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AppFuse: Start Your J2EE Web Apps Blog. Ibt! One of the hardest parts about J2EE development is getting started. There is an immense amount of open source tools for web app development. Write! Making a decision on ibt, which technologies to use can be tough -- actually beginning to use them can be even more difficult. Once you've decided to use Struts and carver cathedral Hibernate, how do you go about implementing them? If you look on the Hibernate site or the Struts site, you'll probably have a hard time finding any information on essay ibt, integrating the two. College! What if you want to throw Spring into essay ibt, the mix? As a developer, the best way for write my philosophy for me me to learn is by viewing sample apps and tutorials that explain how to of toefl extend those applications. In order for me to apa thesis page learn (and remember) how to integrate open source technologies such as Hibernate, Spring, Struts, and of toefl ibt Ant/XDoclet, I created AppFuse. The beauty of AppFuse is essay industrial in britain, you can actually get started with Hibernate, Spring, and Struts without even knowing much about essay them. Using test-driven development, AppFuse and its tutorials will show you how to essay on the develop a J2EE web application quickly and efficiently.
In early 2002, I managed to ibt land a contract where I was the lone developer. For Me! I was responsible for everything, from gathering requirements to database creation to DHTML on the web front end. While I'd done a lot of front-end work (Struts, HTML, etc.) over essay of toefl, the years, the business layer and Project Plan and Synthesis Matrix persistence layer were mostly new to me. So I searched and searched for J2EE patterns to do things the right way for my new client. Ibt! I ended up implementing Business Delegates, DAOs, and ServiceLocators -- many of them modeled after J2EE Blueprints. Towards the end of that contract, I was contracted to help write a book on JSP 2.0.
The publisher was Wrox Press and the book was Professional JSP 2.0 . I volunteered to write two chapters -- one on Struts and one on web security. Note: in March 2003, Wrox went out of business and this book eventually became Pro JSP, Third Edition , published by Apress. When you write a technical book, it's helpful to use a sample app to demonstrate concepts. Management! I was tired of reading books that had a throwaway sample app, so I wanted to develop something meaningful; something I could use after I was done writing. My initial thoughts were to write an application that would help you get started with Struts, and would use XDoclet to do a lot of the heavy lifting. It also had to have a lot of security features so I could use it for my chapter on web application security. I came up with the name struts-xdoclet and of toefl ibt began developing my application. After a couple of weeks, I decided that struts-xdoclet was too hard to paper say and essay renamed the project AppFuse.
I developed the sample app for my Struts chapter using AppFuse and cathedral released it as Struts Resume. After publishing Struts Resume, I needed to extract the resume-specific stuff out of it to revert back to the generic jumpstart application I wanted AppFuse to essay of toefl ibt be. It took me almost three months, but I finally released the first official version of AppFuse in April 2003. Since its initial release, AppFuse has gone through many changes and improvements. Most of the technology decisions were made from experience. It was a pain to keep my ValueObjects (VOs) and write my philosophy ActionForms in sync, so ActionsForms are generated using XDoclet. Ibt! I found it tedious to cathedral essay write JDBC and of toefl more tedious to update SQL and VOs when adding new table columns. To solve this, I chose to use Hibernate for persistence and essay in britain use Ant/XDoclet to dynamically create my database tables.
Rather than lose my tables' data each time, I integrated DBUnit, which also came in handy when running unit tests. I decided to use Tomcat/MySQL as the default server/database setup because I was most familiar with them. I integrated a plethora of unit/integration tests so I could make sweeping changes and verify that everything still worked (including the JSPs) by running ant test-all . In March of essay of toefl, 2004, I moved the AppFuse project from the Struts project on SourceForge to java.net. I had a couple of college lab report, reasons for doing this. First of essay of toefl, all, it was a sub-project on SourceForge, and its user base was growing quickly. It needed dedicated mailing lists and forums. Secondly, java.net seemed to do a better job of marketing projects and I'd heard their CVS system was much more stable. My experience at java.net has been quite nice: it's a very stable system, and the administrators are very supportive of the project and have even helped with marketing it. So after all that history, what is AppFuse? At its very core, AppFuse is a web application that you can package into a .war and apa thesis page deploy to a J2EE 1.3-compliant app server. It's designed to help you create new web applications using a new target in its build.xml file.
The new target allows you to of toefl specify a name for your project and a name for the database it will talk to. Once you've created a project, you can instantly create a MySQL database and master management deploy it to Tomcat using ant setup . Furthermore, you can verify that the basic functionality of of toefl ibt, your new application works by running ant test-all . At this point, you might sneer and say, What's the big deal? Anyone can create a .war file and deploy it to carver cathedral essay Tomcat. I agree, but do you have a setup-tomcat target that will configure Tomcat with JNDI resources for connections pooling and mail services? Most of what AppFuse does is not rocket science. In reality, it's nothing more than a directory structure, a build file, and a bunch of base classes -- with a few features thrown in. However, it has vastly accelerated my ability to start projects and develop high-quality, well-tested web applications.
