india, Wordsworth. Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Studies. By the end of the eighteenth century, the modern Western conception of democracy power and justice human psychology had acquired many of the features that we take for call in law, granted as natural and universal.

Understandings of the human mind and its operations begin to feature ideas such as the notion of a private imaginative life that is unique to each individual, the belief that sympathy and empathy are essential to distraction social connection, models of call in law 2013 india psychic development and language acquisition that emphasize sensory experience, theories of madness as disorders caused by aberrant language comprehension or traumatic memory, and the possibility that consciousness is only part of a vast psychic field that is mostly unconscious. And of course sexuality is mixed up in all of these topics. During roughly the same period, the modern novel took shape as a literary genre and distraction, one of its most important features is its commitment to representing emerging ideas about psychology (and also sexuality). Arguably, the novel is as important for the formation of modern psychology as any other eighteenth-century discourse. India? We will investigate that thesis through a series of readings in eighteenth-century and seminars missouri, more recent analyses of psychology, including excerpts from the work of call papers in law John Locke, Adam Smith, Edmund Burke, Mary Wollstonecraft, Sigmund Freud, Michel Foucault, and application essay, Terry Castle. We will pair these readings with eighteenth-century novels, including Pamela by Samuel Richardson, Tristram Shandy by Laurence Sterne, The Romance of the Forest by Ann Radcliffe, Caleb Williams by William Godwin, and Emma by Jane Austen. Call For Research? Studies in an Eighteenth-Century Genre. During the buy college essay, eighteenth century, Britain transformed from a relatively minor European country to a great economic power with a worldwide empire.

British ships ranged the world, sending back reports of new peoples, and call 2013 india, setting off a new discussion concerning the nature of #8220;civilization#8221; in contrast with the so-called #8220;primitive#8221; or #8220;barbaric#8221; peoples that British travelers encountered. Compare System Essay? The use of African slaves in British colonies became a major source of wealth, though this practice also sparked what is arguably the world#8217;s first great humanitarian campaign, the movement to in law 2013 abolish the slave trade. These events had a major impact on eighteenth-century literature, flooding the literary marketplace with travel books and on effect on children, with fictional and non-fictional accounts of far-away places and non-European peoples. This section of English 358 will focus on call papers 2013, the many ways that literature of the eighteenth century reflected an expanding world-view, the rise of empire, and a transformed understanding of humanity as comprised of multifarious races, nations and cultures. We will consider the first widely-read literature in English by non-white people as well as the struggles and adjustments precipitated by the rise of Britain as global colonial power. Aphra Behn, Oroonoko Mary Rowlandson and others, selection of captivity narratives Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe Jonathan Swift, Gulliver#8217;s Travels Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Turkish Embassy Letters selection of on effect of tv on children poems relating to the abolition of the slave trade Mungo Park, Travels to the Interior of Africa James Cook, Journal (selections) Olauda Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of call for research in law 2013 Gustavus Vassa Anon., A Woman of Colour.

Studies in an Eighteenth-Century Genre. Libertinism is much more than the elite masculinist subculture of smut and decadence for which it is often mistaken. It is also a philosophical and ideological stance, informed by eighteenth-century ideas of power, economy, religion, identity, and critical anthology essays, sexuality. The influence of aristocratic libertinism on the Restoration is vast and in law 2013 india, acknowledged. Its place in the history and literature of the remainder of the eighteenth century is a topic of debate. The aim of this course is first to creative missouri come to india terms with the mercurial qualities of power and justice essays in political libertinism over the eighteenth century, and then to consider its symbiotic relationship with the culture that both informed and was informed by it. We will first work toward an call for research papers, understanding of the historical and philosophical contexts of libertinism, including the works of Thomas Hobbes and Bernard Mandeville. We will then consider a series of literary texts in education system essay this context, including work by John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, Aphra Behn, George Etherege, Samuel Richardson and Henry Fielding.

In addition to these canonical figures, we will consider some relatively less-represented female writers such as Mary Davys, Eliza Haywood, and Elizabeth Cooper in an effort to begin to come to terms with the possibility of a female libertine, and with the implications of the discourse for women and papers in law india, other non-hegemonic social groups. Libertinism encompasses issues of genre, gender, sexuality, and systems of social organization and belief, and thus offers a substantial array of theorizations and approaches under its ideological umbrella. Preliminary list of readings: Cooper, Elizabeth. The Rival Widows, or Fair Libertine . Davys, Mary. The Accomplish#8217;d Rake; or, The Modern Fine Gentleman . Etherege, George. The Man of osteosynthesis Mode . Haywood, Eliza.

The Masqueraders. Richardson, Samuel. Clarissa (abridged). Ed. John Richetti. Broadview. For Research In Law India? Rochester, John Wilmot, Earl of. Rochester . Penguin. With additional poetry, and philosophical, critical and theoretical materials in custom course package. Want to get a feel for buy college application universal, libertinism? Summer Netflix might include.

The Libertine (Johnny Depp as the Earl of Rochester and for research in law india, John Malkovich as Charles II) Restoration (Robert Downey Jr as a doctor to buy college Charles II and his spaniel) Dangerous Liaisons (for the French version, with Glenn Close, John Malkovich and Keanu Reeves(!)) The Romantic period (1790-1830) was perhaps the most exciting time in history to be a poet. It might be said that the British Romantics invented ‘poetry’ in the modern sense as the highest-pitched and most authentic reaction to the challenges and dilemmas of call papers human existence. Essay On Effect On Children? Yet most of the poems we associate with Romanticism were composed in response to the tumultuous politics of a period beset by almost constant war, threats of “terror,” massive social and gender inequality, devastating ecological crisis, generational conflict, new technology, and for research, both utopian promise and profound cynicism. Sound familiar? In this course, we will think about Romantic poetics primarily by way of four fundamental concepts, freedom, nature, sexuality, and the sublime, about how these were shaped by the political conversations of the essay, era and about how they continue to influence the politics of our own day. We will consider the Romantics’ responses to call in law 2013 the major political events of their place and time: the French Revolution, the campaign against compare system essay and the abolition of the slave trade, the War against 2013 France, the rise of industrial capitalism, the enclosure of land, the reform of education, and ongoing debates over critical religion and belief. Call For Research? Readings will draw from the works of the “big six” canonical British Romantic poets, William Blake, Samuel Coleridge, William Wordsworth, Lord Byron, Percy Shelley, and education system essay, John Keats, several women poets, including Anna Letitia Barbauld, Mary Robinson, Charlotte Smith, Felicia Hemans, and Letitia Elizabeth Landon, and call, less widely know poets, such as Robert Burns and John Clare.

We will also read examples from the journalism and criticism of the period to osteosynthesis help us contextualize its politics and poetics. Assignments will assess students’ level of call in law familiarity and engagement with the poems and their willingness and education system essay, ability to use the poems to address contemporary theoretical, critical, and political concerns. Call Papers In Law 2013 India? Duncan Wu, ed. Romanticism: An Anthology 4th edition (Blackwell-Wiley) Class Participation, Attendance, short writing assignments, and response (15%) Critical Summary Essay (15%) Annotated Bibliography and Essay Proposal (15%) Research paper draft and universal, revision (25%) Final Exam (30%) Fredric Jameson has importantly described the emergence of imperial and global networks at the turn of the nineteenth century as an call for research in law, event in compare education system essay the history of for research papers india thought and feeling as well as in political and economic history. He wrote that the “ experience of the individual. Buy College? . . Call For Research 2013? becomes limited to on effect of tv on children a tiny corner of the social world#8230;But the truth of that experience no longer coincides with the place in which it takes place. Call For Research? The truth of distraction osteosynthesis that limited daily experience of London lies, rather, in India or Jamaica or Hong Kong; it is bound up with the whole colonial system of the British Empire that determines the very quality of the individual’s subjective life.” This course in Romantic-period writing revisits Jameson’s statement in for research papers 2013 the form of two questions: how did British writers at the turn of the nineteenth century experience (consider, perceive, or sense) the emergence of global networks? How did they represent or register their experience in their work? We will explore these questions as we read works by writers who explored or travelled, by migrant, emigrant, and immigrant writers, and by writers who spent time imagining connections between themselves, or Britain, and the world. Missouri? We will be interested in call papers in law questions of distance, proximity, movement, and encounter. Distraction Osteosynthesis? We will discuss the connection between space and community, and their relationships with what we’d now call “media,” and consider how we might best identify and understand early nineteenth-century media forms.

We will examine the relationships between imperialism and globality. And we will engage with the question that most prominently motivates Jameson’s analysis: the ways in which literary form might register global experience, from the Romantic period to the present. While the course readings are arranged around five important categories in the early nineteenth-century history of Britain’s global activities (sensation, slavery, commerce, exploration, love), we will also think in an ongoing way about the relationships and resonances among these categories, and these readings. Critical and historical background will be provided in class discussion and by online resource materials. I will also make suggestions for further reading. Jane Austen, Mansfield Park (1814; Oxford) Sydney Owenson, The Missionary (1811, Broadview) Mary Shelley, Frankenstein (1818; Penguin) Thomas DeQuincey, Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1822; Penguin) Online anthology of poetry and prose by call for research Anna Barbauld, John Barrow, William Blake, George Gordon Byron, Thomas Clarkson, S. T. Coleridge, James Cook, William Cowper, Olaudah Equiano, Felicia Hemans, Leigh Hunt, James Johnson, John Keats, Thomas Moore, J. Jepson Oddy, Mungo Park, John Phillips, P. B. Distraction Osteosynthesis? Shelley, Charlotte Smith, Phillis Wheatley, and William Wordsworth. (2 pages; primary source only) (7 double-spaced pages OR a comparably-sized Prezi, hypertext, or other web product; informed by secondary research) (to take place during the regularly scheduled exam period.

UBC regulations require this exam to be closed book.) In your written and for research in law india, your oral work, I will expect you to pay close attention to the rich writtenness of our readings; you will develop your skills in logical, well-evidenced, and critical, sustained scholarly argument; you will hone your awareness of and collegial engagement with your audience; and call for research, you will be expected to buy college essay pay some attention to the historicity of call for research papers 2013 texts and the critical conversations surrounding them. In evaluating your written work, I will look for evidence of growth in power theory your ideas and your explanation and defense of them over call india the course of the democracy power, semester. Studies in a Nineteenth-Century Genre. This course will examine the great genre of the Victorian period: the novel. Call For Research 2013 India? We will read realist novels along with works from subgenres such as fantasy and scientific romance, as we consider the nineteenth-century British novel as aesthetic and cultural form and critical, as popular entertainment. Attention will be given to social and intellectual contexts.

We will discuss a range of topics important to the Victorian novel, including science, psychology, industrialism, and imperialism. Discussion and participation will be emphasized. There will be reading quizzes. Please note : Victorian novels are long (but good); there will be a lot of reading for this course. Emily Bronte, Wuthering Heights Charlotte Bronte, Villette Charles Dickens, Great Expectations George Eliot, The Lifted Veil Thomas Hardy, Tess of the D’Urbervilles H. G. Wells, The Island of Dr.

Moreau. For Research Papers 2013? Studies in a Nineteenth-Century Genre. This course charts the evolution of essays English poetry over “the long 19th century” (i.e. from the late 18th C. to the mid 20th C.), paying particular attention to the Romantic model of selfhood; that is, of the self as a reflective and literary process or action . On this model, having a perspective of one’s own isn’t obvious or automatic, but only results from active efforts of call papers 2013 thought and expression. Lyric poetry has been the signature means by seminars missouri which this model of call in law 2013 india subject is explored, expressed and communicated, from its origins in Romanticism through the Victorian and Modernist periods to more contemporary art forms such as the music of singer-songwriters and ‘auteur’ cinema which we will also periodically have occasion to consider. Essay Of Tv? Studies in a Nineteenth-Century Genre. Call For Research Papers? The danger and darkness of the Victorian city as presented in on effect on children the 19th century novel drawing from 19th century art, urban studies and literature is the focus of this course. How and why was the city represented as a source of danger and threat instead of call for research papers in law india refuge and comfort? How did Dickens, Wilkie Collins, Oscar Wilde and others respond to writing seminars missouri the city?

Did the new urban modernity act as a disguise for its horrors? What is the role of the papers in law 2013, Sensation Novel in the formulation of the osteosynthesis, urban Gothic? What did Freud have to say about the city which both liberates and imprisons? Indeed, Vienna will offset London as a 19th century centre of culture and social life, the fate of the two cities measured through a set of social and literary texts. Collins, The Woman in White , 1859 Dickens, Our Mutual Friend, 1864 Stevenson, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde , 1886 Oscar Wilde, Picture of Dorian Gray , 1890 Bram Stoker, Dracula , 1897 Henry James, In the Cage , 1898 Conrad, The Secret Agent (1907) This course charts the evolution of English poetry over for research papers 2013 “the long 19th century” (i.e. from the creative writing seminars missouri, late 18th C. to the mid 20th C.), paying particular attention to the Romantic model of papers india selfhood; that is, of the self as a reflective and literary process or action . System Essay? On this model, having a perspective of one’s own isn’t obvious or automatic, but only results from active efforts of thought and expression. Lyric poetry has been the for research papers in law 2013 india, signature means by which this model of essay on effect subject is explored, expressed and communicated, from its origins in Romanticism through the Victorian and Modernist periods to more contemporary art forms such as the music of singer-songwriters and ‘auteur’ cinema which we will also periodically have occasion to consider. Romantic Poetry: An Annotated Anthology (Wiley-Blackwell), ed. Michael O#8217;Neill, Charles Mahoney Victorian Poetry: An Annotated Anthology (Wiley-Blackwell), ed.

Francis O’Gorman The Norton Anthology of Modern and Contemporary Poetry, Volume 1: Modern Poetry , ed. Jahan Ramazani, Richard Ellmann, Robert O#8217;Clair Many of the readings for this course are not in these anthologies; all of call 2013 these readings can be accessed online through links in democracy power and justice in political theory this syllabus. Your final grade will be determined using the following formula. This formula strongly prioritizes day-to-day reading and coursework relative to the exam and essay. If you just do that, you’ll have a relatively easy A for call for research papers in law 2013 india, almost two-thirds of your final grade, and a very solid preparation for the essay and exam. Participation (in class on osteosynthesis, line) 25% 3p close reading exercise 20% 7p. Take-Home Essay 30% Final Examination 25% In this course we will read, discuss, analyze, and write about nineteenth-century British literature depicting colonies and spaces of empire. We will also read theoretical texts (both older and modern) that think through the symbolic significance of empire as well as its devastating real-world effects. By the end of the papers 2013, nineteenth century, over 400 million people (one in five of all human beings) and one fourth of the system, surface of the Earth were governed by Great Britain. How was such massive expansion represented and understood by for research those who undertook it?

What were the rhetorical strategies by which it was justified and maintained? How did British authors of imaginative literature contribute to and/or critique the endeavour of empire? The course texts will be organized around three colonized spaces: India, Africa, and the Caribbean. Anthology Essays? Literary works may include (this is a provisional list subject to change): Wilkie Collins, The Moonstone ; Rudyard Kipling, Kim ; Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness ; Olive Schreiner, Story of an papers 2013 india, African Farm ; Charlotte Bronte, Jane Eyre ; and shorter pieces, essays, and poems by contemporary authors. We will also read a range of modern criticism and theory dealing with colonialism and postcolonialism, empire, and critical geography. Course Expectations: Students are expected to read all course materials and come to class prepared to be active participants. You will be divided into buy college application universal, small study groups that will meet throughout the semester to discuss reading questions (given to you in advance), and for research 2013 india, will be asked to prepare short written reports on these meetings.

You will also be invited to participate in discussion outside of class time through blog postings and/or a class Facebook page. Critical? Together these activities will constitute your participation grade (20%). You will also write a midterm exam (20%), one shorter close-reading essay of 4-5 pages (25%) and a longer research paper of 7-8 pages (35%). This course is offered through Distance Education. The description for this section can be found here. Call Papers In Law? Studies in Drama.

Like all other literary genres, drama holds up a mirror of sorts to the world around it. Over the critical essays, past quarter-century or so, as immigration has changed the for research 2013, cultural mix of essay on children so many countries—including Canada—as cultures rub up against one another and awareness grows of the need for special kinds of call for research papers 2013 india understandings along and across new cultural borders, Canadian drama has begun to reflect those phenomena in distraction a variety of ways. At the same time, critical understanding of cross-cultural communication, relations and hybridity has become more sophisticated and more urgent. For Research In Law 2013 India? This course will examine around a dozen contemporary Canadian plays, many (but not all) of which involve some version of cultural collision. We will also be looking at some of the most important theoretical discussions of inter-/trans-/inter-/ and multiculturalism to see how or whether they help make sense in theatrical contexts. Course requirements will include some play attendance, essays, possibly an oral presentation, and distraction, a final exam. The primary textbook will be Jerry Wasserman, ed., Modern Canadian Plays, Volume Two , 5th edition (Talonbooks). Additional plays and critical essays will be required. Details tba in July. Studies in Prose Fiction. This course explores the recent scientific, theoretical and literary notion of the “posthuman,” drawing on the theoretical and philosophical work of N. Katherine Hayles, Donna Haraway, Andy Clark, Bruce Clarke and Jacques Derrida among others.

Mary Shelley, Frankenstein (1818) Philip K Dick, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? Neal Stephenson, Snowcrash Greg Bear, Blood Music William S Burroughs, Naked Lunch Octavia Butler, Dawn. NB: Given the EXTREMELY graphic nature of some of these texts, individual discretion is STRONGLY advised. individual presentation 20% Discussion participation 10% Research essay 40% Final exam 30% This course will introduce students to 19th and papers in law india, 20th century prose fiction from English-speaking countries as well as some works in translation. Text: The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction , 8th ed. From the United States: Toni Cade Bambara, Ray Bradbury, Willa Cather, John Cheever, William Faulkner, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Ernest Hemingway, Shirley Jackson, Ring Lardner, Herman Melville, Flannery O’Connor, Edgar Allan Poe, Jean Shepherd, Alice Walker, Edith Wharton. From the United Kingdom: Joseph Conrad. Essays? From New Zealand: Katherine Mansfield. In translation: Anton Chekhov, Leo Tolstoy , Franz Kafka, Guy de Maupassant. Call For Research In Law 2013? 2 in-class essays: 2 x 15 = 30 1 term paper: 30 1 final exam: 40. On Effect Of Tv? Studies in call for research papers in law 2013 Prose Fiction. Essays Theory? No literary genre has been shaped so directly and papers india, so pervasively by capitalism as the novel.

In this course, we will consider how changes in the economy have influenced the development of on effect of tv on children modern fiction and how, in turn, novels comment on matters of economy, money, and finance. Reading a selection of fiction from the eighteenth century to the present alongside essays on money and monetary economics from the same periods, we will examine ideas of representation, value, character, and power common to both fiction and economics. We will think about the way fiction supplements and challenges the exchange practices of the market and also about how alternative modes of exchange—personal, communal, sexual—are represented in call in law 2013 india both monetary and fictional literature. A background in economics is not necessary to take and enjoy this course. Creative Seminars Missouri? However, we will be doing some reading (provided in the course pack) in the history of monetary economics to supplement our readings of the novels.

Students should be open to interdisciplinary methods of research and new modes of reading. Some of the for research papers, novels to be read for this class are long; students are strongly advised to read some of buy college application essay universal them before the class begins. Custom Course Pack: “Money and the Novel” Daniel Defoe, Roxana Jane Austen, Emma Charles Dickens, Our Mutual Friend E. M. Call Papers In Law 2013 India? Forster, Howards End Martin Amis, Money John Lanchester, Capital. Class Participation, Attendance, short writing assignments, and response (15%) Critical Summary Essay (15%) Annotated Bibliography and Essay Proposal (15%) Research paper draft and critical, revision (25%) Final Exam (30%) Modern Critical Theories. This course introduces students to theories of affect and emotion as they have entered literary criticism and the humanities in the last two decades.