AppFuse tries to make it as simple as possible to build, test, and ibt deploy your application. It virtually eliminates setup and configuration, which are often the hard parts. Tools like Ant, JUnit, XDoclet, Hibernate, and Spring can be difficult to get started with. Furthermore, features like authentication, password hints, remember me, user registration, and user management are things that most web apps need. My Philosophy Paper For Me! AppFuse ships with tutorials for developing DAOs, business delegates, Struts actions (or Spring controllers), integrating tiles and validation, and uses an Ant-based XDoclet task (written by Erik Hatcher) to essay ibt generate master/detail JSPs from model objects. It uses slick open source tag libraries like Struts Menu (for navigation) and the Display Tag (for paging and sorting lists).
One of the best parts, in essay on the in britain my opinion, is that it embraces the Java community's ideas and suggestions. Essay Ibt! The directory structure and build file are largely based on Erik Hatcher and Steve Loughran's excellent Java Development with Ant book. In this book, Erik built a sample application that inspired me to learn more about Ant and XDoclet -- and use it in my Struts development. When I first started learning and using Hibernate in AppFuse, I made many mistakes -- and the community let me know. At first, I opened and closed its Session object for apa thesis reference each DAO method. Of Toefl Ibt! When Gavin told me this was a bad idea, I made modifications to use an OpenSessionInView pattern, with my own ServletFilter to do the college, work. I passed the session object into essay of toefl ibt, each method signature, for which the community repeatedly questioned my logic.
My answer was, I wanted to and Synthesis get it working more than anything -- do you have a better idea? The better idea turned out to be using the Session as a constructor argument, which worked pretty well. Of Toefl Ibt! Then, late last year, I discovered the Spring framework and found the beautiful solution I'd been looking for. Using its ORM support, I was able to eliminate any Session handling in AppFuse; now Spring elegantly handles it all. AppFuse now uses Spring's OpenSessionInViewFilter . All I needed to do was configure it in web.xml and it manages opening and closing the session for me. When I integrated Spring in AppFuse's persistence layer, I deleted two or three classes and reduced my LOC count by around 75 percent. All of the Hibernate issues I'd had before disappeared! In addition, I was quickly able to add a DAO implementation using iBATIS, which I worked with on a project last year. On that project, I discovered that iBATIS was easy to use and worked very well for interacting with complex database schemas. AppFuse is carver essay, not only a jumpstart kit for your web apps; it's also a showcase for integrating technologies like Hibernate, Spring, and Struts. Essay Ibt! Tutorials exist for integrating these different open source components, but rarely do they give you an application you can walk away with and use to develop your next application.
In a sense, AppFuse is a glue that binds open source projects together. When I found Spring, it was a perfect fit, since it was the glue to carver essay configure components and loosely couple the different layers of an application. Ibt! Erik's book might have been the apa thesis reference, match that lit AppFuse, but Spring is the gasoline that really got it roaring. Spring has vastly simplified how I develop with AppFuse and forced me to of toefl ibt follow best practices in J2EE. In short, it's the best tool I've ever used with J2EE. I realize Spring is not the be-all-end-all for J2EE applications -- AppFuse worked fine before I integrated it. However, it helped answer all of my How should I do . questions -- which was a nice relief. AppFuse 1.5 was released at the end of thesis management, May. Its major feature is the option to essay of toefl use Spring MVC instead of Struts.
All of the tutorials have been updated to educate users how to use Spring (or Struts) for their web layers. For AppFuse 1.6, I plan to add support for using WebWork and lab report SiteMesh, as well as make it easier to essay of toefl run unit tests from paper Eclipse and essay of toefl IDEA. By the write my philosophy for me, end of the year, I hope to add Tapestry and JSF as MVC options. The middle tier and back end (Spring plus Hibernate) probably won't change much. It's a well-oiled machine at this point. This isn't to say that I think AppFuse is perfect. I hope I continue to receive valuable feedback and suggestions. Essay! After all, this is the on the revolution, driving force behind improving its quality. Essay Ibt! When I find innovative and easier ways to lab report develop web apps, it ends up in essay of toefl AppFuse. Thesis Management! People ask me why AppFuse doesn't support Middlegen. The reason is simple: I've never used or needed Middlegen on a project, so I don't see any reason to add it.
If I end up on a project where I use Middlegen, you can bet I'll end up adding support for it. Recently, I started using Spring's MVC framework instead of Struts. At first, I found it a bit difficult to understand, so I implemented the web layer with Spring MVC. Since the web layer contains many features that I use in web apps (i.e., templating, validation, file upload, and exception handling), I learned the ins and outs of Spring MVC by integrating it. Using and learning AppFuse is a good way to keep up to essay of toefl date with the latest releases of its dependent projects.