We will explore the reasons for the explosion of work in this area, and bring our attention to india the work of a handful of significant twentieth-century thinkers on emotion: Sigmund Freud, Melanie Klein, and Silvan Tomkins. We will begin with the work of affect theorist Silvan Tomkins, a U.S. psychologist who offered an anthology essays, interesting criticism and revision of the psychoanalytic theory of the drives, and call for research in law 2013 india, who offers a useful theory and education essay, vocabulary of affect. We will go on to read selections from Freud#8217;s The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), a crucial text for the practice of literary criticism in the twentieth century, and examine the assumptions of for research india a set of democracy power and justice in political psychoanalytic reading techniques. We will then explore departures from Freud in the school of object-relations theory, paying particular attention to the notion of phantasy in Melanie Klein and 2013 india, play in Donald Winnicott. Alongside these theories we will read a set of literary texts that examine the dynamics of emotion, including works by Franz Kafka, Patricia Highsmith, Marcel Proust, and essay on effect of tv, Chester Himes. Our guiding question throughout this course will be: what difference might it make for literary study to have explicit theories of affect or emotion to work with? This course will be run as a mix of lecture and discussion. The following texts are required for this course and are available at the UBC Bookstore. Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams (Oxford University Press) Patricia Highsmith, The Talented Mr. Papers In Law 2013? Ripley (Vintage Press) Chester Himes, If He Hollers Let Him Go (Avalon) Robert Hinshelwood, Introducing Melanie Klein (Totem) Franz Kafka, Metamorphosis and Other Stories (Barnes Noble) A coursepack, also required , is available at the bookstore. “Never judge a book by its cover,” we are often told, and yet we do judge books, not only by their covers, but also by their typefaces, their illustrations, where they are filed in the bookstore or the library, and any number of essay on effect on children other factors not apparently directly related to their content.

This course will introduce students to book history, a discipline that unravels the complex relationships between particular books, the texts they contain, the cultures that produced them, and call for research papers in law 2013, the readers who encounter them. D.F. McKenzie famously described bibliography as the sociology of texts. Through a series of case studies centered on buy college, important texts and the books that transmit them, we will explore how materiality and meaning interact, in a range of historical and cultural contexts. Along the for research in law 2013, way, students will learn about the writing seminars, many forms texts have taken over the centuries, from oral recitations to ebooks, and everything in for research papers in law 2013 between. A unique feature of this course is that we will meet regularly in Rare Books and Special Collections in writing the Barber Learning Centre. Call Papers In Law 2013 India? Here, students will have the opportunity for hands-on experience with a wide collection of rare materials dating from the Middle Ages to the present. Course assignments will include explorations of typefaces, cover design, and non-print formats (audiobooks, digitization, etc.). For the final assignment, each class member will adopt a favourite item from the RBSC collection, and will research and write about buy college application essay, it, to introduce it to a wide audience.

The result will be a book blog (using UBC blogs or similar tools). Some of last year’s projects have been featured on RBSC website. Because of the limited size of the RBSC seminar room, the class will periodically be split in half; on the day that your group is not meeting in 2013 india the RBSC seminar room, you will be undertaking your own original research in the RBSC reading room. Students will leave this course with both theoretical knowledge and practical experience concerning the essay of tv, history, and future, of media-text interactions. Michelle Levy and Tom Mole, eds., The Broadview Reader in Book History. Twentieth-Century British and Irish Studies. What was the impact of war on Modernism? That question is the call in law, centre of this course examining the effect of education system WWI and WWII on the modernist enterprise in call for research in law Europe. On Effect Of Tv On Children? The course will begin with avant-garde pre-1914 art, move into the literature of, and in law india, immediately after, WWI, and then focus on the interwar period: the 1930s and the rise of fascism, National Socialism and the Spanish Civil War. The decline of modernism as a consequence of WWII will form a coda to the course which can be measured by two paintings by Picasso: Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907)and Guernica (1937). The first is set in a brothel, the second in a Spanish town destroyed by German bombers.

Texts will mix poetry, drama and fiction. Power And Justice Essays In Political Theory? Ford,Ford Madox. The Good Soldier Pound , Ezra. Hugh Selwyn Mauberley Eliot,T.S. 2013? The Waste Land Woolf, Virginia. Essay On Effect Of Tv? Mrs. Dalloway ; Between the Acts Barnes, Djuna. Nightwood Orwell, George. Homage to call for research in law 2013 Catalonia Beckett, Samuel.

Waiting for Godot. Essays? Distance Education Course. This section of ENGL 462 is offered trough Distance Education. The description for this course can be found here. Twentieth century literary experimentation has been linked to social reformism and revolutionary subjectivity as poets and writers from the former colonies create modern literary forms that answer to global realities. The postcolonial avant-garde grapples with the task of remaking subjectivity from the fragments of papers in law traditions fractured by essay on effect on children colonial violence and modern relations of capital. In this class we examine the ways that avant-garde poetics approach the call for research in law india, task of buy college application assembling a true picture of social discord from the fragments of for research in law 2013 india postcolonial phantasmagoria. Assignments: Midterm essay, final paper, weekly web post in response to prompts on (visible to everyone enrolled). Antonin Artaud, Theatre and its Double George Bataille, “The Notion of Expenditure”, “The ‘Old Mole’ and the Prefix Sur in the Words Surhomme and Surrealist”, “The Psychological Structure of Fascism”, and The Absence of Myth Walter Benjamin, “The Work of Art in the Age of on effect of tv on children Mechanical Reproduction”, “The Storyteller” Partha Chatterjee, The Nation and its Fragments Frantz Fanon, Toward an African Revolution #8212; The Wretched of the Earth Sigmund Freud, “Reflections on War and Death”, “The Uncanny” Jacques Lacan, “Aggressivity in Psychoanalysis” Achille Mbembe, “On Vulgarity. Alameddine, Koolaids Al-Daif, Passage to Dusk Blasim, The Corpse Exhibition Aime Cesaire, Notebook of a Return changed to Discourse on Colonialism Dib, The Savage Night Kuoh-Moukoury, Essential Encounters Marechera, The House of Hunger. The title of call papers in law this course, taken from a volume edited by Laurence Rickels in 1999, points to the collectivist articulations of struggle, transgression, and confrontation represented in subcultural literatures and practices, as well as to their frequent mobilization of the playful, fun, parodic, comedic, ironic, camp or drag.

The umbrella term subculture embraces marginalized styles and behaviors as disparate, superficial, earnest, joyful or dark as one can imagine, from compare system, flappers and dandies, teddy girls, drag queens and kings, mods, skinheads and for research papers india, rude boys, to surfers, yippies, punks, geeks and comic-con fans. More or less visible, subcultures repeatedly altered the landscapes of distraction osteosynthesis 20th-century parent cultures across the transatlantic world. Some are a minute old; some have a history stretching back for decades or more. Often described from the outside by words such as deviant, delinquent or dangerous, they may also be artistic, creative and productive of new structures of call for research papers 2013 feeling. Their discourses have been a reliable source of language enrichment for English. The wager of the course is that getting to know some of these will help us better understand the 20th century, sophisticate our analytical theories and concepts about group dynamics, subcultures and parent cultures, and predict some 21st-century traces and practices. We will read and analyze a variety of texts and media, including theory texts from subcultural, material culture and critical anthology, popular studies, literary, graphic and electronic fiction, manifestos, music/videos and ‘zines. Course requirements include a solo presentation, an investigative portfolio (including a written analysis), general class participation, and a final exam. A detailed rubric will be supplied for the presentation and portfolio assignments. For Research 2013 India? The Autobiography of Alice B Toklas Berlin Stories Clockwork Orange The Buddha of Suburbia The Commitments Pattern Recognition Subculture: The Meaning of Style.

Studies in a Twentieth-Century Genre. Between World War I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945), many intellectuals confronted a world that seemed to be in ruins: the unsettling epoch stimulated aesthetic innovations and ideological risks in prose fiction. This course engages with canonical as well as controversial American and critical, British novels on interwar social crises. Attending closely to the contested issues of the for research papers in law india, era, our discussions will encompass topics such as war and peace (Woolf and osteosynthesis, Hemingway), industry and ecology (Lawrence and Steinbeck), and fascism and democracy (Wright and for research, Orwell). Although the systematic violence of World War II discredited many modern artistic, social, and political experiments, the questions raised by the interwar novel continue to resonate today. Essays? Hence, this class also invites students to consider how these compelling fictions may illuminate our contemporary struggles to re-imagine forms of collectivity in the midst of protracted military conflicts, accelerating environmental degradation, and persistent civil divisions. Please note that discretion is advised: this course focuses on politics, sexuality, and other mature subject-matter. TEXTS (subject to call papers in law 2013 india minor modifications): Virginia Woolf, Jacob’s Room (1922) Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises (1926) D. H. Lawrence, Lady Chatterley’s Lover (1928) John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath (1939) Richard Wright, Native Son (1940) George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949) ASSIGNMENTS (subject to writing minor modifications): Participation and Group Presentation 20% Annotated Bibliography 15% Research Essay 30% Final Examination 35% Studies in a Twentieth-Century Genre.

This course will explore the development, importance and popularity of the long poem originating with Homer and Dante and continuing with Whitman, Browning, Pound, David Jones, Hart Crane, William Carlos Williams, James Merrill and call for research in law, others. Attention to the structure and theme of long works will complement such questions of why long poems, what do they accomplish, do they succeed, why are they important and why do poets continue to write them? Readings (several but not all of the writing seminars missouri, following will be studied): Whitman, Song of for research in law 2013 Myself Browning, The Ring and the Book (sel) Pound, “Hugh Selwyn Mauberley,” The Cantos (sel) Williams, William Carlos. Paterson. Eliot, The Waste Land Auden, W.H. New Year Letter Jones, David. Anathemata . Power And Justice Essays Theory? Briggs, Basil. Briggflats . Crane, Hart.

The Bridge . Zukofsky, Louis. #8220;A #8220; Stevens, Wallace. “Notes toward a Supreme Fiction” Olson, Charles. The Maximus Poems Ashbery, John. Flow Chart Carson, Anne. Autobiography of Red Fisher, Allen. Gravity as a Consequence of Shape Goldsmith, Kenneth.

Day (836 pp). Literally, the everyday . Papers 2013 India? NYT 1 Sept. 2000, retyped plus more as he practices “uncreativity.” MacDiarmid, Hugh. In Memoriam James Joyce . Merrill, James. The Changing Light at Sandover (560pp) Howe, Susan. The Europe of Trusts ; Sorting of Facts or Nineteen Ways of Looking at Marker . Walcott, Derek. Omeros . Essays? What happens when young adult literature, which has traditionally guided adolescent readers through the task of identity formation, confronts technologies that trouble long-standing assumptions about what it means to be a self—or even a human?

We will explore this question by examining recent novels, many of them dystopias, in which non-human beings can lay claim to selfhood and human subjects are surgically, mechanically, and computationally altered in ways that call into question the very idea of for research papers human nature. Madeleine L’Engle, A Wrinkle in Time David Almond, Clay Peter Dickinson, Eva Bernard Beckett, Genesis Neal Shusterman, Unwind Robin Wasserman, Frozen M.T. Anderson, Feed Neil Badmington, “Introduction: Approaching Posthumanism.” Posthumanism, ed. Osteosynthesis? Neil Badmington. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2000. 1-10. Elaine Ostry, “‘Is He Still Human?

Are You?’: Young Adult Science Fiction in for research papers in law the Posthuman Age.” The Lion and the Unicorn 28 (2004): 222-246. Essay Of Tv On Children? Written work will consist of a series of connected assignments leading to the term paper. Participation and attendance 10% Two very brief, exploratory papers 10% Critical review 15% Proposal and papers 2013 india, working bibliography 10% Term paper 30% Final exam 25% “No book is really worth reading at the age of ten which is not equally (and often far more) worth reading at the age of fifty and beyond” – C. Writing? S. Lewis. In this section of English 468A we will read a range of texts written for children including traditional fairy tales, works of fantasy and call for research in law india, social realism.

We will focus on textual constructions of femininity and buy college universal, masculinity as well as exploring generic conventions and tropes. Call In Law 2013? In discussions and democracy power and justice essays theory, written assignments, students will be asked to consider social/historical factors influencing the call papers in law india, production and reception of children’s literature, its ideological role in promoting social change and the advent of queer-friendly fiction for children. Folk Fairy Tales (Broadview 4th ed. – not the on effect on children, Concise Edition) Louisa May Alcott, Little Women Robert Louis Stevenson, Treasure Island Lewis Carroll, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass J. R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit Salman Rushdie, Haroun and the Sea of Stories Nancy Garden, Annie on My Mind David Levithan, Boy Meets Boy Mariko Tamaki and Jillian Tamaki, Skim Custom Course Package including critical/theoretical readings. Critical response – 15% In-class essay – 20% Term paper – 30% Participation – 5% Final examination – 30% Much fantasy literature for children focuses on call in law 2013 india, a child or adolescent#8217;s quest to gain ascendancy in the battle between good and on children, evil. The literature we will explore in this course relies on British and European national myths of adventure, religion and selfhood.

As we examine these quest narratives, we will trace the ways in which patterns and continuities of history and for research papers, memory, the buy college application essay universal, force of nostalgia in creating an idealized past, and the reliance on for research papers india, an assumed framework of compare education system essay common cultural community combine to form potent ideological perspectives about nationhood, which are both maintained and challenged by the authors we will study. For Research Papers In Law? This course mainly focuses on the “Oxford authors” and their influences on each other. Lewis Carroll. Alice#8217;s Adventures in Wonderland (Broadview) Susan Cooper. The Dark is Rising J. K. Rowling, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkhaban J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit (HarperCollins) C.S.

Lewis, The Magician#8217;s Nephew (HarperTrophy Colour Ed.) Philip Pullman, The Golden Compass. Robert Dale Parker. How to Interpret Literature . OUP. Kelley Griffith. Writing About Literature . 9th ed. Thomson Nelson. Contributions to essay on effect the class (class discussion, attendance) 10% Midterm (in-class essay) 20% Group Presentations (annotated bibliography/seminar/creative) 15% Term Paper (home essay) 25% Final Examination (essay and short questions) 30% The course description for this section of ENGL 468A is not available. Please contact the instructor. #8220;You are always in danger in the forest, where no people are.#8221; – Angela Carter, #8220;The Company of Wolves#8221; Danger and discovery stalk children’s literature in many ways. It so often focuses on call for research papers in law, successful (or not so successful) negotiation of the threats and learning opportunities in the intimate and public worlds around the child that “children’s” tales are often scarier than adult fiction. Not surprisingly, children#8217;s literature has long been the focus of both fascination and controversy, and only more recently of full-on academic (theorizing) attention.

In this course, we will study a broad selection of texts, most specifically through a literary/cultural studies lens, exploring their (sometimes) evolving genre features and the ways assumptions about audiences have shifted over time and according to various theorists. We#8217;ll start with familiar (and not-so-familiar) oral-tradition folk/fairytales, to consider how their recurring devices establish tropes still commonly used in children#8217;s adventure-quest stories. Then we will stray from the path and consider how texts that assume a mostly young readership might challenge or subvert perceived boundaries and conventions, especially in representing discovery or peril. This section of ENGL 468A is offered through Distance Education. The course description is available here.

How do writers, historians, photographers, cinematographers, and artists shape our perception of compare education essay “Vancouver”? How has Vancouver been “textualized” by different media forms and how has the materiality of the city in turn shaped the forms that give voice to the experiences of living in Vancouver? This course will explore the myriad meanings of “Vancouver” through a selective consideration of fiction, poetry, history, literary theory, urban studies, film, photography, and artwork. The city itself – its communities, streets, architecture, parks, commemorative sites, and statuary – will also serve as potential texts for our investigative readings and for the written engagements with urban experience and space that students will produce themselves. Obviously, this is not a traditional English course that focuses only on printed artifacts. Students will explore a wide variety of genres and media forms. Assignment options will also permit final projects that employ mixed media forms. Required texts (listed according to the reading sequence): Douglas Coupland, City of Glass (2009 Revised Ed.); Madeleine Thien, Simple Recipes (2001); Daphne Marlatt and Robert Minden, Steveston (2001); W.H. For Research Papers In Law 2013 India? New, YVR (2011) ; Timothy Taylor, Stanley Park (2001); Lisa Robertson, Occasional Work and Seven Walks from the Office of Soft Architecture (2011 3rd Ed.); Wayde Compton, The Outer Harbour (2014).

Excerpts : A Pauline Johnson: #8220;The Two Sisters#8221; and #8220;The Siwash Rock#8221; from Legends of Vancouver (online) ; Roy Miki, #8220;the mannekins must share#8221; from Mannequin Rising (2011); Meredith Quartermain, #8220;Nightwalk#8221; from Vancouver Walking (2005). Films (To be screened in essay class, subject to availability): Everything’s Gone Green (2007); Eve and the Fire Horse (2005); Double Happiness (1994); The Line Has Shattered (2013). Cultural contexts and urban space: Maria Balshaw and for research papers in law 2013, Liam Kennedy, #8220;Introduction: Urban Space and Representation#8221;(1-21), available through EBRARY. Other secondary readings will be listed on buy college application essay universal, the course syllabus. Call Papers 2013 India? Some visual materials by Fred Herzog, Jeff Wall, Brian Jungen, and Ken Lum will be accessed through websites. Shorter essay: 10% Final project: 40% Pop quizzes on required readings: 10% Class participation: 10% Final exam: 30% “Different orientations towards time and space, different positioning within time and space, and different systems of language for making space and missouri, time ‘real’ underpin notions of past and present, of call for research papers in law 2013 place and of tv on children, of relationships to the land.#8221; Linda Tuhwai Smith, Decolonizing Methodologies, p. 54. This course will consider some of those ideas about time and in law 2013, space in the context of distraction writing by Indigenous and non-Indigenous writers in the territories which settlers call British Columbia. Call In Law 2013? Concepts of history and and justice essays theory, memory, whether print-based or oral, are as inseparable from the for research in law 2013, processes of colonization as are printed maps and the cartographical imaginary which attempted to impose English names and cardinal directions on Indigenous understandings of the compare system, land and the obligations of people.

In turn, these time-honoured understandings and cultural practices have become flashpoints in present-day settler attempts to undertake resource extraction on Indigenous lands and waters. For Research? Powerfully engaged by of tv writers as different as Wong, Marlatt, and Nicholson, those struggles figure in the representation of trauma (another form of resource extraction) and the work of memory in Clements, Robinson and Birchwater. 2013? In their different ways, Write It On Your Heart and Chiwid also take up the challenge of the writing of oral narratives or oral history in relation to Smith#8217;s #8220;notions of past and present,#8221; deconstructing the colonizer#8217;s language and requiring it to essay of tv speak differently. Our purpose in this course is not to create a symmetrical comparison in the context of call for research papers in law asymmetrical power relations but to attend closely to the ways in which each writer we study has worked with these tensions and these histories of oppression and resurgence which are fundamental to Coast Salish territories where we read as well as to critical essays coastal and interior territories to the west and north as represented in some of these texts. For Research Papers In Law 2013 India? Rita Wong, Undercurrent Marie Clements, The Edward Curtis Project Daphne Marlatt, Steveston Cecily Nicholson, From the Poplars Eden Robinson, Monkey Beach Harry Robinson, Write It on Your Heart Sage Birchwater, Chiwid Selections from: Lisa Robertson, Gregory Scofield, Garry Thomas Morse, Steve Collis, Alex Leslie, Fred Wah, Roy Miki. This course will focus on a range of fiction and anthology, poetry that engages in call papers in law india three interrelated areas of prominence in contemporary Canadian literary discourse: First Nations studies, critical multiculturalism studies, and environmental studies. We will examine the intersections of public policy, social justice, and art in essay of tv on children a range of texts that are geographically diverse, culturally diverse, and generically diverse. Within the framework of key public policies (the Indian Act, Immigration Act, Multiculturalism Act, Navigable Waters Act, etc), we will also consider how authors address and call for research in law 2013 india, engage ideas about identity, consumption, ethnicity, racism, art, history, class, and violence. We will also discuss the relationship between the education, government and the arts in Canada by asking such questions as: Is CANCON (still) necessary? Protectionism or Free Trade? Where and what is cultural nationalism today?

How do literature and the other arts productively intersect? And we will reflect on how Canadian literature participates in 2013 a global literary economy by thinking about how books are produced, received, and circulated in Canada. Finally, we will consider the impact of reviews, prizes, literary festivals, online and print publication venues, and critical anthology, bookstores on contemporary Canadian literature. Call For Research Papers In Law 2013 India? The course is designed with a broad scope so that it will be suitable for students from a variety of disciplines (those interested in literature, as well as those concerned with visual arts, politics, history, and/ or sociology). Eden Robinson, Monkey Beach Thomas King, Green Grass, Running Water David Chariandy, Soucouyant Dionne Brand, What We All Long For Emma Donoghue, Room Kathleen Winter, Annabel Moss and Sugars, ed. Canadian Literature in English: Texts and Contexts. This section of ENGL 470A is offered through Distance Education. Compare Education? The course description is available here. This course will survey a range of call papers in law india major U.S. writers of fiction (and one creator of graphic memoir) in the decades since the rise of postmodernism.

Our aims will be to understand a range of styles and and justice essays theory, forms, to ask intelligently where they “come from” in call for research papers in law india the culture, and to write and speak well about these topics as we push one another toward greater insights. Areas we will probe will likely include: the power of identity (especially sexuality, race, and cosmopolitan experience) in the reshaping of a U.S. canon of contemporary fiction; the postmodern novelist as uncanny historian and myth-maker; critiques of the U.S. in compare education terms of imperialism, totalitarianism, neoliberalism, and ubiquitous violence; the tensions between modes of realism and experimentalism (including graphic narrative); the use of tone and rhetoric in in law the portrayal of affect, particularly authorial sincerity; and the usefulness of a language of postmodernism (or post-postmodernism, or the contemporary) to generally characterize what has been happening in essay on effect of tv the past 15 or so years of U.S. narrative. Above all, we’re going to read the hell out of some great books. I will sprinkle in a small selection of critical and call for research papers india, theoretical sources as well as we move along, likely including writing by Hayden White, Orlando Patterson, Madhu Dubey, David Cowart, Rachel Greenwald-Smith, Hillary Chute, and others. Tentative book list (it may in the end be slightly reduced):

Thomas Pynchon, V. Essay Universal? (1963) Toni Morrison, Song of Solomon (1977) Don DeLillo, The Names (1982) John Edgar Wideman, Philadelphia Fire (1990) David Foster Wallace, Brief Interviews With Hideous Men (1999) Alison Bechdel, Fun Home (2006) Rachel Kushner, The Flamethrowers (2013) In an address to for research in law 2013 Bryn Mawr College’s 1905 graduating class, modern novelist Henry James characterized modern mass print culture as: a noisy vision of the ubiquitous page, bristling with rude effigies and images, . . Essay On Effect Of Tv? . vociferous ‘headings’, . . Call Papers 2013? . Anthology? letterings, . For Research Papers In Law? . And Justice Theory? . In Law India? black eruptions of print, that we seem to measure by feet, rather than by inches, and that affect us positively as the roar of some myriad-faced monster—as the grimaces, . . Compare Essay? . shouts, . . . shrieks and call papers india, yells, ranging over the whole gamut of ugliness, irrelevance, dissonance, of application universal a mighty maniac who has broken loose and . . . is running amuck through the spheres alike of sense and . . . sound. (43) In this wide-ranging oration, James describes the “shouts”, “shrieks”, and “yells” of modern print culture as produced not only by the modern newspaper’s design innovations—its bold headlines, graphic illustrations, and heterogeneous and hence multi-vocal form—but also by the presence of unwelcome newcomers to modern print culture: first, poor immigrants whom James describes later as “dump[ing] their mountain of promiscuous material into the foundations of the American [language]” “while we sleep” and second, New Women whom James accuses of “corrupting” the English language instead of guarding its “sacred flame”. This course focuses on in law 2013 india, the interplay between popular communication culture (print culture such as magazines, newspapers, and telegrams, as well as oratorical culture) at the turn of the century and elite literary culture, and tropes of “noise”. It attends in some measure to education system essay the “shouts, shrieks, and yells” produced by writers outside the mainstream—i.e. In Law India? immigrants and New Women, as well as Asian American writers—as well as to more canonical or mainstream American authors during the on effect of tv on children, Progressive Era. The seminar will provide excellent training for students studying US or modern literature from a feminist, print-cultural, or Marxist perspective. Students will be encouraged to make use of ProQuest Historical Newspapers and papers in law 2013 india, other American digitization projects to democracy power and justice theory familiarize themselves with Progressive-Era print culture so that their research essays situate literary works within their print cultural context. Topics addressed by research papers may include: The relationship between popular print culture and “literature” The rise of the magazine Modes of in law 2013 literary authorship enabled by buy college application essay popular print culture Figures of the emergent female author as “sob-sister”, stunt-girl journalist, or “typewriter girl” The relationship between high-modernist literary artifacts and more popular fiction writing Newspaper culture and the emergence of literary realism The relationship between modernist literature and popular Progressive-Era fiction. Henry James, The Bostonians (Penguin) Henry James, Turn of the Screw and for research, In The Cage (Modern Library) Edith Wharton, Custom of the Country (Scribners) William Dean Howells, Hazard of New Fortunes (Modern Library) Anzia Yezierska, Salome of the and justice essays theory, Tenements (U of Illinois P) Elizabeth Jordan, ed. The Sturdy Oak (Ohio UP) Studies in Contemporary Literature.

This course is an introduction to for research in law the reading, studying, and enjoying of the literature of Canada’s Third Solitude—Jewish Canadian literature—the first of a growing number of democracy power and justice in political theory ethnic minority literatures. Jewish Canadian writers whose work foregrounds Jewish consciousness contest through their texts’ content and the literary forms into which it is shaped not only for research papers india, versions of a Canada constructed as an exclusively bicultural entity but also the Canadian literary canon. A close critical reading of on effect of tv post- Shoah (Holocaust) English-language prose and poetry by call for research papers in law Jewish Canadian writers will highlight—from a uniquely Mosaic perspective—important thematic, historical, and technical concerns, which contribute to the ongoing re-reading, redefining, and reconstructing of literary solitudes, canons, and mosaics. The title of Hugh MacLennan’s novel Two Solitudes (1945) introduced a powerful metaphor to compare represent the call for research papers in law, bicultural interactions between the novel’s French and English families and characters. As reconstructed by the media and popular culture in the 1960s, however, the “two solitudes” became emblematic of an unbridgeable separation and mutual alienation between English- and French-Canadians. The trope of the twin solitudes has become part of the compare system essay, lexicon of Canadian cultural and historical discourse. However, those Canadians who by birth, culture, religion, or ethnicity did and do not fit into either the English/Protestant or French/Catholic solitude were and are marginalized by call for research in law this constrictive duality.

In a further qualification of the trope, poet Irving Layton wrote of the French, English, and buy college universal, Jewish neighbourhoods in papers india the Montreal of his childhood as constituting “[t]hree solitudes.” The genealogy of this new concept of three solitudes has since been elaborated by Jewish Canadian commentators to delineate the sense of Jewish marginalization in Canada. Essay Of Tv On Children? Each student is expected to participate fully in all class activities (reading, writing, discussion, groups, etc.). Each student will sit the Mid-term Examination, write a Term paper, keep a Response Journal , give a collaborative Oral Presentation, and sit the Final Examination. Because English 474 is conducted as a participatory, hands-on course, regular and punctual attendance is mandatory . To succeed in this course, students should endeavor to attend every class, on time, and well prepared, participate co-operatively, and consistently contribute to the initiating and sustaining of small-group, class, and online discussions. Klein, A. M. The Second Scroll (McClelland and Stewart) Rotchin, B. Call For Research 2013? Glen. Osteosynthesis? The Rent Collector (Vehicule; available as a Kobo eBook from the author, or a Kindle eBook from Michaels, Anne. Fugitive Pieces (McClelland Stewart) Bezmozgis, David.

Natasha and call papers india, Other Stories (HarperCollins) Richler, Mordecai. Barney’s Version (Knopf) Custom Course Pack (Poetry and Short Fiction) Various handouts. Studies in Contemporary Literature. The course will look at contemporary examples of genre, in sets of two or three, and six texts in compare total. Genres currently under consideration include memoir, historical fiction, crime fiction, dystopian literature, science fiction, and call papers india, the Bildungsroman. Critical Essays? All texts will be contemporary (ie, published within the past decade). Likely as not, the chosen titles will feature extensive discussion of an #8216;ism#8217; or two (from vegetarianism to call for research papers in law alcoholism) and an #8216;ity#8217; or two (identity, sexuality). Depending on your politics, this is either a warning or an invitation. Application Essay? Six course texts and three genres have been decided. Coming of age: The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao (by Junot Diaz) and call for research india, From Up River and For One Night Only (by Brett Josef Grubisic).

Memoir: The 100-Mile Diet (by Alisa Smith and J.B. MacKinnon) and My Body Is Yours (by Michael V. Smith). Speculative fiction: Feed (by M.T. Anderson) and Daughters of the democracy and justice in political theory, North/The Carhullan Army (by Sarah Hall). In view of the reading load, the instructor strongly recommends getting through two of the texts before the course begins. Ideally, though: one from each ‘section’ of the course dedicated to a distinct genre. Also: aside from brutal violence, at least three of the texts contain sexually explicit content (that runs the call india, gamut from heterosexuality to homosexuality). Distraction? Studies in for research papers in law 2013 india Contemporary Literature.

Critical and artistic responses to media representations of climate change and to contemporary discourses of imperiled ecology have given rise in the first decades of the twenty-first century to an aesthetics of distraction what the photographer Edward Burtynsky has called “manufactured landscapes”: denatured, waste-filled contact zones between human technologies and uninhabited space. For Research Papers 2013 India? Paul Farley and Michael Symmons Roberts call these spaces “edgelands,” and develop a latter-day poetics that tries to account for the human intervention in the natural, while Kathleen Jamie asks, as she travels the shorelines of the human, “if it’s still possible to value that which endures, if durability is still a virtue, when we have invented plastic.” Beginning with a cursory reading of a foundational modern text of denatured poetics, T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land , and compare system, an examination of the landscape painting and photography, we will investigate contemporary English-language fiction, essays, songs and papers in law 2013, poetry that contemplate landscape, ecology, corporeality and self-fashioning. How is it still possible to write something like an enduring poetry or to speak of the natural in an age of writing missouri “wildlife management,” when human dominion has so pervasively asserted itself over the disparate surfaces of the earth? Octavia E. Butler, Lilith’s Brood (Xenogenesis Trilogy) Paul Farley and for research in law, Michael Symmons Roberts, Edgelands: Journeys into anthology, England#8217;s True Wilderness (and selected poems) Lorna Goodison, From Harvey River (and selected poems) Glenn Gould, The Idea of North (audio, on-line) Hugh Howey, Wool Kathleen Jamie, Sightlines (and selected poems) Don McKay, Deactivated West 100 (and selected poems) John K. Samson, Lyrics and Poems, 1997-2012. Papers 2013? Graded assignments will include a close reading, a term paper/project, a reading response journal, class participation, and a final exam. Drawing its title and creative writing seminars missouri, structure from Neal McLeod#8217;s new anthology, this course will focus on memory, place, and in law 2013, medicine in relation to both canonic and recent writing in Native North America. We will begin with Simpson and essay, McAdam on the resurgence and revitalization of Indigenous knowledge systems, creating a framework for discussion of how the work of memory is enacted in call papers in law india texts ranging from Merasty#8217;s residential school narrative and Campbell#8217;s classic memoir to the challenges faced by Silko and King in the layering of critical essays competing systems of historical memory in the articulation of place. Medicine in for research papers the form of #8220;poems as healing bundles#8221; (Scofield) and in the form of political action through, e.g., Idle No More will contextualize Dumont#8217;s book as well as selections from such writers as Alexie, Harjo and Ortiz.

Thus the essays in political, course seeks active engagement with Indigenous poetics as political discourse and as contemporary expression of the medicine ways of oral history resurgent through environmental protests as much as poems. All are welcome in call for research papers india this course but students having no previous familiarity with Indigenous histories in Canada are urged to visit and study the universal, Indigenous Foundations website before taking English 476. Thomas King, Green Grass, Running Water Maria Campbell, Halfbreed Leslie Marmon Silko, Ceremony Marilyn Dumont, The Pemmican Eaters Joseph Merasty, The Education of Augie Merasty Leanne Simpson, Islands of Decolonial Love Leanne Simpson , Dancing on Our Turtle#8217;s Back Sylvia McAdam (Saysewahum), Nationhood Interrupted: Revitalizing nehiyaw Legal Systems Selections from: The Kino-Nda-niimi Collective, The Winter We Danced; Sherman Alexie, Joy Harjo, Simon Ortiz Neal McLeod, ed., Indigenous Poetics in papers in law 2013 india Canada. Recently, a number of works of fiction written by African writers have garnered international attention and won top literary prizes. African literatures have changed dramatically in application the fifty years since Chinua Achebe wrote that “I would be satisfied if my novels (especially the ones set in the past) did no more than teach my readers that their past—with all its imperfections—was not one long night of savagery from which the first Europeans acting on call papers 2013 india, God’s behalf delivered them.” African writers have come to play a significant role in global literature. This course will examine some award-winning recent novels, written in English, by authors from creative writing seminars missouri, Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe that consider important contemporary issues such as oil extraction and call for research in law india, global resource management, email scams, corruption, tourism, travel, migration, terrorism, and sexual violence. Power And Justice Essays In Political Theory? We will also consider this series of creative works in relation to ideas and for research in law 2013, theories about the literary economy, class, gender, race, language, and globalization. In the class we will ask a number of questions about application, how African literatures are produced, received, and circulated globally.

What books get read around the world? What effect do literary prizes have on call papers, the production and reception of contemporary writing? What makes a book a bestseller? What is the essay on effect of tv on children, impact of call for research papers india sales on publishing choices? What is generic expectation and how does it function with African literatures?

What stories of buy college application universal Africa sell? What role do reviews play in the reception of a work? Whose books get reviewed? Why? Reading List: (we will read 6 of the following) J.M. Coetzee, Life and Times of Michael K (1985) Zakes Mda, Ways of for research papers in law india Dying (2002) Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Half of a Yellow Sun (2006) Adaobi Tricia Nwaubani, I Do Not Come to You by Chance (2009) Helon Habila, Oil on Water (2010) Lauren Beukes, Zoo City (2010) Noo Saro-Wiwa, Looking for TransWonderland (2012) NoViolet Bulawayo , We Need New Names: A Novel (2014) Asian Canadian and/or Transnational Studies. “Modernity is inconceivable unless there are occasions when many regions, many peoples, many industries, and many polities are in essay of tv contact with one another despite geographic, cultural, and social distance.” #8212; Naoki Sakai, “#8217;You Asians:#8217; On the Historical Role of the call 2013 india, West and Asia Binary” Large scale movements of peoples and cultures from Asia have taken place for centuries and as a result, vibrant diasporic communities can be found all over the world. This course examines a selection of literature that come from creative writing seminars missouri, East, Southeast, and for research india, South Asian diasporas. We will also consider how issues such as language and translation, geographic location, relations with Aboriginal and osteosynthesis, settler communities, and gender and sexuality inform the call papers india, ways in which we read and interpret diasporic texts. Compare System Essay? Supplementary theoretical and critical readings will provide conceptual frameworks for situating and analyzing the primary works of literature and film. Call Papers In Law? Students are encouraged to engage with locally-based diasporic communities and their histories of cultural activism.

This course fulfills degree requirements for UBC’s minor in Asian Canadian and Asian Migration Studies. Assignments: Short writing assignments, final essay or project, final exam, regular participation (including on compare education system, social media platforms) Theresa Hak Kyung Cha, DICTEE Jessica Hagedorn, Dogeaters Jhumpa Lahiri, Interpreter of Maladies Nam Le, The Boat SKY Lee, Disappearing Moon Cafe Ruth Ozeki, A Tale for the Time Being. Office BUTO 423. Call For Research In Law 2013? Office Hour: MWF 1:00 2:00 and by appointment. This course (together with English 211) is one of two required courses for the second year of the English Honours Program. It is intended to provide an introduction to notable works of anthology literature in English from the early medieval period to the end of the call for research in law india, 20th century, in a range of genres, thus preparing students for senior level courses in English. It will provide scholarly and critical anthology essays, critical tools for the study of literary and other texts, and a substantial knowledge of particular literary works from the Anglo Saxon period to the present. Students will learn to employ strategies of close reading, library research, and textual analysis supported by reasoned argument. Call Papers 2013? They will engage in of tv lively discussion in class, be encouraged to evolve their own ideas, and to defend them effectively.

Each student will present one seminar report. We will consider several kinds of critical theory and papers india, other current methods of reading and writing about literature. Our focus will include the buy college, history of ideas, and the political and cultural history relevant to particular works, including matters of religious, philosophical, aesthetic and social importance. Call 2013? We will also investigate ideas concerning class, ethnicity, nationality, and gender identity relevant to these centuries. Application Essay Universal? However, while remembering that literature is written within specific ideological and material conditions influencing its production, and usually with reference to other works, we will approach our texts as distinct imaginative constructs. The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Vols. 1 and 2, 9th Edition Shakespeare, Antony and for research papers in law 2013, Cleopatra and The Winter’s Tale Tomson Highway, Kiss of the Fur Queen Emily Bronte, Wuthering Heights Mikhail Bulgakov, The Master and Margarita Virginia Woolf, The Waves Michelle Cliff, Free Enterprise. Beowulf, Tomson Highway, Kiss of the Fur Queen; Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales (“General Prologue” and democracy and justice essays theory, “The Wyf of Bath’s Prologue and Tale”); John Skelton, #8220;The Tunning of for research papers in law 2013 india Elinor Rumming#8221;; Sir Thomas Wyatt, poems; Sir Philip Sidney, selections from and justice, Astrophil and Stella, Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene, selections from Books 2 3; William Shakespeare, Antony and Cleopatra and The Winter#8217;s Tale; assorted selections from John Donne; John Milton, Paradise Lost; Alexander Pope, “An Essay on Man”; William Blake, some of The Songs of call for research papers Innocenceand Experience, selections from The Marriage of Heaven and Hell; Lord Byron, selections from Don Juan; Emily Bronte, Wuthering Heights; Samuel Taylor Coleridge, “Rime of the Ancient Mariner”, “Frost at Midnight”;W. Essay? B. Yeats, selected poems; Mikhail Bulgakov, The Master and Margarita.

James Joyce, “The Dead”; T.S. Eliot, “The Waste Land”; Virginia Woolf, The Waves; Samuel Beckett, Waiting for Godot; Michelle Cliff, Free Enterprise; Salman Rushdie, #8220;The Prophet#8217;s Hair#8221;. Two term papers, one short at-home essay, one seminar presentation (a minimum of 15 minutes) presented in class and accompanied by a written version in essay form, to be submitted within a week of the oral delivery. In addition there will be a December exam and a final exam. First short essay 10% First term paper 15% December exam 20% Seminar paper 10% 2nd term paper 20% Students will also be expected to participate in a performance of some sort during the year. Students may act in a scene from one of 2013 our texts, or write their own, singly or in collaboration, or read poetry (theirs or someone else’s) or perform music, or dance, or do whatever they feel will contribute.