I try to keep as up to date as possible with new releases -- and due to AppFuse's unit test coverage, I can easily test new releases by dropping them in and running ant test-all . This even works for dependent resources such as Tomcat and MySQL, in which I've found bugs via AppFuse. For me, it acts as a testing tool to apa thesis reference page verify the functionality of essay ibt, new open source releases. Equinox is a lightweight version of AppFuse; hence its pseudonym AppFuse Light. Project Matrix! I was inspired to create it when looking at of toefl the struts-blank and webapp-minimal applications that ship with Struts and Spring, respectively. These starter apps were not robust enough for me, and I wanted something like AppFuse, only carver cathedral, simpler -- with no build-time dependencies. Essay Of Toefl! It's designed to show web app developers how to start a bare-bones Struts/Spring/Hibernate app using the QuickStart Chapter in Spring Live . For Me! More functionality may be added in essay of toefl the future, but the main goal is to provide a better implementation of a bare-bones web app.
Equinox should mostly be used for writing tutorials and rapid prototyping. I don't recommend using it for starting a full-fledged production application. That's what AppFuse is apa thesis page, for.
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Adolescent Addiction and STD/HIV essay. Adolescence is considered to be a unique period in life cycle, which represents various challenges and opportunities to the individuals. In fact, it is a time of constant search and experimentation, which increasingly includes risky sex and drug use. Today, young people are largely disoriented: parents and teachers assert, for example, that one should abstain from early sexual activities, smoking or alcohol consumption, but television, movies and magazines propagandize a disreputable lifestyle full of unsafe sexual practices, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Therefore, adolescence is understood as one of the most difficult periods of human development. Despite its relative brevity, it largely determines the essay of toefl ibt, entire life of the individual. Sure, the my philosophy, formation of character and other personal basics occur in this period of life cycle. These circumstances make adolescents particularly vulnerable and malleable to the negative influences of environment.
In addition, it is necessary to take into account an adolescent’s tendency to be free from parental guardianship and control that often leads to essay, the denial of spiritual values ??and standards of carver essay living of the older generation. Dramatically, young people aged less than 25 years are more heavily affected by STD/HIV-AIDS. Most sexually transmitted infections occur more frequently in adolescents than in adults. Parents and teachers often do not know what, how and when to of toefl ibt, talk to adolescents. Reference. The talks about sexuality and remedies are tabooed in society, particularly with regard to young people.
In this case, young people, not having access to accurate information, rely on rumors and stereotypes learned from essay ibt, peers and the media. In such a case, young people need adequate support and reliable information to paper for me, help them protect themselves. Key words: adolescence, STD/HIV-AIDS, risky sex, drug use. Background on HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS and other STDs are one of the most important and tragic issues facing humanity at the end of XX century. Today, HIV/AIDS is “recognized as a global emergency demanding the attention on the international health agenda and one of the essay of toefl ibt, most important public health issues” (Wasti, Simkhada, Randall, van Teijlingen, 2009, p. 62). In fact, STDs and master thesis, HIV infection have spread to all the sectors of the population, including happy families. Hence, it is a quite relevant problem that affects all aspects of our society, and thus, needs much attention to deal with.
The first cases of infection were observed in Africa in 1959. In 1981, a new syndrome was first identified among homosexual men in the United States of America. Since 1987, the spread of a new infectious disease has reached epidemic proportions. Nowadays, the disease is essay, registered in 152 countries around the world (UNAIDS WHO, 2003). The highest prevalence of industrial in britain reported infections can be found in all African countries. In fact, HIV prevalence among young people (10–19 years) is 2.1 million adolescents, who live with HIV in 2012 (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS [UNAIDS], 2013). Generally speaking, AIDS is a chronic condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, abbreviated as HIV. Ibt. There is college lab report, no doubt that AIDS is of toefl, a complex scientific problem. However, the fight against HIV/AIDS and other STDs is largely complicated by the lack of effective therapeutic drugs, and because of the inability to be vaccinated. Carver Essay. That is of toefl, why, health education programs, full and objective information about the urgency of the cathedral, problem and effective ways to prevent infections are crucial in the fight against the AIDS epidemic.
Sure, HIV/AIDS and essay, other STDs are difficult to control due to write my philosophy paper for me, the following significant issues: 1) lack of essay of toefl ibt effective treatment; 2) lack of apa thesis page resources for primary prevention (vaccination); 3) difficulties in contacts with the population most severely affected by HIV/AIDS. How HIV is Transmitted. The main routes of HIV transmission include as follows: A. Unsafe anal, vaginal, or oral sex (i.e. sex without a condom). Currently, the lion’s share of cases of HIV infection falls on unprotected sex. In order to protect themselves from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, it is important to abstain from sexual intercourse or even it happens make sure to use a quality condom.
B. Through blood products. The vast majority of HIV infections are among people who use or have used drugs intravenously. Furthermore, HIV can be transmitted when using non-sterile, untreated medical instruments or during blood transfusions. Essay Of Toefl Ibt. C. From mother to child. Child transmission is possible: during pregnancy (when HIV penetrates through the essay industrial in britain, placenta to the fetus) during childbirth and breast feeding. Now let us talk about the factors that contribute to the spread of HIV infection: 1) the growing number of children and adolescents, who have dropped out of the sphere of essay of toefl social control; 2) the proliferation of different forms of deviant behavior among children, adolescents and young people:increase in the number of injecting drug users; increase in alcohol abuse among minors; increase in juvenile delinquency; involvement of youth and minors in commercial sex. 3) reducing educational potential of families; 4) preventive work is not up to teenagers dropped out on the industrial revolution in britain, of the area of essay of toefl social control; 5) the imperfection of college social monitoring (allowing to assess the effectiveness of preventive measures to essay ibt, track changes in master in marketing management, the behavior of #8220;at risk#8221; groups, and to identify new areas of risk) as well as medical control over the representatives of #8220;at risk#8221; groups; 6) the lack of legal protection and psychosocial assistance to drug addicts and their families during the rehabilitation period; 7) low effectiveness of drug treatment, the high cost of removing the psychological dependence that makes it unaffordable for essay most addicts; 8) relative effectiveness of law enforcement agencies to combat drug trafficking; 9) low coordination of prevention activities by apa thesis reference different agencies and organizations; 10) poor sexual health knowledge; 11) limited condom use since parents do not talk to their children about sexual matters (Wasti, Simkhada, Randall, van Teijlingen, 2009). HIV Signs and Symptoms. Ibt. Now let us focus our specific attention on the fundamental criteria for recognition of HIV infection.
The recognition of HIV infection, especially in the early stages, is very difficult. The doctor must first of all be alert to this infection, mindful of its inexorable spread in our society. The diagnostic program for HIV infection should include three main fragments. Anamnesis – information about cathedral, a person’s belonging to risk groups, sexual contact with persons from of toefl ibt, these groups, especially with the large number of partners. In addition, it is important to consider the indications of the subject for a long stay abroad, especially in endemic regions. On The Revolution In Britain. Analysis of clinical symptoms.
Multifaceted, abundant and essay of toefl ibt, diverse clinical manifestations of HIV infection have the common features: relentless flow, increasing severity, combination of a variety of pathological conditions, resistance to therapy, etc. The physician must especially pay attention to generalized lymphadenopathy, weight loss, persistent diarrhea, severe pneumonia, progressive damage to the central nervous system and, of course, Kaposi’s sarcoma. Laboratory tests. The diagnosis of HIV infection should always be confirmed by the laboratory. Thus, HIV signs and write my philosophy for me, symptoms include: 1) enlarged liver or spleen; 2) fever; 3) diarrhea; 4) chills; 5) headache; 6) muscle aches; 7) sore throat; 8) rash; 9) night sweats; 10) neurologic symptoms; 11) ulcers in of toefl ibt, the mouth; 12) nausea and vomiting; 13) thrush; and 14) swollen lymph nodes (“Signs and Symptoms,” n.d.). However, it is essay on the industrial revolution, possible to remember that the above-mentioned symptoms and signs usually disappear in a week to a month and can be easily mistaken for any other virus infections. HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment. There is no doubt that successful fight against HIV / AIDS largely depends on the targeted prevention efforts of different government and of toefl ibt, non-governmental organizations and efficient attempts to deal with the problem that include political, societal, and treatment approaches.
Since the recognition of my philosophy paper HIV, many government and non-governmental organizations took all the possible to measures to deal with the problem. HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention took place in different areas, including education programs, public information, strategies to minimize the risks of being affected with HIV, and more. In fact, HIV / AIDS treatment pursues a comprehensive goal: to reduce the amount of essay of toefl ibt virus in the body, to keep the replication (reproduction) of the virus, to backup or restore the immune system and to prevent or treat opportunistic infections that occur due to immune deficiency. As for the treatment options for dealing with the problem, it is important to introduce free voluntary HIV testing, qualified counseling for infected people to raise their awareness about the disease and safe sex behavior, appropriate and adequate antiretroviral therapies, training sessions, specialized diagnostic and treatment centers to cathedral essay, improve the social and material conditions of life for of toefl all. Thus, HIV / AIDS treatment is currently being conducted in three areas: Etiotropic therapy aimed at eliminating or suppressing a retrovirus. Pathogenetic therapy aimed at restoring the carver essay, immune system. Symptomatic therapy aimed at the treatment of major clinical manifestations of essay of toefl ibt AIDS. Lab Report. Standard antiretroviral therapy that is of toefl ibt, considered to be today’s most efficient and effective way to treat HIV infection. It blocks the HIV virus in the patients’ blood with antiretroviral drugs, which does not allow the virus to multiply further.
Nowadays, medicine does not have the means that would completely cure a person infected with HIV. However, various medicine products that can delay disease progression are designed and manufactured by different organizations. WHO reports about the my philosophy paper for me, evidence-based programs for dealing with the problem, arguing that as of the end of essay ibt 2012, 9.7 million individuals, including children and adolescents, had access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in different countries worldwide. In fact, WHO provides various countries with treatment options, evidence-based programs, ongoing guidance and support in delivering standard antiretroviral therapy within a public health approach (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). Apa Thesis Reference. In addition to this, WHO along with UNAIDS launched an evidence-based prevention program known as the Treatment 2.0 strategy. Ibt. This program is aimed at encouraging adults and adolescents to adopt appropriate behaviors that decrease their risk of essay industrial in britain HIV infection. Also, the program is designed to assist HIV-positive individuals in reducing their risk of transmitting HIV. In fact, the Treatment 2.0 strategy promotes drastic simplification of standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) and full integration with treatment and prevention in order to ensure Universal Access (WHO, 2013).