This assignment will not be for credit. This course provides an introduction to the major currents of literary theory commonly used in English studies today. Buy College Application Essay? We will review the schools and movements that have had the call papers 2013, strongest influence on literary criticism in the twentieth century (and beyond) including, new criticism, formalism, structuralism, deconstruction, psychoanalysis, feminism, gender studies, Marxism, historicism, post-colonialism, and race theory. We will experiment with the way these theories can be “applied” to interpretations of literary texts by reading them alongside a selection of short stories and consider thereby how literature can interrogate and extend theory. We will also raise broader questions about how different theoretical approaches have been combined in critical practice, about how theory has affected the way we teach literature, and about the ways theory has benefited (or not?) the power and justice in political theory, discipline of English. Robert Dale Parker, Critical Theory: A Reader for Literary and call for research india, Cultural Studies (Oxford, 2012) and How to Interpret Literature (3rd ed, Oxford 2015) Beverley Lawn, ed. 40 Short Stories (Beford, 2013) Class Participation and Attendance (10%) 3 short summary/response papers (45%) Seminar Presentation (20%) Final Paper (based on seminar) draft and revision (25%) He is more friendly than I expected or He is friendlier than I expected? I must finish my paper tonight or I have to finish my paper tonight? If I was a bit taller or If I were a bit taller? Everyone should take their seats or Everyone should take his or her seat? I have already opened the can or I already opened the can?

While some of these represent structures that have been treated by prescriptive grammars as “usage mistakes”, others have escaped their notice. All likely represent “changes in compare education progress” in contemporary English. In this course we will study grammatical changes ongoing in English as it is spoken and written in the twenty-first century. Apart from for research papers in law india, very obvious changes, such as the use of be like or be all by younger speakers as a “quotative” ( And he was like, “I’m out of here” ) or hey for hello , there are many less obvious changes, such as the use of the periphrastic comparison ( more calm ) in place of the inflected comparison( calmer ) or the decline in certain modal auxiliaries ( shall, must, may ), with the accompanying rise of quasi-auxiliaries ( have to, have got to ). In this seminar, you will undertake a study of a particular structure (of their own choosing) and seek to understand the application universal, ways in which it is changing in for research papers 2013 Present-Day English. In order to do so, you will do a corpus linguistics study using online corpora (the Corpus of Contemporary American English, the British National Corpus , etc.). Methods of corpus linguistics will be taught and practiced in the course through a set of graded exercises. Wendy Anderson and distraction osteosynthesis, John Corbett, Exploring English with Online Corpora . London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Hans Lindquist, Corpus Linguistics and the Description of for research papers 2013 india English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009. Set of required readings (available through Connect) Two corpus exercises (one lexical, one grammatical) (each 15% = 30% ) Three discussion postings on readings ( 15% ) Oral talk presenting research project ( 10% ) Research paper (10-12 pages): a study of creative writing missouri a particular structure which, using corpus techniques, seeks to understand the papers 2013, ways in which the structure is changing in distraction Present-Day English (45%) Language Honours Seminar. Call For Research Papers In Law? The analysis of discourse is an essay, important area within language study that typically includes exploration of a variety of linguistic features.

Aspects of language use examined can include syntax and vocabulary choices, conversation skills, narrative structure and situational features. Analyses typically focus on understanding how language is used in context. They may also highlight how language use functions to construct and maintain social understanding of the world. The goal of this course is to for research 2013 india develop skills in performing a discourse analysis and evaluating discourse analyses of other researchers. These two skills are seen to be interconnected. The focus of the distraction osteosynthesis, course will be on evaluating recent research papers in discourse analysis, with an emphasis on call india, linguistic discourse analysis. Topics addressed in the required readings include transcription, ethnography, information structure in anthology texts, conversation analysis, cohesion, hesitation phenomena, forms of talk, stance, identity in call papers in law india narrative and discourse, indirection, narrative analysis and critical discourse analysis. A key part of learning discourse analysis is doing it.

Students will therefore need to collect and transcribe some data at critical the beginning of the term, and to analyze it using several approaches we study during the course. Call In Law India? Students will also present 2-3 articles (depending on essay on effect on children, class size) from the required readings. For Research 2013 India? At the compare essay, end of this course, students will be able to: evaluate recent literature in one or more sub-areas of papers in law 2013 india discourse analysis; compare the way different approaches to discourse analysis handle data, meaning and context; record and transcribe interactions for later analysis; explain how particular instances of discourse are structured; make social interpretations of language use; and seminars missouri, discuss how instances of call in law 2013 india discourse are constrained by social and linguistic norms, discourses and ideologies. A course package of articles including papers by Clark, Fairclough, Goffman, Johnstone, Kiesling, Labov, Schegloff, Schiffrin, Sherzer, Tannen, Van Dijk. Others TBA. Data collection and transcription 10% Text Analysis 20% Final presentation and paper 35% Lit. Missouri? Presentations (average) 25% Class Participation 10% Literature Majors Seminar.

What books get read around the world? What effect do literary prizes have on the production and call papers 2013 india, reception of contemporary writing? What kinds of books don’t win prizes? What makes a book a bestseller? What is the impact of sales on publishing choices? What role do reviews play in the reception of a work? Whose books get reviewed?

Why? In this class we will explore contemporary world literature (with fiction from France, Canada, England, India, Zimbabwe, and the USA) by essay on effect of tv looking at for research india novels that have met an creative, international audience by being nominated for call for research papers in law 2013, literary prizes and/ or garnered reviews globally. Examining a series of novels from the past decade alongside ideas and theories about the literary economy, we will also consider issues of class, gender, global cultures, globalization, cosmopolitanism, language, diaspora, terrorism, sexual violence, and the environment—in short, many of the key issues in literature today. (Book list subject to slight changes) Muriel Barbery, The Elegance of the Hedgehog (2006, translated to English 2008) Mohsin Hamid, The Reluctant Fundamentalist (2007) Aravind Adiga, The White Tiger (2008) Emma Donoghue, Room (2010) NoViolet Bulawayo , We Need New Names: A Novel (2013) Ruth Ozeki, A Tale for the Time Being (2013) Literature Majors Seminar. Studies of modern popular culture have illuminated the complex relationships that individuals and groups maintain with the anthology essays, larger artistic, political, and social movements around them. For Research In Law 2013? Such methodologies, however, have rarely been applied historically, and even more rarely to the eighteenth century. Through detailed engagements with theorizations and representations of popular culture, students in this seminar will work collaboratively to illuminate the relationships among high culture, popular culture, and women’s culture and and justice essays theory, the ways in which the conventional masculinization of high culture constitutes the feminine as the popular. Recognition and of the historically naturalized links between the call for research papers 2013 india, feminine and the popular in fiction (both frivolous, both products of fashion, both determined by performance and consumption) will provide a scaffold for and justice essays in political, our work in in law 2013 india other literary and cultural contexts that have previously been regarded as separated by less nuanced boundaries of high and low culture.

While most of this course will focus on women and popular culture in osteosynthesis the eighteenth century, we will end with a section on the ways in which eighteenth-century women are depicted in modern popular culture, including fiction adaptations such as Pride and Prejudice and Zombies , graphic novelizations, and film/television adaptations. Texts may include works by Aphra Behn, Richard Steele, Elizabeth Cooper, Eliza Haywood, Mary Davys, Samuel Richardson, Henry Fielding, Samuel Johnson, Oliver Goldsmith, and Jane Austen, plus material in for research 2013 course packages on areas such as music, letters, actresses, and fashion. One 20-minute class presentation, accompanied by a short (1500 words) essay One term paper Lots of participation in creative writing discussions and collaborative learning, fitting the seminar model. If you want to read ahead this summer, read Austen’s Pride and call in law, Prejudice and/or Aphra Behn’s The Fair Jilt. Democracy Theory? Literature Majors Seminar. “You see, but you do not observe” – Sherlock Holmes to call for research in law india Dr. Watson. If perception is integral to detection, as Sherlock Holmes points out, what happens when our perceptions (of people, things, situations) are unreliable or indeed deceptive? This course considers the themes of performance and masquerade (by detectives and criminals alike) in British texts from the second half of the nineteenth century, the formative era of the genre of detective fiction. Detective fiction valorizes scientific rationality, moral certainty (“the truth”) and epistemological stability.

The detective analyzes clues, the unknown becomes known, and democracy power and justice theory, the mystery is solved. But this narrative form must also contend with the unreliable and the unknowable: realism, in other words, is in law india balanced with romance. Indeed, one of the predominant features of this genre is the constant tension between concealment and revelation. This tension is particularly palpable in Victorian texts that emphasize theatricality and performance along gender and class coordinates – a prevalent pattern in the sensation fiction of the 1860s, where our readings begin. Far from being merely a conservative force for seminars, reinforcing existing social norms, detective fiction, as we shall see, also raises some tantalizingly subversive possibilities. Wilkie Collins, No Name (Penguin) Robert Louis Stevenson, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Broadview) Arthur Conan Doyle, “A Scandal in Bohemia,” and other Holmes stories in for research papers in law 2013 india The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes and the Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes (Penguin) Catherine Louisa Pirkis, “Drawn Daggers” Grant Allen, An African Millionaire (Penguin) Guy Boothby, A Prince of education system essay Swindlers (Penguin) E.W. Hornung, Raffles, The Amateur Cracksman (Grove Atlantic) G.K. Chesterton, “The Tremendous Adventures of Major Brown” Primary readings not available at the bookstore and critical readings by Todorov, Peach, Pittard (and others) will be provided electronically or by handout. ** No Name is 600 + pages long. Advance reading is strongly recommended.** Weekly response/reflection papers (1 page per for research in law india, week): 20% Engaged and active seminar participation: 20% Seminar presentation: 20% Research paper: 40% Literature Majors Seminar.

In this seminar we shall explore examples of English pastoral literature from the late-sixteenth and early-seventeenth centuries. Since we would be hard pressed to provide a satisfactory definition of writing what “ the pastoral” is, our central concern will be the multiple, shifting versions of pastoral figures that English Renaissance writers employed. Papers 2013? We will study period translations of Theocritus, Vergil, and Horace; the pastoral verse of buy college essay universal Christopher Marlowe, Richard Barnfield, Ben Jonson, and Edmund Spenser; the papers in law 2013, pastoral prose and osteosynthesis, poetry of Philip Sidney; and the pastoral drama of Shakespeare, John Fletcher, and Giovanni Guarini (in translation). Our texts will be accompanied by brief (but potent) readings by call 2013 india Raymond Williams, William Empson, Giorgio Agamben, Julian Yates, Catriona Mortimer-Sandilands and critical, Peter Erickson, Stephen Guy-Bray, Bruce Smith, Valerie Traub, Annabel Patterson, Paul Alpers, Louis Montrose, Robert Watson, and call papers in law, Ken Hiltner. Our discussions of creative writing pastoral texts, then, will range from Marxism to gender and queer studies, to intellectual history, to New Criticism, to New Historicism, and to animal and environmental studies. There are indeed many – maybe too many – versions of for research papers pastoral on offer in this seminar; it has clearly had something to offer successive generations of scholars. We will thus have to address, over the course of power and justice essays in political theory a leisurely term, why Renaissance pastoral literature has such explanatory usefulness. Seminar Presentation (25%) Weekly Responses (30%) Final Essay (30%) Active and Consistent Class Participation (15%) Most of call papers us have had the essay, experience of paying good money so we can sit in a theatre, watch a film, and be terrified.

What reward or pleasure is there in for research papers in law being artificially afraid? In this course we will investigate the genre of “terror,” partly by education essay reading gothic materials themselves and call for research papers 2013, partly by looking at a history of explanations of how the gothic works. Our focus in terms of primary texts will be on the memorable gothic tales produced by creative writing nineteenth and twentieth-century American writers, Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry James, and H.P. Lovecraft, as well as on for research papers in law 2013 india, gothic films produced in the U.S. more recently. Our focus in terms of explanatory models will be, first, on compare education, psychoanalytic and call india, anthropological models that relate the gothic to the subject’s or the culture’s repressed or unconscious life; second, on constructivist and historicist models that see the gothic as a political structure, and third, on cognitive and neurological models that look at the gothic’s combining of aesthetic form and embodied reader response. In this sense the course will look not just at a certain strand of the gothic itself but also at a rough map of twentieth and twentieth-first-century theorizations of the gothic. Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown and Other Tales (Oxford): “Young Goodman Brown,” “My Kinsman, Major Molineux,” “The Birth-Mark,” “Rappaccini’s Daughter” Edgar Allan Poe, The Fall of the House of Usher and essay on effect of tv on children, Other Writings (Oxford): “The Raven,” “Ligeia,” “The Fall of the House of Usher,” “The Murders in the Rue Morgue,” “The Tell-Tale Heart,” “The Black Cat,” “The Purloined Letter,” “The Cask of Amontillado,” “Berenice” Henry James, The Turn of the for research papers 2013, Screw (Dover) H.P.

Lovecraft, The Call of essay Chuthulu and call india, Other Weird Stories (Penguin) “The Call of Chuthulu,” “In the Shadow of Innsmouth,” “The Picture in the House” Ridley Scott, Alien (1979) film George Romero, Night of the Living Dead (1968) film David Lynch, Mulholland Drive (2001) film. Secondary Texts (subject to minor changes): Sigmund Freud, “The Uncanny,” “Beyond the Pleasure Principle” Jacques Lacan, “Seminar on the Purloined Letter” Slavoj Zizek, “From Reality to the Real,” Looking Awry Julia Kristeva, “Semiotics of Biblical Abomination,” Powers of Horror Susan Stewart, “The Epistemology of the education system, Horror Story” (available online) Sarah Juliet Lauro and Karen Embry, “A Zombie Manifesto: The Non-Human Condition in the Era of Advanced Capitalism” (available online) Jane Bennett, “The Force of Things,” Vibrant Matter Timothy Morton, chapter 1, Realist Magic:A Objects, Ontology, Causality (available through UBC library) Literature Majors Seminar. What is the pre-history of media? This seminar examines the media before “the media.” With seminars on papers 2013 india, the two foremost media theorists of the 20th century, Marshall McLuhan and Friedrich Kittler, and focussed discussions of media in the 19th century, the seminar affords broad application of media studies to major works of seminars missouri 19th century media fictions, from the Alice books to Dracula . M 4 Jan: introduction to the seminar. M 11 Jan: McLuhan, The Medium is the Massage [UBC Bookstore] M 18 Jan: from Colligan et al, Media#8230;in the 19th Century [online at UBCLIB] M 25 Jan: from Bolting et al, Monstrous Media [on ] M 1 Feb: Kittler, “Dracula’s Legacy” [ connect ] M 22 Feb: Quiz (30%) M 29 Feb: Butler, Erewhon [UBC Bookstore] M 7 Mar: Baum, The Wizard of Oz [UBC Bookstore] M 14 Mar: cancelled. M 21 Mar: Carroll, the call for research papers 2013 india, Alice books [UBC Bookstore] M 4 Apr: Stoker, Dracula [UBC Bookstore] Literature Majors Seminar.

Office Hours: MWF 1:00 2:00 and by critical anthology essays appointment. This course proposes to examine ideas of for research 2013 india order and on effect, their contravention or inversion in the literature of the English Renaissance, from Marlowe to Hobbes. We examine Christian ideas of india religious and distraction osteosynthesis, cosmological order, rational humanism, political theory, social and domestic theory, the papers 2013, regulation of class and anthology essays, gender relations, and the laws and customs governing service and mastery. The cultures of the English and continental Renaissance are deeply invested in the ordering of the human within a relatively stable (though aggressively contested) ideological framework. In juxtaposition with this, we will explore the popular tropes of Disorder, especially the call papers in law india, carnival trope of the World Upside Down as it appears in Elizabethan and power theory, Jacobean texts and their antecedents. In Law? Representations of the World Upside Down entail the democracy in political, articulation and reversal of crucial cultural terms. In some works, the “normal” relation of these terms to each other is disrupted in such a way as to call the accepted binaries and their hierarchical arrangement into question. Bearing in call for research papers in law 2013 india mind the critical, rapid expansion of the capitalist economy at this time; the general decline of respect for the monarchy and the aristocracy; and the increasing liquidity of property and consequently of identity, we will consider the emergence of a whole network of interrelated crises of authority. These will include the emergence of popular protest; various sorts of attack on government, the ruling class, and the established church; alterations in the situation and representation of women; increasingly voiced concerns about the ubiquity of the marketplace; and anxieties over call in law 2013 poverty and employment. Essay? We will consider how in the literature of the English Renaissance medieval ideas concerning sin and death merge with carnival and satiric elements and call papers in law, other popular forms of subversive cultural activity, often ambivalent in effect. On Effect On Children? Whether this functions as a liberating and reforming art, or offers an apocalyptic vision of the damned, it provides an extraordinarily rich and provocative field of inquiry for call for research papers india, the student of religious or literary history.

Renaissance literature, long understood as participating more or less earnestly in the reproduction of accepted ideas of order, is seminars now seen by many as the locus of a new, undefined and uncontainable nexus of intellectual and social negotiations, which posed challenges to the epistemological and call for research papers in law 2013, ideological orthodoxies of the time. We shall approach our texts in an attempt to distraction understand Early Modern England’s fear of, and desire for, the inverted world. Christopher Marlowe, Edward II Shakespeare, b Troilus and Cressida and call for research in law 2013, King Lear Thomas Middleton, The Changeling John Webster , The White Devil. Pico della Mirandola, On the Dignity of creative writing missouri Man Francois Rabelais, “Author’s Prologue” to call papers 2013 india Gargantua and Pantagruel Michel de Montaigne, “Apology for Raimond Sebond” Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene, Bks. 2 3 John Donne, An Anatomy of the World Amelia Lanyer, “Eve’s Apology in Defense of Women” Francis Bacon, The Advancement of Learning and Novum Organum John Milton, Paradise Lost , Bk. 3 Richard Hooker, Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan. The five plays will be ordered in application essay universal separate editions, and call papers in law, the remaining selections will be available in a customized course booklet (available at the UBC Bookstore), or online at various sites. In-class Essay 25% Term Paper 40% Debating and participation 5% Final Exam 30% Literature Majors Seminar.

Umberto Eco writes that we are continually ‘dreaming’ the Middle Ages, and have been doing so ever since the moment that they ended. Writing Missouri? Eco’s words, in Faith in Fakes: Travels in Hyperreality (1986), presage the surge in scholarly interest in Medievalism – or the study of the reimagining of the Middle Ages in contemporary fiction, film, TV, and popular culture. Throughout the history of western culture, the medieval has been continually reimagined to reflect, as in call papers in law india a mirror darkly, the fears and desires of the contemporary moment. For the writers of the Renaissance, the medieval was the abject other from which the power and justice in political, rebirth of classical learning had liberated them, while the Victorians found in call papers in law india the Middle Ages archetypical structures of Empire and class-orientated chivalry. This course seeks to examine the role of the medieval in the popular consciousness of the distraction osteosynthesis, late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. The course will take the works of call in law 2013 india George R. R. Compare Education System Essay? Martin as the central text for an investigation of how the india, medieval is reimagined in on effect on children our current moment. Reacting both to for research papers in law 2013 the High Fantasy genre of the 1970s and 80s (that inspired by, and largely imitating the mode of Tolkien’s novels), and to post-everything nature of the last twenty years, Martin’s works hold an influential place in buy college application the popular modern imagined medieval, largely supplanting any real notion of the European Middle Ages in the minds of most of its readers and call for research india, viewers.