Here are some preventive measures to essay of toefl ibt, cope with the HIV / AIDS issue. One of the most important ways to prevent HIV / AIDS is to have sex with only one partner, do not have contact with prostitutes, casual acquaintances, drug addicts who use intravenous needles, etc. Moreover, it is essential to use condoms to protect against in marketing management HIV. Make sure to utilize only your own hypodermic needles, toothbrushes, and razors. Insist on using only sterile disposable instruments during surgeries (including dental ones), acupuncture, tattooing or body piercing. In addition, the most important policy actions include: 1. Ensuring promotion, protection and respect of human rights and essay of toefl ibt, taking measures to eliminate discrimination and combat stigma. 2. My Philosophy Paper For Me. Cooperative work of ibt all sectors of apa thesis page society, including governments, non-governmental organizations, religious organizations, education sectors, private sectors, trade unions, and the media. 3. Essay Of Toefl Ibt. Involvement of individuals living with HIV in the implementation and evaluation of preventive strategies that address the distinct prevention needs.
4. Taking into account cultural norms and beliefs, recognizing the key role they can play in supporting prevention efforts and their potential impact on the spread of carver HIV. 5. Wide dissemination of essay of toefl ibt knowledge of how HIV infection is transmitted and how to prevent it. 6. Promoting the links between HIV prevention and college lab report, protection of sexual and reproductive health. 7. Promoting programs to meet the HIV prevention needs of key groups and populations affected by HIV. 8. Mobilizing and strengthening financial, human and institutional capacities in all sectors, particularly in health and education. 9. Ensuring adequate investment in areas of research, development and promotion of new prevention technologies. 10. Ensuring “safer sex behavior, condom promotion, identifying and of toefl, treating STIs, harm reduction, voluntary counselling and testing services, sexual health and HIV/AIDS to youth, preventing mother to child transmission” (Wasti, Simkhada, Randall, van Teijlingen, 2009, p. 63). Thus, taking the above-mentioned information into consideration, it is possible to draw a conclusion that HIV/AIDS and other STDs are truly one of the most important and tragic issues facing humanity at the end of XX century. Anyone at any age, regardless of gender, place of residence, religion and social status can become infected with HIV.
However, the fact is that young people are most at risk of HIV infection. Essay Revolution In Britain. This is due to the fact that adolescence is viewed as one of the most difficult periods of human development. Today, young people are largely disoriented: the media, movies and of toefl, magazines propagandize a disreputable lifestyle full of unsafe sexual practices, smoking, and alcohol consumption. As a result, not having access to accurate information, they begin to my philosophy for me, rely on rumors and stereotypes learned from ibt, peers and TVs. In this connection, young people need adequate support and help to protect themselves from being infected.
Sure, HIV/AIDS is an important issue, which requires much attention to deal with. It is critical to take all the possible measures to cope with the problem at the national and international levels. Our research presents a solution to the HIV issue, provides the information on HIV transmission routes, HIV symptoms and signs and HIV/AIDS treatment and preventive measures to write, deal with the issue. Undoubtedly, only the knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention is able to protect each of us from being affected by this viral infection.
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Essay: Does America Have a Human Rights Problem? Over the past several years, the essay United States has become a major target of criticism by leading human rights organizations. Lab Report! Both Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have issued a series of of toefl ibt reports which castigate America for its treatment of minority groups, women, prisoners, immigrants and asylum seekers, and criminal defendants. Amnesty International has gone so far as to enlist its millions of members in a worldwide campaign against human rights abuses in the United States; at the 1999 session of the college lab report United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Amnesty International listed the U.S. Of Toefl! as a major human rights priority, along with Algeria, Cambodia, Turkey, and the Great Lakes region of Africa, which embraces Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. What accounts for this upsurge of concern over the American record? Ordinarily, human rights organizations issue reports in response to clear and verifiable patterns of human rights abuses, such as the imprisonment of democracy advocates in essay, China or the massacre of Christians in India. Or they may shine the spotlight on a particular country because of a generalized deterioration in a broad range of essay of toefl human rights, as has been the case in Belarus. Or they may discover violations of rights which have been overlooked in carver cathedral essay, the past, such as female genital mutilation in various African countries. By any reasonable criteria, America does not qualify as a human rights problem. Like all societies, the United States suffers its share of social ills.
Nevertheless, its record of protecting the rights of essay ibt society’s most vulnerable groups ranks with the college lab report best in the world. Essay Ibt! Layer upon layer of Project Matrix laws, administrative regulations, and essay of toefl ibt, court decrees exist to promote the fair treatment of racial minorities, immigrants, the handicapped, women, children, the elderly, the mentally ill, and religious believers (and non-believers as well). Although homosexuals are not extended the protection of most federal civil rights laws, the states have increasingly included gays and lesbians in the roster of classes protected by anti-discrimination legislation. Yet to its critics, the U.S. is not a country where special rights have been adopted for those who might conceivably suffer discrimination, but a cheerless place where the write my philosophy for me individual is at the mercy of a pitiless market economy and essay, a brutal police regime. Carver Cathedral! True enough, while in America all manner of rights are protected, this is also a society where heavy demands are placed on the individual. Among the rich nations, the essay ibt United States has one of the Plan Matrix least generous social welfare systems. Of Toefl Ibt! Unemployment benefits are limited, and there is no national health insurance system for ordinary workers as in many European countries. College Lab Report! Under new legislation, the able-bodied poor, including single mothers, are being pushed off the welfare rolls and into the job market. Furthermore, America has become highly integrated into the global economy, something which has accelerated the decline of the of toefl older industrial base, disrupted the lives of Plan and Synthesis Matrix millions of essay of toefl displaced workers, and led to the decline of once-vibrant cities.
It is in marketing this second, highly distorted, image of America—an America where, critics contend, the rich get richer and essay of toefl, more powerful at the expense of everyone else—which seems to predominate among the major human rights organizations. The Amnesty International report speaks of the U.S. as a country “beset by social problems, including unemployment, disease, and violent crime,” and riddled with “extreme poverty.” That Amnesty International is wrong on every point in its assessment of America’s socioeconomic condition is beside the cathedral point. If human rights organizations believe that America’s political leaders treat the economic plight of the of toefl poor and college lab report, vulnerable with extreme indifference, then it is only logical that they would expect America to violate the ibt constitutional and human rights of its citizens as well. Two issues in particular have drawn the attention of the human rights community. The first involves the methods America has chosen to wage its war on crime. The second is discrimination against non-whites or, to place the matter in a broader and more appropriate context, the country’s efforts to build a successful multinational society. The American criminal justice system has come under fire from different sources and for paper different reasons in recent years. Ibt! America is one of the few developed societies to permit capital punishment, and the use of the death penalty has become rather common in certain states, such as Texas. America has one of the highest rates of incarceration in the world, and in cathedral essay, many states, those convicted of of toefl ibt violent crimes or drug-related offenses are being handed lengthy sentences with stipulations that most or all of the sentence must be served. College Lab Report! Much of the increase in the prison population is due to the war on drugs, a controversial subject even within the law enforcement profession.
Critics claim that sentencing petty drug dealers to years in the penitentiary is unjust and even discriminatory, since a high proportion of drug crime defendants are black. There is also the essay of toefl ibt question of police abuse. In 1998, Human Rights Watch issued a lengthy study which claimed that police misconduct constituted a major human rights problem and asserted that in many American cities police officers guilty of abuse frequently go unpunished. Although human rights organizations have issued dozens of critical reports on various aspects of American criminal justice, they have betrayed no interest in the broad question of crime in the United States. This may be because of their position that the apa thesis reference context of of toefl ibt a human rights violation is immaterial, and apa thesis reference, the question of how best to wage the war against crime is the responsibility of law enforcement professionals. This is a purist, and of toefl, ultimately insufficient, argument. If we have learned anything over the past thirty years, it is that high levels of master thesis management crime, or the public perception that crime is out of control, can present an even greater threat to of toefl democracy, the rule of law, and human rights than the abuse of power by the authorities or draconian sentencing policies. The impact of violent crime on American democracy was an master in marketing management, important theme of Haynes Johnson’s 1994 book, Divided We Fall. After having spent months touring the ibt country and testing the mood of the people, Johnson concluded:
No subject generates more concern than violent crime, none touches. people more deeply and personally, none triggers more emotion. More than any issue, including jobs and education, the growing. specter of violence leads people to think that something. fundamental has been broken in America…. When people are asked what they think can be done about “it,” the answer that invariably comes back is either “I don’t know” or “Nothing!” Crime is believed to be beyond the write paper society’s. capacity to eliminate. Johnson and other authors have expressed concern over what they see as a steady erosion of American civil society. They point to a weakening of the broad institutions, such as the public schools, which gave Americans the essay of toefl sense of belonging to a single nation. They express disappointment at the lack of racial integration in schools and neighborhoods.
They accuse government of willfully ignoring the plight of the inner city poor. They lament the abandonment of urban America by the middle class. The role of violent crime in college, each of these problems, and many more, is essay ibt central. Parents who enroll their children in private schools cite safety as often as they cite quality education. They do not find the presence of master management metal detectors or security guards reassuring; if the public schools find it necessary to take such extreme steps, they would prefer to move to the suburbs and a safer environment or send their children to non-public schools, despite the expense. Security has also played a major role in the rise of essay of toefl “gated communities.” Critics who regard America as a society in decline often point to the expansion of apartment complexes or residential developments which feature high-tech security devices and private security guards as clear evidence that the rich are walling themselves off from the rest of society. But while there may be a complex series of master motives in ibt, the creation of gated communities, logic suggests that fear of criminals and lack of cathedral faith in the criminal justice system is the of toefl most important consideration. The deterioration of the inner city is, of course, directly attributable to crime and especially to drug-related crime. The failure of master thesis in marketing management schools, businesses, the abandonment of housing, the essay of toefl ibt flight of reference page entrepreneurs and potential community leaders—all reflect the of toefl impact of high crime rates in minority neighborhoods over the past three decades. And, of course, crime has had a major impact on American politics.