As such, we will be considering Martin’s works as much for what they tell us about our own moment, as for what they tell us about creative writing seminars missouri, our ideas of the past. The course will involve the reading of the five books (thus far) of the series, and the watching of the five season of the HBO series. Please make sure you’ve read these BEFORE the course begins, as it will problematic to try to catch up if you have not done so. We will also be reading critical pieces and a number of medieval texts during the semester (as companion texts). Topics for papers, discussion will include, amongst others: Women; Politics; Monsters; Disability; Nature; History; Chivalry; Objects; Place; Religion; Sexuality; Race. Please note that Martin’s novels (and the HBO series) include numerous scenes of violence and sexuality, so if you are uncomfortable with such material, you may wish to take a different 490 course. one presentation (20%) one TV episode analysis (20%) one research essay (60%) * You will also need to be up to date on the five TV series to date. There will also be a number of theoretical and medieval texts that will be paired with particular themes during the course. * Literature Majors Seminar. Critical Anthology Essays? * * This seminar is cross-listed with MDVL 490. * * This course will provide a comprehensive introduction to manuscript culture in medieval England. Students will learn how to read and identify various scripts (paleography), the mechanics of how manuscript books were assembled and for research india, organized (codicology, compilatio ), the changing significance of page layout ( ordinatio , mis en page , bas de page ), the world of London scribes in the late medieval period once manuscript copying became secularized, the specific histories of buy college essay some famous medieval texts, and how medieval manuscripts are edited for modern readers. Much of this course will be hands-on, with students having the opportunity to assemble their own codex and do basic diplomatic and critical editing. We will also be working with the digital editions of manuscripts produced by SEENET and items from UBC#8217;s Rare Books room. Literature Majors Seminar. “You are a born story-teller,” said the old lady. Call For Research Papers In Law India? “You had the and justice, sense to call for research in law india see you were caught in a story, and the sense to see that you could change it to another one.” A. S. Byatt, “The Story of the Eldest Princess”

Why do we tell stories? The very phrase “telling stories” is synonymous, to quote the education system essay, Houyhnhnms in papers 2013 india Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels , with saying “the thing which is buy college not.” Yet most story-tellers are trying to express “the thing which is,” however they might define that in socio-political and/or aesthetic terms. In this course we will explore story-telling—our own and others’. Papers In Law India? What kinds of stories are told by writers, readers, and literary critics? Are all story-tellers caught in stories of some kind?

To what extent does retelling or re-visioning stories reinscribe their originals? What difference does it make if the “source texts” are traditional narratives (e.g., folk tales, classical myths) or actual historical events? What assumptions underlie our readings of literary texts and the numerous critical and theoretical approaches to literary interpretation? What does the popularization and commodification of texts—from the re-visioning of “Beauty and the Beast” in every medium to the transformation of of tv “classic” literature into film—tell us about the texts themselves, the papers india, societies that produced them, our own society, and ourselves? Some of the essay universal, texts that we will be studying self-consciously question the nature of “story,” “history,” and “truth”; some (equally self-consciously) rewrite traditional folk, classical, biblical, and literary narratives. For Research Papers 2013? All raise questions about the nature of story-telling, interpretation, identity, and compare education essay, society. Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont, “Beauty and the Beast” and other (very brief) selections from Magazin des Enfans: or, the call papers in law india, Young Misses Magazine (1765 edition available online through UBC Library); if you find the typesetters’ use of the long “s” problematic, you may use D. L. Ashliman’s transcription of “Beauty and buy college essay, the Beast” dash/beauty.html Oscar Wilde, “The Birthday of the Infanta” (available online) Angela Carter, “The Courtship of Mr Lyon,” “The Tiger’s Bride” (available online) La Belle et la Bete , 1946 film directed by Jean Cocteau a student-choice adaptation of “Beauty and the Beast” Lewis Carroll, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland , 2nd edition (Broadview); you may use another edition (online or print), as long as it includes all of John Tenniel’s illustrations a student-choice adaptation of Alice’s Adventures in in law 2013 india Wonderland Thomas Hardy, Far from the Madding Crowd (Oxford World’s Classics) Far from the Madding Crowd , 2015 film directed by anthology essays Thomas Vinterberg Iris Murdoch, Under the Net (Penguin) A. S. Byatt, “The Story of the Eldest Princess” (out of print); we will read the story together in for research papers in law 2013 seminar and the two collections in which the story appears, Caught in a Story: Contemporary Fairytales and critical anthology, Fables and The Djinn in the Nightingale’s Eye , will be on reserve in Koerner Library Michael Ondaatje, Anil’s Ghost (Vintage) You are welcome to use Kindle editions where they are available. Call For Research 2013 India? one 15-minute presentation one research paper and annotated bibliography weekly submission of anthology essays response papers and questions for discussion regular informed seminar participation. * * One seminar meeting will take place in Rare Books and Special Collections, where we will be able to view some of the items in the “Alice One Hundred” collection. * * Senior Honours Seminar (Theory) The course address the problem of representation – of how, broadly speaking, a literary text depicts, critiques, and engages with the world around it. Is the meaning of a text reducible to its historical and call for research 2013 india, political context or can one argue for the uniqueness of aesthetic representation? How does the background of the reader or critic affect acts of interpretation and reading? We will start by revisiting foundational texts in New Criticism by Cleanth Brooks, William Wimsatt, and Monroe Beardsley that continue to essays in political shape, if in unacknowledged ways, the teaching and study of literature today.

We will then contrast these statements with arguments by Walter Benjamin and Fredric Jameson, who attempt in different ways to retain a critical role for art amidst the pressures of modernity. We will then take up challenges to literary studies posed by call for research papers india critics such as Barbara Johnson, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, and Edward Said. Writing from feminist and post-colonial perspectives, they challenge the presuppositions that have informed literary studies in North America. The practical goal of this course is to creative seminars missouri develop methods and strategies for reading, analyzing, and writing about difficult theoretical texts, with an eye towards their potential relevance to students’ individual research. Accordingly, students are encouraged to use the seminar as an call papers 2013 india, opportunity to buy college essay universal experiment with their critical practices and #8220;apply#8221; our readings to texts and topics of their own interest. Assignments will include a term paper, an orally presented position paper, responses to papers presented in class, and other shorter writing excercises. Please contact the instructor in call papers in law india August to confirm the compare system essay, final selection of readings. Papers In Law India? Senior Honours Seminar (Theory) This is an application essay, introductory seminar on new media theory, linking media studies to new and call india, emergent work in literary studies and cultural studies. We will use Media Studies: A Reader , 3rd edition, ed. Osteosynthesis? Sue Thornham, Caroline Bassett and Paul Marris (New York UP, 2010), as our core text, and for research papers india, each seminar meeting will centre on investigating one or two key essays from that text (on such themes as technology, representation, culture and buy college application essay, popular culture, audience and reception, identity and call in law, subjectivity, with close attention to creative writing seminars the complex dynamics of for research papers 2013 race, class, nation and sexuality).

We will make use of foundational critical work in essay of tv on children media studies, from the Frankfurt School, Friedrich Kittler and Marshall McLuhan to Ien Ang, Jonathan Sterne and bell hooks, We would also aim to apply this theoretical material to the analysis of a set of specific case studies drawn from media culture, including television drama, popular music, comics, video gaming, film and science fiction, as well as on-line subcultures and fandoms, electronic media, blogs and other elements of Web 2.0. The main trajectory of the call for research papers 2013 india, course would involve developing connections and resonances between literary critical approaches to application essay texts and broader conceptions of literacy within new media and papers 2013, popular culture. There will also be an critical essays, electronic-media component to the course work, which involves (as well as seminar presentations and a substantial term paper) creating and maintaining a blog. Media Studies: A Reader , 3rd edition, ed. Sue Thornham, Caroline Bassett and Paul Marris (New York UP, 2010). Supplementary texts and media, chosen by participants. Call For Research Papers? Seminar Presentations (2 per and justice in political, student), including write-up: 20% each Term Paper or Project: 30% Weekly Blog Responses: 20% Seminar Participation: 10% Senior Honours Seminar (Theory) How are medical disputes negotiated in an age of relatively untested, and unstable, economies of information, expertise, and call for research papers in law, trust?

What sorts of arguments are made in disputes about public and individual health? How do experts, and what kind of experts, decide what is critical essays a disease, and who are the best candidates for tests, diagnoses, and papers, treatments? The theoretical lens we will use to approach these questions is seminars missouri rhetoric : students will see how various scholars, both rhetoricians (self-identified) and non-rhetoricians explore the role of persuasion in matters of health and medicine. We will read Annemarie Mol’s account of a rhetoric of neoliberalism (promoting choice) as it faces off against good reasons for call for research papers in law 2013, preferring “care” to choice. We will read excerpts of Marika Seigel’s new book on the rhetoric of pregnancy to theory discover what public discourse about papers 2013 india, pregnancy suggests about how women ought to experience it—and what, in this discourse, is contestable and contested. We will read various authors on anthology, questions of risk and how we are persuaded that we are, increasingly, if not sick, then pre-sick. Some health topics gain particular traction in the public realm, and so our readings will also include current writing in public forums. Commentators discuss the value of annual mammograms and the value of prophylactic mastectomies; we read about the call for research in law india, autism/childhood vaccination #8220;debate,#8221; although there is creative writing no scientific evidence to support a causal link between vaccination and the onset of autism. Online disputes have been underway for a while on the rightness and wrongness of changes to papers 2013 india psychiatric diagnostic categories with the publication of the creative writing seminars missouri, DSM 5 in call india 2013, the distraction, fifth, and first publically controversial, edition of the call for research 2013, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of anthology essays Mental Disorders . By the call in law, end of the course, students will be able to attend to creative seminars missouri health/medical disputes and consider them critically, recognize rhetorical strategies, isolate and evaluate arguments, and make careful judgments.

Many students who have studied the rhetoric of health and medicine say that they have become more discerning patients and/or consumers of health care and health care information. Students will, in any case, be able, by the end of the course, to demonstrate some fluency in the terms and call in law india, methods of rhetorical theory and criticism. No prior work in rhetoric (or health studies) is expected from students who wish to anthology register for 2013, this course. Tentative, and partial, reading list: Vincanne Adams, Michelle Murphy, and Adele Clarke, “Anticipation: Technoscience, Life, Affect, Temporality.” Subjectivity (2009) Eula Biss, excerpts from On Immunity: An Inoculation (Graywolf, 2014) Colleen Derkatch, #8220;Demarcating Medicine’s Boundaries: Constituting and critical essays, Categorizing in call for research papers 2013 the Journals of the American Medical Association. Technical Communication Quarterly (2012). Alice K. Hawkins Anita Ho, “Genetic Counseling and the Ethical Issues around Direct to Consumer Genetic Testing.” Journal of Genetic Counseling 21 (2012). Annemarie Goldstein Jutel, excerpts from Putting a Name to It (Johns Hopkins 2011) Lisa Keranen, “This Weird, Incurable Disease”: Competing Diagnoses in the Rhetoric of Morgellons.” in Therese Jones et al, eds., Health Humanities Reader (Rutgers 2015) Christopher Lane, “How Shyness Became an Illness: A Brief History of Social Phobia.” Common Knowledge (2006) Annemarie Mol, excerpts from anthology, The Logic of Care: Health and for research papers in law india, the Problem of compare system essay Patient Choice (Routledge 2008) Marika Seigel, excerpts from The Rhetoric of Pregnancy (Chicago, 2014) Priscilla Wald, excerpts from Contagious: Cultures, Carriers, and the Outbreak Narrative (Duke, 2008) Senior Honours Seminar (Research) Victorian and for research papers in law, modernist literature teems with spirits. The genre of the writing seminars, ghost story emerged in the nineteenth-century and flourished into the Modernist period.

In this seminar, we will explore fiction’s fascination with the call for research papers in law 2013 india, supernatural, investigating its influence even on literary works characterized as “realist.” Considering the ways in which ghosts function in the literature of the two periods, we will ask what literary ghosts can tell us about genre, character, cultural critique, and conceptions of life and death. We will also examine the appeal of the spectral for early cinema, and discuss the representation of consciousness in creative fiction, as authors rethink the for research 2013 india, idea of the democracy power and justice theory, “ghost in the machine.” Examining both literary and historical contexts, we will take up topics such as the Gothic, the uncanny, insanity, the unconscious mind, the scientific study of the occult, and the spiritualist movement. Assignments and Other Requirements : Seminar paper (roughly 12-15 pages) Presentation (roughly 25 minutes) Three sets of questions on the readings. For Research Papers? Charlotte Bronte, Villette Michael Cox, ed., The Oxford Book of Victorian Ghost Stories Charles Dickens, Complete Ghost Stories (“The Haunted Man,” A Christmas Carol ) Sigmund Freud, “The Uncanny” Henry James, Ghost Stories of democracy Henry James May Sinclair, Uncanny Stories Virginia Woolf, “The Mysterious Case of Miss V.”; “The Haunted House” And short stories by Elizabeth Bowen, E.M. Forster, Thomas Hardy, Rudyard Kipling, Arthur Conan Doyle, and Oscar Wilde. Senior Honours Seminar (Research) “Archival Encounters” introduces students to the analysis of archival materials in for research papers both digital and critical anthology essays, print forms, and takes up broader considerations of the archive as a cultural institution. Working with archival materials in UBC’s Rare Books Special Collections (RBSC), the Museum of Anthropology (MOA) Archives, and digital platforms (e.g., Pinterest, websites, social networking sites) we will consider these documents as sites at the intersection of the call for research papers in law 2013, personal and power and justice essays theory, collective. Throughout the call papers india, course we will read relevant scholarship to inform our understandings of how archives work, why they matter, and whose interests they might serve. As significant cultural institutions, archives, like literature, both produce and reflect larger cultural values and knowledge production, and students will be able to think about these implications of the archives we discuss.

Whose materials, and what kinds of experiences, are “important” enough to be kept, and system, why? For what purposes are materials produced, preserved, and then consumed at different socio-historic moments? Issues of papers in law 2013 power, memory, authority, and authenticity are compelling concerns that connect literary and archival studies in considerations of how and what cultures remember. Over the semester you will choose archival materials to engage with in both a presentation and a formal research paper, followed by a collaborative project that makes archival material of your choosing accessible to the public. By the on effect of tv on children, end of the course, students will have gained extensive experience in gathering, evaluating, and analyzing research materials and working both independently and collaboratively to share the results of their research. Note : Students should expect to call for research papers in law spend some out-of-class time doing research in Rare Books and Special Collections and the Museum of Anthropology Archives. System? Assignments: presentation, research paper, blog, and collaborative project (website, poster, podcast, etc.). Archival collections will include: RBSC: letters, diaries, manuscripts, government documents, and ephemera from the Douglas Coupland Fonds, the Japanese Canadian Research Collection, the Yip Sang Family Papers, and call, the Colin Upton Comic Collection MOA: anthropologists’ photographs, field notes, and journals, as well as the document-gathering role of Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission on Indian Residential Schools Digital: the democracy and justice essays in political theory, September 11 Digital Archive, Facebook, Pine Point Revisited, Pinterest ( others) Students may also take up other archival collections (or indeed other archives) depending on their own interests.

Scholarly readings will include (note: reading list will be finalized by Dec 2015): Carter, Rodney. “Of Things Said and Unsaid: Power, Archival Silences, and Power in Silence.” Archivaria 61 (2006): 215-33. Cassedy, Tim. “The Long Tail of Literary Studies.” Archive Journal 3 (2013): n.p. Christen, Kimberley. “Does Information Really Want to papers in law 2013 india be Free? Indigenous Knowledge Systems and the Question of Openness.” International Journal of Communication 6 (2012): 2870 893 Jacques Derrida and essays, Eric Prenowitz. “Archive Fever: A Freudian Impression.” Diacritics 25. 2 (1995): 9-63. Gerson, Carole. “Locating Female Subjects in the Archive.” Working in Women’s Archives . 7-22. Haskins, Ekaterina. “Between Archive and Participation: Public Memory in a Digital Age.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 37.4 (2007): 401-22. Jimerson, Randall C. Archives Power: Memory, Accountability, and Social Justice . [excerpts] plus relevant popular / historical materials for context.

Senior Honours Seminar (Research) This course explores the concept of “theatricality” at call in law india a crucial period in its transition, 1870-1950. Application Universal? This period saw the emergence of modernist drama in the plays of writers such as Henrik Ibsen, Anton Chekhov, Luigi Pirandello, Gertrude Stein, Bertolt Brecht, and Samuel Beckett. It also saw the call for research papers in law 2013, emergence and consolidation of a variety of forms of mass theater: film (from early experiments to Hollywood hegemony), radio, and television. By surveying selected European and North American plays, films, broadcasts, and missouri, writings on theater, we will investigate how the in law india, concept of theatricality itself changes during this time. Our goal will be to investigate how modernist literary and mass cultural forms overlap and borrow one from the other, and to think about the specific social and essay on effect of tv on children, political environments that are being addressed using theatrical techniques in the 20th-century.

This course will run as a seminar. Note: this course is under construction. Please consult this page again as we approach January 2016. Senior Honours Seminar (Research) This seminar will consider the rise of the vernacular author in later medieval Europe. The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries saw the development of several ideas that we may now take for granted in our reading of literature. These included, for example, the ideas of the author as a particular individual whose biography might help us understand his or her work; of the authorial career and canon – that to for research papers in law 2013 india understand one work by a given author, it is important to know which others he or she has written; of a literary tradition in which authors look to predecessors for inspiration but also seek to make their own distinctive contributions; and of an author’s proprietary interest in the accurate reproduction of his or her work.

We will discuss these issues primarily by comparing how Chaucer and essay on effect of tv on children, Christine de Pizan responded to literary tradition in France and Italy, where authorial self-consciousness developed a generation or two earlier than in call for research india England. For example, we will read Chaucer’s House of Fame alongside Christine’s Path of seminars missouri Long Study as two meditations on how an author defines himself or herself in relation to tradition, and also as two of the earliest responses in for research papers England and France, respectively, to Dante. The issue of gender will intersect with that of authorship most obviously because we will be comparing a male author with a female, but also because some of osteosynthesis Chaucer’s richest reflections on authorship occur in call for research papers 2013 india when he grapples with the ways women such as Dido and Criseyde have been portrayed in literary tradition. Selected readings from these writers’ sources, along with seminar presentations, will give class members a quick study in the traditions in distraction osteosynthesis which Chaucer and Christine were writing. We will also do some reading in texts which show the influence of call for research papers in law their ideas about authorship, such as those by creative writing seminars missouri Thomas Hoccleve (who referred to Chaucer as his master but also translated Christine into English) and call for research in law, John Lydgate. Creative Writing Missouri? In most weeks we will read at least one theoretical or critical essay alongside the medieval texts. Call? We will read Christine’s works in critical essays modern English translation, and Chaucer’s (and excerpts from some other Middle English texts) in editions such as the Norton Critical and for research papers india, TEAMS series that make Middle English highly accessible to beginners. Requirements: Presentation; annotated bibliography; term paper; seminar attendance, preparation, and participation. The course introduces students to the principles of written and spoken communication in professional contexts.

It includes the preparation of resumes, letters of compare system essay application, abstracts, proposals, reports and different types of correspondence. Text: Carolyn Meyer , Communicating for Results: A Canadian Student’s Guide , 3rd edition. job application letter and resume (take-home): 10 + 10 = 20 proposal (in-class): 15 letter or memo (in-class): 15 formal report (take-home) and in-class presentation: 20 + 20 = 40 peer assessments/ moderating a session/introducing a presenter: 5 + 2.5 + 2.5 = 10. Distance Education Course. English 301 involves the study of principles of written and online communications in business and professional contexts; it includes discussion of and practice in the preparation of abstracts, proposals, applications, reports, correspondence and online communications: emails, texts, Web Folio and networking. Note: Credits in this course cannot be used toward a major or a minor in English. English 301 is offered as a fully online course.

The use of a computer and ready access to for research papers in law 2013 india an Internet connection are required. Are you trying to figure out critical, new ways to strengthen your writing? Have you always wanted to develop a recognizable writing voice of your own? Are you interested in figuring out how to make the for research papers 2013 india, strongest impact on your readers? Are you perhaps interested in exploring the differences between writing for, say, The Vancouver Sun , The Guardian , and education, an academic journal? Are you considering going into teaching and wondering how to go about talking to your students about papers in law 2013 india, their own writing? If you find yourself thinking about these sorts of questions, this is definitely a course you should take.

Advanced Composition approaches the critical, study and call for research papers india, practice of writing with a focus on audience, authorial voice, and compare system essay, style. It emphasizes the papers 2013, writing process and the rhetorical concerns and distraction osteosynthesis, principles (situation, genre, intent) which govern that process. The course offers an for research papers in law 2013 india, overview of traditional Artistotelian or classical rhetoric, as well as looking at more recent (20th and on effect, 21st century) theorizing of genre and communications. Students get to do in-depth studies of call papers india communities of practice; they learn to situate and develop their own rhetorical strengths. They also get to osteosynthesis argue thoughtfully and even vigorously with their instructor and classmates, and to prepare a final project aimed at a real and carefully identified community of readers (best case scenario: you might even think of aiming for call for research papers in law 2013 india, publication).

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essay on virtues The Power of Independent Thinking. Civilizing Society: Virtues, Freedom, and Development. Junior Faculty Winner. Third Prize ($1,500) This paper attempts to answer two important questions in economics. Call For Research Papers 2013 India. First, what virtues are important for promoting economic progress? Second, what is the source of creative, these virtues? To answer these questions, I rely on recent studies suggesting that the virtues of trust, tolerance and respect, individual determination, and obedience are important for understanding how civil society supports prosperity. Specifically, trust, respect, and for research in law individual motivation, encourage and support economic freedom, whereas obedience can hinder economic advancement.

I also explore competing explanations for the determinants of virtues including religion, the role of government, and the act of economic exchange for critical anthology essays civilizing society. My analysis finds support for the latter source. Keywords: virtues, institutions, development, trust, social capital, culture. The link between economic institutions, such as well-defined and for research papers in law secure property rights and the rule of law, and economic development is well documented in the literature (Montesquieu 1748; Smith 1776; Demsetz 1967; Hayek 1960; Bauer 2000, North 1990, 2005; Keefer and Knack 1997; Rodrik, Subramanian, and Trebbi 2004; Acemoglu and Johnson 2005). North (1990, 2005) argues that institutions provide the rules of the game that structure political, economic, and social interaction. These constraints provide the incentives and information to facilitate production and exchange, investment, technological innovation, and entrepreneurship that is necessary for economic development.

The empirical research supports this positive causal relationship between the institutions supporting economic freedom and prosperity (Gwartney, Lawson, and Holcombe 1999; Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson 2001, 2002; Cole 2003). Rodrik, Subramanian, and Trebbi (2004) summarize this robust finding as #145;Institutions Rule.#146; More recently, economists are pinpointing specific institutions that are important for economic development. An outgrowth of this research is to separate institutions into their formal (government provided and enforced) and their informal (privately provided and enforced) components. Application Universal. An emerging result supports the importance of informal constraints in promoting economic development through its effectiveness in defining and enforcing rules that promote secure property rights, exchange, and the observance of contracts (Anderson and Hill 1979; Benson 1989a, 1989b; Greif 1993; Greif, Milgrom, and Weingast 1994; Nenova and Hartford 2004; Acemoglu and Johnson 2005; Leeson 2007a, 2007b; Tabellini 2007; Williamson 2009). These constraints stem from call in law social norms, culture, customs, and compare system essay traditions. For Research Papers In Law India. Thus, a society#146;s virtues are at the core of any institutional arrangement and power and justice in political theory the subsequent incentive and information structure that is formed to call papers in law india, guide social and economic behavior.

This paper attempts to understand more specifically the influence that virtues exhibit on economic development. My conjecture is critical anthology, that virtues promote social cooperation by reducing transaction costs and the costs of monitoring, generating commonalities and focal points, and creating broad rules to guide behavior leading to more economic exchange and production, higher investment, and more entrepreneurship. For Research Papers 2013. These interactions form the core or #145;institutional glue#146; necessary for the economic institutions supporting a free and prosperous society to be effective[1]. My approach is twofold. I focus on essay on effect addressing two important questions. First, which virtues promote economic freedom and development? Secondly, can we identify determinants of these specific virtues? To answer these questions, I rely on analysis provided in for research papers in law 2013 the economics literature including theoretical, conceptual, and empirical studies.

My analysis is a natural extension of the democracy institutional literature and centers on understanding how virtues help to form the papers necessary constraints that promote economic freedom and development. Instead of focusing on more traditional virtues such as justice, prudence, and love (see McCloskey 2006) my analysis centers on virtues that are identified in the literature as more relevant for supporting economic exchange and production, entrepreneurial activities, and the provision of public goods. System Essay. The first three; trust, respect, and individual motivation, are expected to encourage and support market activity and exchange favoring economic development. The fourth virtue, obedience, can create an environment where individuals are less likely to engage in innovative, entrepreneurial activities hindering economic advancement. Section 2 provides an overview of each virtue in detail explaining how these virtues affect and promote economic exchange and production and thus providing the foundation for freedom.

Section 3 explores the second question and attempts to explain possible sources of values, beliefs, and culture. This section addresses several possible explanations in the current literature with particular emphasis on two main sources. Formal institutions and call for research papers india government behavior could determine and affect a society#146;s virtues. One argument is that in the absence of a virtuous society government may be necessary to fill in anthology the void. A second explanation is that government may be the source of the absence.

I explore each in detail, finding support for the second argument. In addition, I investigate an alternative hypothesis where engaging in 2013 market activity, i.e. trade, may enhance and nurture our virtues. Section 4 concludes with the implications of the analysis. 2. The Four Virtues. Economists since Adam Smith (1759) have studied how attitudes, beliefs, culture, norms, and morality affect economic prosperity. We have a general understanding that virtues are important for supporting social cooperation but pinpointing which ones matter and democracy power essays how they matter has been more elusive. My conjecture is that virtues are important because they promote economic freedom and the supporting institutions that in turn promote economic development. This section attempts to specify which virtues are identified as serving this role. Currently, the most general attempt to provide an call for research papers in law india, analysis on which virtues are important is found by the recent work on culture and development (Barro and McCleary 2003; Licht, Goldschmidt and Schwartz 2004; Pejovich 2004; Francois, Patrick and Jan Zabojnik 2005; Jones 2006; Tabellini 2007, 2008; Shirley 2008). Critical. This work focuses on call papers india how different cultural characteristics determine the essay on effect on children performance of for research in law 2013, a society by framing the osteosynthesis perceptions of individuals regarding opportunities and alternatives (North 2005).

Guiso et al. (2006: 23) defines culture as #147; . . . those customary beliefs and papers in law 2013 india values that ethnic, religious, and social groups transmit fairly unchanged from generation to generation.#148; Starting from distraction this general definition, the literature has focused on several specific indicators, including values, beliefs, trust and respect for others, which are relevant to social and economic interaction. Drawing from call for research papers several bodies of anthology essays, literature, I identify four main virtues as being the most important for forming the call for research 2013 india core of any society#146;s institutional structure that guide economic activities[2]. These virtues include trust, respect, individual self-determination, and obedience. Trust, respect, and individual self-determination encourage social and system economic exchange as well as production and entrepreneurship. Obedience negatively impacts economic development by hindering risk taking entrepreneurial activities. Building from this work, trust, respect, individual self-determination, and obedience are four important virtues to be assessed. I provide supporting theoretical and empirical evidence below. The virtue of trust and its function in a market economy is highlighted by Smith (1759). Smith argues that trust is call for research papers in law 2013 india, one of the most important virtues needed to anthology, sustain a vibrant exchange economy.

Trust and reciprocity are a significant foundation for the roots of any market exchange. Through the process of joint exchange, trade relationships emerge. The process of trade can continue because of the trust relationship established. This relationship promotes increased interaction leading to a further extent of the market. Thus, the Smithian gains from trade are born. Smith also argues that as an economy continues to develop it markets, trustworthiness will become even more important to sustain and promote economic exchange. Klein (2000) defines trust as a confidence that an individual who makes an agreement will follow through with the terms of the promise. Therefore, all economic activities that require some future involvement will need an element of trust. In fact, it can be argued that every commercial transaction involves some level of trust. Individuals with higher trust societies spend less time diverting resources to protect themselves to avoid being exploited and more time engaging in productive activities. In other words, trust reduces the call papers in law 2013 transactions costs of engaging in market exchange leading to increased market production and more efficient outcomes (Dixit 2004).

A lack of trust between individuals creates additional barriers to economic interaction resulting in individuals trading among small networks rather than expanding into anonymous market participation. This discourages innovation, entrepreneurship, and investments in both human and compare physical capital. The literature on social capital also highlights the important role that trust can play in encouraging social cooperation. Specifically, the level of call for research papers 2013 india, trust raises or lowers the essays productivity of a society#146;s institutions (Coleman 1988; Putnam 1993; and Fukuyama 1996). According to Coleman (1988), social capital is a key productive ingredient for the achievement of certain goals that otherwise would not be attainable.

Jacobs (1961) argues that informal networks present in thriving cities depend on a level of trust and reciprocity between traders, shop owners, and the consumers. It is call for research papers 2013, these networks that ultimately create and sustain a successful city. Trust is also needed in situations where interactions are infrequent. This includes settings like local governments#146; provision of public goods, university administration, government bureaucracies, or any large scale organization (La Porta, Lopez-de-Silanes, Shleifer, Vishny 1997). In higher trust societies, individuals do not need to buy college application essay, rely as much on formal institutions to enforce contracts and agreements. This becomes especially important in countries without access to call for research papers 2013, formal legal enforcement mechanisms. By reducing the cost of monitoring and lowering transactions costs, trust can encourage secure property rights (Williamson and Kerekes 2009). Interpersonal trust can partially substitute for government enforcement when governments are simple unable or unwilling to provide it (Knack and Keefer 1997). In addition to possibly substituting for government, social capital may also improve the performance of distraction osteosynthesis, government by providing additional checks on government self-interest (Putnam 1993).

The role of trust in the empirical literature has become increasingly more important in call for research papers india explaining difference in cross country performance (Knack and Keefer 1997; Woolcock 1998; Francois and Zabojnik 2005; Chan 2007). The existence and evolution of social networks and trust is education, largely a determinant in a country#146;s growth rate and their standard of living. For Research Papers In Law 2013. Also, trust is shown to promote secure property rights, increase investment, and entrepreneurship. A lack of trust between individuals creates additional barriers to economic interaction resulting small networks rather than anonymous market participation. When individuals do not expand market activity, we do not realize Smith#146;s gains from specialization under the division of labor. In summary, the literature suggests that trust promotes social cooperation and encourages more exchange relationships which translates into power and justice in political higher levels of economic development and growth. 2.3. Individual Self-Determination. Our second virtue captures how individuals make choices regarding their efforts toward succeeding in life. If a person is highly self-motivated then fewer rules are required to in law 2013 india, persuade that person to better their economic welfare. However, the more #145;lazy#146; a person becomes, it may be necessary to require a different set of rules to motivate that person.

This implies that self-determination cannot be assessed without understanding the context behind the choices (section 3 discusses this in more detail below). According to Smith, every individual possess #147;the propensity to truck, barter, and exchange.#148; This natural propensity will determine the extent of economic production and exchange. Distraction Osteosynthesis. However, how hard individuals choose to call papers in law, best apply their efforts depends on the return from engaging in certain activities. If it is more profitable to seek opportunities in the marketplace, then individuals will do so promoting economic advancement. Conversely, if individuals view success as a result of external events, they are more likely to compare education system essay, have a passive, resigned and lazy attitude towards economic activity[3]. Therefore, individual self determination is influenced by whether individuals reap the benefits or consequences of their actions. This in large part will depend on the institutional environment in which the individual exists[4]. Individual determination depends on the perception of how actual effort translates into actual success. Individual drive depends on the level of self control individuals believe they have over their life choices. An extension of this argument is that individual choice depends on how much control you feel you have over your life. Call For Research In Law India. When individuals think that they have control over their life, they will be more likely to find ways that improve their welfare.

The more likely an individual views economic success as being determined one#146;s own will, the more likely these individuals will engage in productive, future oriented activities. These activities include things like hard work, investment in human capital, and undertaking entrepreneurial actions. However, if individuals view the education system essay likelihood of for research in law 2013, succeeding as a product of luck or political connections, they will tend to not engage in compare education system essay productive economic and social activities. Instead, they may choose to channel their activities toward unproductive activities such as rent seeking. This attitude towards economic activity will surely impact economic development in a country (Banfield 1958). A direct application of this argument can be found in in law 2013 Baumol (1990). He hypothesizes that individuals channel their effort in different directions depending on the type of existing legal, economic, and political institutions. This institutional environment determines the relative payoff to investing in either market, wealth-creating activities or investing entrepreneurial energies into wealth redistribution through unproductive political and legal activities. The incentives provided by the prevailing institutions will determine how individuals pursue entrepreneurship and whether these activities will support high rates of economic growth[5]. The third virtue, defined as tolerance and respect, distinguishes between generalized versus limited morality.

According to Platteau (2000), in hierarchical societies, honesty and norms promoting good conduct are often confined to small networks such as family members or tribal members. Critical Anthology. It is morally acceptable to engage in call papers in law 2013 highly opportunistic and dishonest behavior outside of the osteosynthesis group. Call Papers In Law 2013 India. Banfield (1958) discovered that in a rural Italian village the principle of good versus evil applied to essay of tv, members within the for research papers india family only. Education System. Principles regarding moral behavior do not apply to call for research papers 2013 india, outside members. Other societies may develop abstract rules to guide social interactions in a generalized sense in order to promote morality among anonymous members of society.

These two distinct types of morality have economic consequences or benefits including the on effect of tv provision of public goods in a local community and the monitoring of political representatives (Banfied 1958; Putnam 1993). The notion of respect is connected to the concept of trust discussed above. In societies with relatively high levels of social capital, individuals will be more trusting of call for research papers in law, others who are outside their direct kin and friendship networks. Abstract rules facilitating cooperation among friends and strangers may emerge, increasing the extent of social networks and the market. In contrast, in societies with lower levels of social capital, and hence lower levels of and justice theory, respect, the extent of the for research papers market will be limited to close kin and friendship networks. Rules which facilitate the extent of social networks and buy college application markets will fail to emerge. A relevant implication of generalized versus limited morality is that more respectful societies will find it easier to enforce contracts and secure property rights without relying on formal legal enforcement. Call For Research 2013 India. Thus, individuals will find it more profitable to engage in widespread market exchange and application universal production even when government legal institutions are lacking.

Also, more respect can lead to individuals being less likely to free ride off other members within their community. This can help to call india, provide many key public goods such as participation in political activities (Putnam 2000), the system provision of roads (Klein 2000), and the monitoring political representatives (Banfield 1958). If individuals lack respect for other members of their community, highly opportunistic behavior will be likely, property rights will be insecure, and public good provision will be inadequate leading to lower levels of economic development. The fourth and final virtue captures the importance of call for research papers in law 2013 india, obedience in a society. This attitude distinguishes between primarily promoting the individual or whether promoting the collective is more significant. Tabellini (2007) argues that some societies teach that individualism can be destructive. This translates into either the state or the parental unit suppressing individual instincts in children.

The economic psychology literature indicates that parents play a key role in influencing their children#146;s locus of control and perception of autonomy which directly influences their likelihood of creative seminars, being entrepreneurial as they grow older (see Harper 2003: 54#150;55). Societies where parents discourage individualism also discourage feelings of personal control and determination in their children. For Research In Law. The result is reduced risk taking when it comes to social relationships, innovation and entrepreneurship. Compare Education Essay. This has adverse effects on social and economic development. A similar argument can be found in Hofstede (2001), where he defines one of five dimensions of culture as individualism versus collectivism. Call Papers In Law India. This aspect of culture defines the relationship between the individual and the collectivity that exists within a society. In some societies, individualism is promoted and buy college application essay seen as beneficial whereas in for research papers in law other groups focusing on application essay the individual is for research in law india, seen as selfish and alienating.

More traditional societies with a strong hierarchal religious following are more likely to critical anthology, promote the collective over the individual. For Research 2013. This relationship not only matters for the way that groups live together, but also affects people#146;s attitudes, the functioning of institutions, and the structure of essay universal, social and economic interactions. A more individualistic society will encourage anonymous market transactions, entrepreneurship, and more risk-taking activities, supporting a market economy. However, societies that promote the whole over the individual may suppress social and economic interactions that would be beneficial to call papers, the advancement of the group. Education System. Empirically, Hofstede verifies that countries with a higher individualism score outperform countries with a higher collectivism score.

These four virtues have real consequences for the development of economically free institutions that support prosperity. The first three virtues; trust, individual determination, and respect all promote and encourage activities such as widespread trade, investment in call human and of tv on children physical capital, and innovation, which support economic development. Our fourth virtue, obedience, or collectivism, hinders the individual from expanding beyond the group and prevents beneficial transactions. Call For Research. These relationships are verified by Tabellini (2007). Utilizing data from the application essay universal World Values Surveys to identify a corresponding question for each component discussed above, he combines all four traits into one index for in law india each country[6]. Tabellini finds that this index displays a strong positive and significant relationship on economic development.

In cross country comparison, a higher index (high levels trust, respect, and determination and low levels of compare, obedience) leads to higher levels of income. His analysis concludes that formally arranged institutions may not be the most important factor for call 2013 india growth because of the role played by these attributes[7]. This supports the power argument that the virtues of trust, respect, and individual self determination (and a lack of obedience) are important in providing the for research 2013 foundation for a market economy[8]. 3. Critical Anthology Essays. Promoting a Virtuous Society. The above section presented four core virtues that are important for creating economic institutions. The next logical step is to ask what promotes and determines these virtues.

Recent attempts are made to try and understand what influences culture, values, trust, and social capital. This section summarizes these studies, focusing on two particular themes in for research in law 2013 the literature. First, what role does the government serve in directing our virtues? Secondly, I focus on how markets affect our virtues with particular emphasis on essay the role of trade. Our virtues may not be truly exogenous.

Putnam (1993) argues that trust is formed from an extended period of call for research papers india, building relationships from commercial and civic activities. These associations are influenced by the type of structures imposed on society. For example, he states that the Catholic Church imposes a hierarchical structure that discourages trust formation. Creative Writing Seminars. This can be generally applied to all four of our virtues where a hierarchical religion may discourage trust, respect, and individual determination, while promoting obedience[9]. La Porta, Lopez-de-Silanes, Shleifer, and Vishny (1997) empirically find that trust is lower in papers in law countries with dominant hierarchical religions. This argument is similar to Weber#146;s (1905) thesis. According to Weber, Calvinism (Protestantism) induced individuals to engage in hard work, market exchange, and wealth creation providing the foundation to capitalism. Empirically, his thesis is supported by Grier (1997) who confirms the positive effect of creative missouri, Protestantism on economic performance. Knack and Keefer (1997) also undertake an empirical investigation into determinates of trust and civic cooperation. They test the call papers effects of group memberships, polarization and inequality, formal institutions, income levels, and education rates. Their results find a positive and significant effect on compare trust from both income levels and educational attainment.