Indeed, the widespread sense that liberals were “soft on crime” was a huge factor in the Republican ascendancy of the 1970s and 1980s. With some justification, liberals became identified with such notions as that the “root causes” of crime were more important than controlling crime, that ensuring the rights of criminal defendants was a higher priority than getting criminals off the streets, and that to call for a war on crime was to appeal to the racial prejudices of the white electorate. With liberals unwilling to revolution confront the public’s distress over rising crime rates, the way was paved for the rise of demagogues like George Wallace, whose presidential campaign siphoned off many blue-collar Democratic votes, and Frank Rizzo, the tough talking mayor of Philadelphia. The perception that the state was incapable of dealing with the upsurge of of toefl ibt violent crime also eroded the public’s confidence in the core institutions of cathedral essay democracy. Ibt! Although the responsibilities of government have grown considerably since the early days of the Republic, most Americans still regard public safety as government’s principal mission. Write Paper! Americans can hardly be blamed for believing that something fundamental in the democratic fabric had given way when high law enforcement officials were expressing doubts over winning the war on crime.
The logic ran that if government cannot make the streets safe, why should citizens believe that it can educate their children, reduce poverty, or spend taxes wisely? It is because of the central nature of the relationship between law enforcement and people’s faith in the institutions of democracy that recent developments loom so crucial. For in fact, there is mounting evidence that through a combination of essay ibt public policies and new policing techniques, crime has undergone a substantial decrease in practically every major city of the United States. Essay! The most notable decrease has been in the violent crime categories—murders, assaults, rapes. Americans are still concerned about violent crime, and may continue to express skepticism about government’s ability to essay of toefl ibt bring peace to the streets. Yet when asked about their greatest concerns, Americans no longer list crime as issue number one; they are more likely to rank crime below education, Social Security, medical care, and other domestic issues.
There are a number of reasons for the decrease in violent crime that has been recorded in lab report, each of the past seven years. Perhaps the most important is the trend toward lengthy prison sentences, which has ensured that, at any given moment, many potential violent offenders are off the essay of toefl ibt streets and behind bars. But certainly another factor is the implementation of a new law enforcement strategy known generally as “zero tolerance” policing. Zero tolerance policing grew out apa thesis reference of the theories of sociologist James Q. Wilson, who wrote some years ago that the failure to prosecute those who commit relatively minor, quality-of-life crimes would inevitably lead to an escalation of criminality until a condition is reached where events begin to spin out of of toefl ibt control and neighborhood deterioration sets in. The principal laboratory for the implementation of Project and Synthesis Matrix zero tolerance policing has been New York City during the administration of Mayor Rudolph Giuliani. A former federal prosecutor, Giuliani ran on a tough-on-crime platform, and has instituted a number of initiatives designed to make New York safer and “more livable.” None has generated more controversy than mass arrests for quality-of life misdemeanors: drinking or smoking marijuana in public, urinating in the street, subway fare beating, trespassing, reckless bicycle riding, and the like. Zero tolerance is credited with the revival of several New York neighborhoods which had been plagued by an environment notable for drug use, drug sales, public intoxication, and groups of menacing young men—all out in essay ibt, the open with no intervention by the police. Zero tolerance produced almost immediate results in several target neighborhoods, including Greenwich Village and parts of Harlem. The result has been neighborhoods which are more hospitable to families and a spurt in economic development in areas which, a few years previously, had been regarded as beyond revival. There is, of in marketing course, a cost to zero tolerance and other new urban police techniques, which stems from the rather substantial increase in encounters between the essay police and the public. In New York, hundreds of essay arrests are made each night for misdemeanors like public drinking and fare beating.
The accused are taken to the local precinct, booked, and ibt, often taken to the central holding area where they may remain overnight, after which they are arraigned before a judge who will ordinarily hand down a small fine, community service, or simply dismiss the case. Another aspect of zero tolerance is the arrest of petty drug dealers. Unlike the my philosophy paper quality-of-life misdemeanors, drug sales of even the small amount can be a serious matter; small-time drug dealers make up a sizeable proportion of the American prison population. Civil libertarians take a dim view of zero tolerance and are actively opposed to the war on drugs, objecting to the jailing of petty dealers and essay ibt, fretting over the preponderance of blacks arrested on write my philosophy paper, drug counts. Essay Of Toefl Ibt! Here both civil libertarians and minority group spokesmen betray a certain amount of confusion. It was not so long ago that blacks decried the destructive force of narcotics in the inner city. Especially during the height of the paper crack cocaine epidemic, blacks blamed drugs for destroying black youth, driving the inner city middle class to the suburbs, and robbing minority neighborhoods of economic viability. True, black leaders were divided on the proper anti-drug strategy. Essay Ibt! Some called for a massive police drive against college lab report drug use, while others, uncomfortable with an arrest-and-punish approach, talked about ways of dealing with the “root causes” of crime. The problem with this latter approach is that the of toefl ibt root causes—poverty, lack of jobs, and master thesis management, economic development—will resist all efforts at betterment unless crime itself is brought under control. Furthermore, the root causes argument has been weakened somewhat by the recent experience of of toefl ibt Europe.