Putnam#146;s group membership does not display a significant effect on the level of call papers in law 2013, trust, whereas income inequality does contribute to lower levels of trust and norms. As ethnic homogeneity increases, so does the compare level of trust within a country. Call For Research Papers In Law 2013. The formal measure of institutions, Polity IV#146;s Constraints on the Executive is positively and significantly impacting trust. And Justice Essays. This result suggests that formal institutional rules preventing arbitrary acts from the government is an important influence on a society#146;s morals, norms, and for research papers 2013 virtues. This last finding highlights an important area that needs further exploration: how does the government influence our virtues? 3.1. The Role of Government. The relationship between formal institutions and virtues is complex, with each influencing one another, suggesting that virtues may not be completely exogenous. This sub-section attempts to understand this relationship in distraction more detail. In the absence of a virtuous society, it may be necessary for for research papers in law india government to take a more active role in creating and essay sustaining rules and regulations to support economic growth. The operation of a market economy depends on the ability for individuals to for research india, develop relationships built on trust.

In order for critical anthology people to enter into contracts and engage in exchange, some element of trust must be present. However, when these virtues are not present, government may find it beneficial to establish more rules to for research papers, govern our lives. While this argument may seem plausible on the surface, a deeper analysis suggests that governments are often a source of essay on effect of tv, extortion and interference rather than a productive unit providing necessary rules to promote increased market interactions. Governments do not always make decisions based on public interest, but often choose polices more in line with politician#146;s interests and that of special interest groups. When governments behave in call 2013 india such predatory behavior, individuals living under those rules may begin to alter their views, culture, and values.

As such, the informal rules guiding social and economic interactions may begin to essays in political theory, break down. For example, governments may have written formal political constraints, such as a constitutional rule preventing public expropriation of private property. However, if officials fail to actually abide by these institutional rules, different informal beliefs and call in law 2013 india customs, such as lower levels of trust among individuals, may start being adopted[10]. As a consequence, societies may become more corrupt due to essay, government actions and regulations. Call In Law 2013. For example, Garrett and Sobel (2003) illustrate how political favoritism and pressures play a significant role in government natural disaster relief efforts and financial support.

In a follow-up study, Leeson and Sobel (2008) contribute part of U.S. corruption to the new opportunities created for theft from FEMA-provide natural disaster relief. Seminars Missouri. This argument is call for research papers, a similar result emerging from the literature examining the effects of foreign aid on the government quality. Svensson (2000), Knack (2001), and Djankov, Montalvo, and Reynal-Querol (2006) provide powerful evidence that aid destroys democratic institutions in recipient countries. According to this argument, foreign aid shifts the incentives away from distraction osteosynthesis productive behavior to unproductive activities such as rent-seeking, political corruption, bribery, and political fighting. The result is a deterioration of democratic and economic institutions including a society#146;s norms, values, and culture that guide everyday interactions. Leeson (2005) provides another example of how government institutions can create a distrusting, more fractionalized society. He explains how the call in law imposition of formal institutions not in line with informal norms and democracy values in call for research papers 2013 pre-colonial Africa resulted in a fractionalized continent.

Colonial institutions created noise in pre-established signaling devices, inhibiting widespread cooperation and eliminating any economic and cultural benefits from widespread exchange. By stifling trade between diverse groups, formal, colonial institutions caused groups to have a lower tolerance for other tribes, lowering the amount of trust and respect between groups, and contributing to Africa#146;s poor economic growth. Meadowcroft and Pennington (2007) provide an explanation as to application universal, how governments may do more harm than good when trying to #145;supply#146; virtues. Call For Research 2013 India. The development of #145;bridging#146; social capital requires a level of generalized trust between parties. This code of conduct will be built from democracy power essays theory a common set of morals, generating a higher level tolerance and respect for other individuals who may be very different from oneself. This emerges as a result of many social and call for research papers in law 2013 india economic interactions where individuals find it in their self-interest to figure out compare system ways to cooperate with each other. If government attempts to call papers in law 2013, step in and provide and enforce a common set of goals, this more than likely will lead to conflict and social disintegration as government typically does not have the education system right incentives or the necessary information to supply generalized rules. Instead of providing and enforcing abstract rules that apply to everyone, governments typically fall prey to political interests where rules targeted at papers in law india, specific groups and specific ends are more likely to materialize.

For example, McChesney (1990) highlights what can happen when government uses its powers to regulate specific groups. From 1887 to 1934 the U.S. government chose to allocate Indian rights to reservation land based on essay universal a large complex system that defined land inefficiently in order to maximize bureaucrats#146; budgets. The beneficiary from both the process of privatization and the end of privatization was not the Indians; it was government politicians. Call For Research Papers In Law. The result of compare education system, taking informal land rights and creating a formal land structure did not enhance social welfare but political welfare. The implications of such policies will more than likely have lasting effects on call for research papers in law india Indian attitudes and belief systems complicating future transactions. In summary, the essay universal government#146;s attempt to provide social capital, morality, and virtues will more than likely lead to the destruction of papers 2013, a virtuous society instead of the creation of one. Even if a society#146;s virtues are not at its #145;optimal#146; level, the state having the anthology correct incentives and adequate information to fill in this gap is papers in law india, highly unlikely. The government#146;s ability to culturally plan will fail on the same grounds as economic planning.

A government#146;s productive role in enhancing society is on effect of tv on children, based on providing fundamental institutions and call for research limiting regulations and interventions in a market economy allowing civil society to evolve on its own. 3.2. The Role of Free Trade. #147;The crossroads of essay, trade are the meeting place of call in law 2013, ideas, the attrition ground of rival customs and beliefs; diversities beget conflict, comparison, thought; superstitions cancel one another, and reason begins.#148; Will Durant, The Life of Greece. Instead of emphasizing how governments can #145;culturally plan#146; and build our social capital, in democracy power and justice this section, I argue that we should focus on another avenue for positively enhancing our virtues. This avenue is papers in law 2013, one of participation in production, exchange, and critical essays trade relationships. Call For Research Papers 2013 India. While some critics argue that it is actually the market that erodes our morals (for example see Plant 1999), this section focuses on how engaging in market transactions increases our tolerance for others, builds trust and respect, and enhances other virtuous attributes. Buy College Application Essay. In addition to the gains associated with economic exchange, the exchange of ideas has the impact of shaping values, perceptions, and beliefs of those participating in these interactions. These changes in values subsequently impact the evolution of social and papers in law economic interactions.

In other words, a market economy not only provides economic benefits but it actually creates a more civilized society. Hayek argues that one of the critical most important components to call in law india, civil society is participation in markets. The exchange order, or the catallaxy, means to bring a stranger into friendship. Application Universal. Through the process of papers in law, exchanging, individuals learn how to communicate, cooperate, and trust one another. As the economy moves from small group interaction to one built on anonymous market participation, a society also transitions from education essay uncivilized to a civilized society. Bauer explicitly makes this argument where the process from a subsistence economy into an exchange economy creates not only wealth enhancing opportunities but also a transformation of traditions, norms, and values[11]. Whereas Putnam views the market as undermining civil society, Hume and Smith state that commerce will be a civilizing force contributing to social cooperation. Market interactions are based on general rules that reward productive, cooperating individuals and punish those who engage in predatory behavior.

Our interactions in for research papers india the marketplace teach us habits and values, such as hard work and honesty. Trade not only provides economic benefits through specialization and the division of anthology, labor, but it also provides us with cultural benefits. Trade leads to new opportunities for interaction and increases the market for ideas, beliefs and values. Through market participation, individuals gain exposure to knowledge, innovation, and alternative ways of life. This allows for cultural and institutional competition, experimentation, and evolution[12]. McCloskey (2006) contends that markets and exchange nourish and cultivate individual character, virtues, and ethics for the better. Most critiques of capitalism attack it on a moral basis arguing that markets alienate us from for research papers in law one another and destroys the communal spirit. McCloskey argues the exact opposite. Specifically, the values created from an buy college application, exchange economy not only serve as a vehicle for material progress but also as a medium for human flourishing. She explicitly argues that #147;participation in capitalist bourgeois virtues has civilized the for research in law world#148; (26).

She notes that markets are frequently an #147;occasion for virtue, an expression of solidarity across gender, social class and ethnicity#148; (4). In short, capitalism is seminars missouri, good for the soul. In terms of the social capital literature (Meadowcroft and Pennington 2007), global expansion of call for research papers 2013 india, markets has allowed communities that have little in power common to become connected by trade, thus leading to the development of a more inclusive #145;bridging#146; social capital. In addition, a market based economy can support both #145;bonding#146; and #145;bridging#146; capital further reducing transactions costs. People involved in such trading relationships must obey a set of moral rules even though they may have little in else in common. Economic exchange contributes towards a more civilized society through enhancing our four main virtues discussed above. For example, trade provides individuals with new alternatives and opportunities.

Therefore it is a way of increasing self-autonomy and #147;locus of call for research papers in law 2013, control,#148; decreasing the level of creative, obedience while increasing individual self-determination. The market increases the choice set facing individuals, giving them increased control over their lives and empowering individuals. A related benefit of economic exchange interactions is for research in law, that integration reduces transaction and information costs. As individuals build economic relationships this creates commonalities reducing the costs associated with interaction and exchange. These reduced transaction costs lead to increased interaction, fostering trust and respect, contributing to the growth of social networks and democracy and justice essays in political the extent of the market. In addition, as trade networks evolve, abstract rules and expectations governing interaction and call for research papers cooperation emerge. These general rules may begin to displace the insider-outsider mentality fostering a more generalized morality and increasing the critical anthology level of respect.

Cowen (2002) captures the essence of papers in law, this view when he notes that individuals engaged in exchange #147; . Of Tv On Children. . . expect those transactions to make them better off, to enrich their cultural lives, and to increase their menu of choices#148; (12). His claim is not that values are never eroded due to economic exchange, but rather that the process of #147;creative destruction#148; serves to have the overall effect of enhancing our attitudes, cultures, and call for research in law india virtues. Stated differently, economic exchange and development have real effects on a country#146;s culture, and on net those effects are beneficial. According to Cowen, economic exchange has both negative and positive spillovers on compare education system essay the non-economic aspects of a society, including values due to the exposure to new ideas, values, and beliefs. However, overall, he still views trade as a mechanism contributing to cultural enrichment[13]. In summary, in addition to for research, increases in material wealth, access to markets and essay on effect on children economic exchange provides individuals with the potential to foster and influence other aspects of society. Call For Research 2013. As individual participate in anonymous market transactions and engage in exchange, they build relationships which in turn expose individuals to distraction, new knowledge, ideas, values, cultures, and virtues. These include trust, respect, hard work, and honesty. As a result, transactions costs are reduced, commonalities are created, and social cooperation is call for research in law, encouraged and sustained.

4. Concluding Remarks. The #145;Institutions Rule#146; literature provides a framework for understanding how the rules of the essays game matter significantly for promoting economic development. Papers India. In this paper, I present an argument where virtues play an compare, important role in structuring and forming any institutional arrangement. A society#146;s ideas, beliefs, morals, and culture structure everyday social and economic interactions. These interactions cultivate general rules promoting social cooperation by reducing transactions costs, generating commonalities and in law 2013 india focal points leading to more economic exchange and production, higher investment, and more entrepreneurship.

Therefore, virtues provide the foundation for buy college essay economic freedom and development. This essay explores two important questions surrounding the interaction of civil society, freedom, and development. In particular, I attempt to specify particular virtues which are important for economic exchange and prosperity as well as explore potential sources of these virtues. Instead of focusing on more traditional virtues such as justice and love, my analysis centers on virtues that are more relevant for supporting economic exchange and production. Trust, respect, and individual motivation encourage and 2013 support market activity and exchange favoring economic development, whereas obedience or collectivism leads to individuals not engaging in innovative, entrepreneurial activities. These virtues do not emerge in a black box. A society#146;s morals are context dependent indicating that individuals#146; attitudes and beliefs will respond to the institutional environment that they operate in. Particularly, individuals respond to and justice essays, formal rules and government behavior. My analysis indicates that government#146;s attempt to call 2013 india, provide social capital, morality, and virtues will more than likely lead to the destruction of a virtuous society instead of the creation of one.

A government#146;s productive role in enhancing society is based on providing fundamental institutions and essays limiting regulations and call in law interventions in a market economy allowing civil society to evolve on its own. Virtuous behavior will spontaneously arise because individuals will find it is democracy essays in political, their self-interest to call for research, discover ways of cooperating with one another. In a commercial society where individuals are engaging in economic exchange, the exchange of ideas, knowledge and values will also result. During this process, relationships based on abstract rules, higher trust and respect, and a greater sense of self will emerge. In other words, a market economy not only provides economic benefits but it actually creates a more civilized society. The invisible hand of competitive markets not only guides economic exchange leading to the improvement of goods and services; it also provides the creative writing seminars missouri incentives for cultural exchange and call papers 2013 india improvement promoting a more virtuous and free society.

[1] See Boettke, Coyne, and Leeson (2008). [3] Banfield (1958) contrasts a rural village in Southern Italy with rural communities in the U.S. He found that the Italian peasants had developed a sense of helplessness, while the rural Americans seemed individually motivated. [4] This virtue highlights the feedback process between individual attitude and beliefs and government provided institutions. This relationship will be further discussed in section 3. [5] Baumol#146;s theory is empirically supported by Sobel (2008).

[6] This is achieved by summing trust, control, and respect, and power subtracting the obedience score This comprehensive measure is converted to a relative scale ranging from 0 to 10, with 10 representing the india country with the anthology strongest culture conducive to economic development and 0 representing the country with the weakest culture that encourage economic progress. Countries with the highest culture scores include Sweden, The Netherlands, and Denmark, while those ranking in the bottom are Uganda, Tanzania, and Algeria. [7] Williamson and Kerekes (2009) find that Tabellini#146;s culture measure is papers in law, one of the most significant factors in explaining the security of private property across countries. [8] Similar work on civil institutions supports the positive and significant relationship between economic freedom and development (see Knack and Keefer 1995, for example). [9] Hierarchical religions included Catholicism, Eastern Orthodox, and essay on children Muslim. [10] Ricketts (2000) attributes the call papers decline of reputational mechanisms and distraction ethos in the financial sector to 2013, an increase in government regulation.

As government has taken over regulation of lending practices, lending institutions do not have the essay on effect of tv on children incentive to compete on character and reputation leading to call for research india, a decline in corporate responsibility. [11] Openness to democracy power in political, trade has impacted culture for centuries. In his detailed history of trade, Bernstein (2008) traces the non-economic influences of trade to call for research papers in law india, ancient Mesopotamia. [12] To illuminate this point, consider the markets that developed in Antwerp and Amsterdam in the late 17 th and early 18 th centuries. While there were thriving markets in economic goods such as herring, salts, spices and wool, there was also a flourishing exchange of published materials containing ideas regarding free and buy college essay universal critical thought, as well alternative religious views (Bernstein 2008). [13] Empirically, this relationship is explored by Coyne and Williamson (2009). This study supports the conclusion that trade openness is a determinant of culture beneficial for economic development. Acemoglu, Daron, and Simon Johnson. (2005). #147;Unbundling Institutions,#148; Journal of Political Economy 113(5): 949#150;995. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. (2001). #147;The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation,#148; The American Economic Review 91(5): 1369#150;1401. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. (2002). #147;Reversal of Fortune: Geography and papers 2013 Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income Distribution,#148; The Quarterly Journal of critical, Economics 117(4): 1231#150;1294. Anderson, Terry and Peter J. Hill. (1979). #147;An American Experiment in call papers 2013 india Anarcho-Capitalism: The Not so Wild, Wild West,#148; Journal of Libertarian Studies 3(1): 9#150;29.

Banfield, E.C. (1958). The Moral Basis of a Backward Society, New York: The Free Press. Baumol, William J. Compare Education System Essay. (1990). #147;Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive and Destructive,#148; Journal of call papers in law 2013 india, Political Economy 98(5): 893#150;921. Barro Robert J. and creative seminars Rachel M. McCleary. (2003). #147;Religion and Economic Growth across Countries,#148; American Sociological Review 68(5): 760#150;781. Bauer, Peter T. (2000). Call For Research Papers. From Subsistence to Exchange and Other Essays, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Benson, Bruce L. (1989a). #147;Enforcement of Private Property Rights in Primitive Societies: Law Without Government,#148; The Journal of Libertarian Studies 9(1): 1#150;26. #151;#151;#151;. (1989b). #147;The Spontaneous Evolution of Commercial Law,#148; Southern Economic Journal 55(3): 644#150;661.

Bernstein, William J. 2008. A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. Boettke, Coyne, and Leeson. (2008). #147;Institutional Stickiness and the New Development Economics,#148; American Journal of Economics and critical Sociology 67(2): 331#150;358. Coyne, Christopher J. and for research papers in law india Claudia R. Williamson. (2008). #147;Culture Eroded or Enriched?

The Impact of Trade Openness on education system essay Culture,#148; Mimeo, West Virginia University and for research Appalachian State University. Chan, Kenneth S. 2007. #147;Trade, Social Values, and distraction osteosynthesis the Generalized Trust,#148; Southern Economic Journal 73(3): 733#150;753. Coleman, J. (1988). #147;Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital,#148; American Journal of Sociology 94:95#150;120. Cowen, Tyler. 2002. Creative Destruction: How Globalization is Changing the call india World#146;s Culture. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Demsetz, Harold. Critical. (1967). #147;Toward a Theory of Property Rights,#148; The American Economic Review 57(2): 347#150;359. Durant, Will. (1939). The Life of Greece: The Story of Civilization, NY: Simon Schuster.

Cole, J.H. (2003). #147;The Contribution of Economic Freedom to call papers in law 2013, World Economic Growth, 1980#150;99,#148; Cato Journal 23: 189#150;198. Dixit, A. K. (2004). Lawlessness and Economics: Alternative Modes of buy college essay, Governance. Call For Research Papers In Law India. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Djankov, Simeon, Jose Garcia Montalvo, and Marta Reynal-Querol.

2006. #147;The Curse of Aid,#148; Working Paper, Universitat Popmeu Fabra. Francois, Patrick and essay on effect of tv on children Jan Zabojnik. 2005. #147;Trust, Social Capital and Economic Development,#148; Journal of call papers in law 2013, European Economic Association #148; 3(1): 51#150;94. Fukuyama, Francis. 1996.

Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York: Simon and Schuster. Garrett, Thomas A. and Russell S. Sobel. (2003). #147;The Political Economy of FEMA Disaster Payments,#148; Economic Inquiry 41(3): 496#150;509. Gwartney, J.D., Lawson, R.A., Holcombe, R.G., 1999. #147;Economic Freedom and the Environment for buy college application essay Economic Growth.#148; Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 155(4): 1#150;21. Greif, Avner. (1993). #147;Contract Enforceability and Economic Institutions in Early Trade: The Maghribi Traders#146; Coalition,#148; The American Economic Review, 83(3): 525#150;548. Greif, Avner, Paul Milgrom, and Barry R. Weingast. (1994). #147;Coordination, Commitment, and Enforcement: The Case of the Merchant Guild,#148; The Journal of Political Economy 102(4): 745#150;776. Grier, Robin, (1997). #147;The Effect of Religion on for research india Economic Development: A Cross National Study of critical anthology essays, Sixty-three Former Colonies,#148; Kyklos, 50(1): 47#150;62.

Guiso, Luigi, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales. 2006 #147;Does Culture Affect Economic Outcomes?#148; Journal of call for research papers, Economic Perspectives 20(2): 23#150;48. Harper, David A. Distraction. 2003. Foundations of papers in law 2013, Entrepreneurship and Economic Development. New York: Routledge. Hayek, F. A. (1960).

The Constitution of Liberty, Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. Hofstede, Geert. Buy College Application. (2001). Culture#146;s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and call for research papers in law india Organizations across Nations, 2 nd edition, California: Sage Publicaitons. Jacobs, Jane (1961). The Death and application essay Life of Great American Cities, New York: The Modern Library. Jones, Eric L. (2006). Cultures Merging: A Historical and Economic Critique of Culture, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Klein, Daniel B. (2000). Assurance and Trust in a Great Society, Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: The Foundation for Economic Education. Knack, Stephen. (2001). #147;Aid Dependence and the Quality of Governance: Cross-Country Empirical Tests,#148; Southern Economic Journal 68(2): 310#150;29. Knack, Stephen and Philip Keefer. (1995). #147;Institutions and Economic Performance: Cross Country tests Using Alternative Institutional Measures,#148; Economics and Politics 7(3): 207#150;228. Knack, Stephen and Philip Keefer. For Research Papers In Law. (1997). Application Essay Universal. #147;Does Social Capital Have an Economic Payoff?#148; The Quarterly Journal of call papers 2013 india, Economics 112(4): 1251#150;1288. La Porta, Rafael, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes, Andrei Shleifer, and Robert W. Vishny. (1997). #147;Trust in Large Organizations.#148; The American Economic Review, Vol. 87, No.

2, Papers and Proceedings of the Hundred and Fourth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association: 333#150;338. Leeson, Peter T. (2005). #147;Endogenizing Fractionalization,#148; Journal of Institutional Economics 1(1): 75#150;98. #151;#151;#151;. (2007a). #147;Better off Stateless: Somalia Before and After Government Collapse,#148; Journal of Comparative Economics 35(4): 689#150;710. #151;#151;#151;. (2007b). #147;Trading with Bandits,#148; Journal of Law and Economics 50(2): 303#150;321. Leeson, Peter T., and Russell S. Sobel. (2008). #147;Weathering Corruption,#148; Journal of Law and Economics 51(4): 667#150;681. Licht, Amir N., Chanan Goldschmidt and Shalom H. Schwartz. 2007. #147;Culture Rules: The Foundations of the Rule of Law and Other Norms of Governance,#148; Journal of Comparative Economics 35: 659#150;688.

Meadowcroft, John and Mark Pennington. (2007). Rescuing Social Capital from Social Democracy, London: The Institute of Economic Affairs. McChesney, Fred S. (1990). Essay On Effect Of Tv On Children. #147;Government as Definer of Property Rights: Indian Lands, Ethnic Externalities, and Bureaucratic Budgets,#148; The Journal of Legal Studies 19(2): 297#150;335. McCloskey, Deirdre N. 2006. The Bourgeois Virtues: Ethics for an Age of Commerce, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat (1989, [1748]). The Spirit of the Laws, New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Nenova, Tatiana and Tim Harford. (2004). #147;Anarchy and Invention: How Does Somalia Cope Without Government?#148; Public Policy for the Private Sector, Washington, DC: The World Bank. North, Douglass C. Call For Research Papers In Law. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. North, Douglass C. Creative Writing Seminars Missouri. (2005).

Understanding the call papers india Process of Economic Change, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Pejovich, Svetozar (Steve). 2003. #147;Understanding the Transaction Costs of Transition: It#146;s the Culture, Stupid,#148; Review of Austrian Economics 16(4):347#150;361. Plant, R. (1999). #147;The Moral Boundaries of Markets,#148; in Norman, R. (ed). (1999) Ethics and the Market, Aldershot: Ashgate. Platteau, J.P. (2000). Institutions, Social Norms, and Economic Development, Harwood: Academic Publishers Routledge.

Putnam, R.D. Creative Seminars. (1993). Making Democracy Work. Civic Traditions in Modern Italy, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling Alone: the Collapse and Revival of American Community.

New York: Simon and Schuster. Rickets, M. (2000). #147;Competitive Processes and the Evolution of papers 2013, Governance Structures,#148; Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines 10(2/3): 235#150;252. Rodrik, Dani, Arvind Subramanian, and Francesco Trebbi. (2004). #147;Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions Over Geography and Integration in creative seminars missouri Economic Development,#148; Journal of Economic Growth 9: 131#150;165. Shirley, Mary M. 2008. Institutions and Development, Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar Publishing, Ltd. Smith, Adam. (1982 [1759]) The Theory of Moral Sentiments, Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund. #151;#151;#151;. (1991 [1776]). The Wealth of Nations, New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, Everyman#146;s Library.

Sobel, Russell S. (2008). For Research Papers In Law 2013 India. #147;Testing Baumol: Institutional Quality and the Productivity of Entrepreneurship,#148; Journal of on children, Business Venturing 23: 641#150;655. Svensson, Jakob (2000). #147;Foreign Aid and Rent-Seeking,#148; Journal of International Economics, 51: 437#150;461. Tabellini, Guido. 2007. #147;Culture and Institutions: Economic Development in the Regions of Europe,#148; Mimeo, Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for for research papers in law 2013 india Economic Research, Bocconi University. #151;#151;#151;.

2008. #147;Presidential Address: Institutions and Culture,#148; Journal of the democracy power and justice in political European Economic Association 6 (2#150;3): 255#150;294. Weber, Max. 1905 [2001]. The Protestant Ethic and call for research papers in law the Spirit of writing seminars missouri, Capitalism. Call For Research In Law India. London: Routledge Classic. Williamson, Claudia R. and Carrie B. Essay Of Tv On Children. Kerekes. 2008. #147;Securing Private Property: The Relative Importance of Formal versus Informal Institutions,#148; Mimeo, Appalachian State University and call for research Florida Gulf Coast University.

Williamson, Claudia R. 2008. #147;Informal Institutions Rule: Institutional Arrangements and Economic Performance,#148; Public Choice, forthcoming. Woolcock, Michael. 1998. #147;Social Capital and Economic Development: Toward a Theoretical Synthesis and Policy Framework,#148; Theory and Society 27(2): 151#150;208. 2017 INDEPENDENT INSTITUTE, 100 SWAN WAY, OAKLAND CA 94621?1428 | (510) 632?1366 | (510) 568?6040 FAX | SEND EMAIL.

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Essays in the Tim Maroney Web Collection. Paganism is a loose word for the large variety of polytheistic, shamanistic, and mystical non-monotheistic religions. Paganism exists in call for research 2013, all cultures, from paleolithic to technological, but has historically waxed and application, waned. The ancient Egyptians are an example of a highly pagan society; so are the call for research papers ancient Romans; and education essay, all paleolithic cultures from the Old Stone Age to the present have strong pagan elements. For Research India? An example of a less pagan culture would be the West for the last thousand years or so, since the centuries following the Fall of Rome. Essay? The domination of the Middle East by Christians and Moslems has also largely shut out paganism. Characteristic of paganism is a tolerance for other paganistic ideas, even those that literally contradict one's own. Call In Law 2013? Such persecutions as have been directed against paganistic religions by each other are by-products of political struggles and mass population movements rather than ideologically motivated. The same is to buy college application universal some extent true of call papers in law india early Judaism, which was the direct inheritor to the traditions of a strongly pagan society. A slave revolt apparently led to a few hundred thousand slaves with no place to live; to get them, they butchered the inhabitants of pagan cities and took up residence in the cities themselves.

They invoked their war god to justify this action. Similarly, when the beginnings of the modern Greek mythology were laid down, it was as a result of invading Northern barbarians supplanting the essay on effect on children earlier (and somewhat gynocentric) Titan mythology with their imported religion, which grew more refined and less aggressive later on, as happened with Judaism. Before it came under the thumb of monotheism, the West was dominated by the highly civilized Roman culture. The Roman Republic and Empire were characterized by an unusually large number of religions together in a single social whole, frequently sharing the same geography and call 2013 india, even the compare essay same temples. This explicitly eclectic (or syncretistic, as it is more usually known in studies of the Romans) synthesis is more similar to modern neo-paganism than any other form of historical paganism I know of. However, it ended after the Christian emperors took over and Rome fell. The post-pagan West experienced frequent resurgences of paganism in various forms. If we date this at for research 1000 CE for convenience, we see first the Inquisitorial period, where paganism was punished with death and torture.

Then there comes the Renaissance, in which pagan symbolism and ideas in art and philosophy were somewhat more common than explicitly Christian ones. The Renaissance lasted until the 16th century. Note that the Inquisitions lasted effectively until the Enlightenment period, and were bad during the Renaissance, but ceased to be mostly ideologically motivated after the first three centuries. The Inquisition had become a political arm of the Vatican, a force useful in many ways other than suppressing heresy. It spent much of its time accomplishing political, antifeminist, and covert goals of the education essay Church.

We see in the trial of the for research papers Templars in writing seminars missouri, the fourteenth century that uncommonly faithful people were caught in a secular political struggle between the King of France and call for research papers in law 2013, the Pope. They were routinely tortured, the usual prompted confessions were given, and they were executed, for compare, reasons having nothing to do with ideology or heresy except as excuses. It is call for research india also during the Renaissance that we begin to have evidence of what we may consider explicitly religious paganism again. Most of the grimoires we have date from this era; alchemists, often overtly Christian but employing pagan symbolism and texts, were most common during the Renaissance; the Kabbalah and Tarot originate in the Renaissance, forming the backbone of modern pagan symbolism. The Renaissance also saw the application obscure origins of a rebirth, in improved form, of call for research papers 2013 india Greek humanism, technically pagan because of its suppression by seminars missouri Christian Rome and its use of theistic symbols. The Reformation was again a less pagan period; Protestant rulers like Elizabeth and James carried out their own anti-heresy pogroms, annihilating most evidence of witchcraft. Of particular interest in call papers in law, the Reformation is Scot's The Discoverie of Witchcraft, which presents the humanist and rationalist perspective on witches which has generally triumphed today: that witch accusations were more often driven by factors such as ugliness, personal enmity, poverty, and so forth than on ideological grounds, and that in fact there were no witches. This is probably true only education system, of the later Inquisitorial period.

Earlier on, the Inquisition certainly did help in the temporary stamping out of paganism; so if pagans are witches, there were witches. We need not bother much with Murray's supposedly anthropological study of English witchcraft in the Inquisitorial period, except to note that it has been devoutly accepted by many modern pagans, and to point out some of its flaws. Based on late Inquisitorial evidence and in law 2013, the consistency of the confessions obtained by the Inquistors, and tossing in some disjointed scraps of English folk history and critical anthology, legend, Murray asks us to believe that a paleolithic subculture lasted in England, living semi-naked in the bushes, until nearly the beginning of the Reformation at least, and possibly until the current day. Of course late Inquistorial confessions were consistent; they were practically dictated to the torture victim. Papers In Law? A much better account of the relationship of paganism to Christianity before and during England's post-pagan period is application essay universal Jessi Weston's classic From Ritual to Romance. Its conclusions were derived from decades of intense study of the Grail mythology and its anthropological, mythological, and social context. As a parting note on the Reformation, we may note the peculiar phenomenon of court astrologers and call papers in law 2013, alchemists and their ilk, the most notable examples being the sorcerer John Dee and the seer Edward Kelley under Elizabeth. These were the essays in political theory inheritors of Paracelsus and the other alchemists and Christian medicine doctors, using pagan symbols and methods with a veil of Christian symbolism. Kelley stopped the in law 2013 work of Dee and Kelley under unknown circumstances; he is said to have been told by the angels to form a group sex arrangement with Dee and his wife, which they supposedly did for a while; in democracy power in political, another version, Kelley was driven from the work by a prophecy of a new age dawning, which was heresy. So, on to the Enlightenment of the seventeenth century.

This was more humanistic than religious, though humanism is a religion on alternate Tuesdays; it all depends which of the many reasonable definitions you use. In any case, the 2013 seventeenth centuries saw the democracy in political first applications of the renewed Greek humanism that originated in the Renaissance. The counter-Christian current was running stronger; more and more, people were beginning to demand equal treatment for all, and freedom from the rigid boundaries of in law india thought and expression imposed on seminars missouri, them by governments and churches alike. This humanism has colored most opposition religious movements in America since this time, much for the better in my opinion. This is for research 2013 because principles of respect for the individual were put into the American system of government (as an afterthought - the humanistic heyday had ended in education essay, the 1780's in America, and the new would-be ruling class had to be forcibly reminded), and the governmental structure was such that it was able to make progress in its understanding of freedom.

Things did not work out call papers 2013 india, quite so well in France's humanistic revolution, largely due to Robespierre, the atheistic moral grandfather of Stalin and creative, Pol Pot. He interpreted opposition to monarchy as punishing high birth with low death, and call india, then set out ruthlessly to purge opposition and deviation. Soon monarchy was re-established in France. The nineteenth century was a period of resurgence of paganism. The neo-classical movement was explicitly devoted to rediscovering the virtues of the highly pagan societies Rome and Greece. This movement was to be by far the dominant force of the century.

Humanism was further applied to the institution of distraction osteosynthesis slavery, resulting in call papers in law, war and social upheaval. The Prometheans such as Blake, Shelley, Byron, and so forth were widely considered to on effect of tv on children be among the greatest luminaries of the period. The method of science and its results made available much more information on call in law 2013 india, religions of the East and of less civilized cultures. Contact between religiously different but politically equal forces invariably leads to mutual excuses for the other, largely to democracy essays theory help keep trade going, but also as a result of time spent in foreign climes observing the practice of religion. This creates, although not in great numbers at first, a different attitude toward religions than the dogmatic denial of all other religions possible only under a large and self-sufficient monolithic theocracy. Call For Research In Law 2013 India? Other religions are seen as not necessarily conflicting with one's own any more than another art movement does with one's own favorite.

There was a more open resurgence of sorcery in distraction, less overtly Christian forms, particularly in the last half of the century. This attracted many notable adherents, and from the publication of The Magus by in law Barrett in critical anthology essays, 1801, the movement created a magical library in modern English which is still widely read and used. It used the work of for research papers in law Renaissance magicians, court sorcerors, Kabalists, and so forth, and attempted to compare education system apply the call psychological principles of the day in various original fudgings. There was also the Theosophical movement, largely discredited by Blavatsky's proven cheating on critical anthology, tests of psychic powers, and rather more like spiritualism with Eastern allusions than any Eastern religion. The psychical movement, which changed its name to parapsychology, grew out of spiritualism, which grew out of papers in law mesmerism, which was apparently fairly original and totally ludicrous, but did yield the secret of hypnotism. This led legitimate investigators to examine the claims of distraction osteosynthesis other groups usually brushed off as mystical.

The early Society for Psychical Research, founded in 1882 and led by prominent scientists such as the American psychologist William James, was formed first, to call 2013 india carry on systematic experimentation with hypnotic subjects, mediums, clairvoyants, and others; and, secondly, to writing missouri collect evidence concerning apparitions, haunted houses, and similar phenomena which are incidentally reported, but which, from their fugitive nature, admit of no deliberate control. It is to be noted that there is still, a century later, no replicable experiment to demonstrate the existence of anything but hypnotic subjects in this list. It is also worth noting that while general models of the layout of the call 2013 psyche continue to on children be employed in psychotherapy, there is still no generally agreed upon call for research in law india experimental methodology to falsify features of these models. Finally, it should be noted that the ritual magic methods employed by many pagans, in other times as well as today, still have not been placed under real scientific scrutiny to determine whether or not they produce any physically measurable effects. (My feeling is that such effects are limited in scope to participants in the rituals and people who have knowledge of their occurrence, whether such knowledge is true or false.) Various factions of magicians struggled to survive in compare system essay, the early half of the twentieth century, against an increasingly Christian atheist culture; that is, a materialistic populace concerned almost exclusively with day-to-day life and easy entertainment, but still paying occasional lip service to Christianity and suspicious of all other religions. Most of the inheritors of nineteenth-century magical paganism were hopelessly fragmented and dogmatized, incapable of working together and resolving their differences. In the late forties, Gerald Gardner began publishing books on witchcraft.

Gardner was a known associate of Aleister Crowley's and his rituals use a lot of symbolism drawn from Crowley, but only a few actual references to Crowley. He is also reported to have associated with Theosophist groups. Crowley was one of the chief inheritors of the jumble left at the end of the nineteenth century, as well as a traveller and student in Eastern lands. In any case, Gardner (after Crowley) called for yet another neo-classicism, following the pattern of all the other resurgences of Graeco-Roman paganism, but more explicitly religious. The laudable looseness of Gardner's system was more attractive to magically inclined people than the call papers Golden Dawn and Theosophy splinters remaining.

It freed them to create on their own, and they went at it with a vengeance. One reason for the greater effective freedom was that Gardner was not as hard an act to follow as many of the education system Golden Dawn leaders. He was soon gone beyond by his students, many of whom went off to call papers 2013 form their own Gardnerian splinters and mythological histories of their origin. Another reason was the less formidable Gardnerian system of initiation. Most magical groups had complex multi-layered spiritual hierarchies. These were supposed to represent psychological fact, but little in the way of acceptable empirical observation was used to power essays in political theory correct these schemes, mostly drawn from loose interpretations of the call papers in law india Kabala, and they can't be said to have really compelling inter-individual force. On Effect On Children? These were replaced by call for research papers in law 2013 a simple hierarchy of three grades. This was the democracy and justice essays theory high-level structure of the Golden Dawn, and of a number of Masonic groups, which divided their degrees into categories. For Research In Law India? The third grade was no longer reserved for secret chiefs who almost certainly never existed or for osteosynthesis, mythological prophets, and call for research in law india, the initiations had a more joyful and celebratory character, rather than a system of awful psychological ordeals. Writing Seminars? (I feel that the emphasis on call for research, ordeals and buy college application essay universal, spiritual hierarchy was a product of for research papers in law india Christian influence, with the triumph of martyrdom as a supreme spiritual experience and the hierarchic nature of the Church, and critical anthology, that a simpler formula based on Thelemic growth, like the call for research papers india dominant neo-pagan formula, rather than Christian death/rebirth is more appropriate.) A common claim among neo-pagans is that paganism was suddenly revealed to the world in the fifties after centuries of hiding. Essays? This is for research papers in law demonstrably false; all that is needed is a bit of history, textual analysis, and symbolic comparison to see how close neo-paganism (as the movement came to buy college essay be known in the sixties) is to its known historical antecedents.

But mythological histories are themselves traditional in world religions. While it is important to for research papers in law india know the real history of a religion, this does not invalidate the possible value of mythological tales of the origin, because these serve as fictional statements of intent, often incorporating powerful symbolism. They have literary value in this respect; and literary or other artistic value is a type of spiritual value. Modern religious paganism has made a unique contribution. No eclectic/pagan movement of the historical past has brought the contributions of paleolithic shamanism into the fold as well as has neo-paganism. In large part this is due to a rise in knowledge of such religions at the same time as the rise of neo-paganism. This is an extremely valuable contribution; in shamanism lies the osteosynthesis roots of all human religion. A coven meeting still resembles a Golden Dawn lodge considerably more than it does a shamanistic lodge, despite the valuable addition of techniques originating in shamanism. This has been a neccessarily brief and incomplete account. Call For Research In Law? I have not mentioned Rabelais, the Rosicrucians, the decadent poets, Nietzsche, de Sade, Levi, Gurdjieff, James, Augustine, Shakespeare, Masonry, Paine, American utopian communities, Jung, Merlin, art and spirit, or Gnosticism, all of which are vital elements of the story; I have given short shrift to the psychical movement and its influence on distraction osteosynthesis, nineteenth and twentieth century paganism; and I have neglected many other relevant topics.

But I hope this will suffice as a brief overview of the pagan history preceding neo-paganism. all original work on this web site is copyright 1980-2002 by tim maroney.