Despite its elaborate social welfare protection and college, social democratic economic policies, Europe has undergone an increase in crime to the point where in countries like France, violent crime rates surpass those in the United States. Much of the increase in essay of toefl, criminality is attributed to unemployed, alienated non-white immigrant youths. In response, some European countries have witnessed the rise of ultra-nationalist parties of the Right and demand that severe restrictions be placed on immigration. The United States has been spared this phenomenon. In fact, while the United States has implemented the democratic world’s harshest anti-crime regime, it has maintained a relatively liberal policy towards immigrants. Despite calls by thesis in marketing management a special commission on immigration chaired by the late Barbara Jordan for a modest reduction in the number of legal immigrants, America has maintained the same, relatively high immigration level through periods of both boom and recession. Proposals to change the immigration balance, which now overwhelmingly favors Hispanics and Asians, to encourage a higher proportion of European immigrants, have been rejected, as have proposals to adjust immigration criteria to essay ibt favor the thesis management educated and highly skilled. Thus the charge advanced by one well-known human rights organization that the U.S. is undergoing a wave of essay of toefl ibt anti-immigrant sentiment is patently false. In 1994, California’s voters adopted a measure which denied certain rights to illegal immigrants. Again, the proposition affected only illegal aliens, and essay industrial revolution in britain, the effect of the measure has been minimized by of toefl various court decisions.
Congress subsequently passed legislation denying welfare benefits to legal immigrants, a measure adopted in part because statistics indicated that a growing proportion of immigrants were on the welfare rolls. There is a good chance that this restriction will be lifted, since both President Clinton and a number of Republicans have spoken in favor of removing a measure which singled out immigrants for special treatment. If America has not become hostile to legal immigrants, it is also true that many people are concerned over apa thesis evidence that some of the newer immigrant groups were resisting assimilation into the broader American culture. Many immigrants seemed to regard American citizenship with indifference, and developed an interest in the naturalization process only essay ibt, after the revolution in britain adoption of restrictions on immigrants access to welfare. The notion that some immigrant groups were resistant to becoming “American” was fortified by immigrant constituency organizations, which sometimes spoke disparagingly of assimilation and pressed for government policies which would encourage immigrants to retain their cultural identity. Many Americans became skeptical of of toefl bilingual education, a technique for teaching immigrants which was supported with particular vigor by Hispanic organizations. To many, bilingual education was a prime example of a policy of dubious educational merit which was kept in place for political reasons. Immigrants bring many benefits to a society like the United States. They have played a critical role in the revival of American cities through their hard work and enterprising spirit. Many have brought with them traditional values of work, family, religious belief, education, and good citizenship. But high levels of immigration are not cost free, especially when the immigrants are ethnically and culturally different from the majority.
Furthermore, our current level of mass immigration takes place at a time of unprecedented expansion in in britain, the rights of minorities, with immigrants themselves quick to identify new and special “rights.” Thus, some have decried the policy of eliminating remedial courses at the City University of New York system as a violation of the essay of toefl rights of immigrants. Similarly, some see measures to roll back bilingual education as a violation of the right to an equal education, while others decry the roll-back of affirmative action as the denial of the rights of blacks, Hispanics, and even relatively prosperous Asian groups. Thus, at the core of the debate over the American condition is a conflict between those who believe that society’s strength lies in industrial, an elaborate and constantly expanding series of rights and essay of toefl, those who understand that a safe and paper, successful multinational democracy requires hard decisions and trade-offs between individual rights, the protection of minorities, and the requirements of the broader society. Most societies would not support the high levels of culturally diverse immigrants that the United States allows in each year. But even in America, the welcome mat would be withdrawn if high percentages of immigrants were on welfare or if immigrants were a major contributor to uncontrolled violent crime. Likewise, the resistance to neighborhood or school integration will remain a substantial problem as long as high rates of crime prevail in minority neighborhoods. In this sense, the extraordinary crime reduction initiatives which have been undertaken in many cities should be regarded not as threats to civil liberties, but rather as measures which will over the long run strengthen both democracy and civil society. While the U.S. has adopted a stricter attitude towards crime control, this has not come at the expense of the of toefl constitutional rights of the American people, including criminal defendants. College Lab Report! Most of the essay procedural safeguards set down by the Supreme Court during the 1960s remain in write for me, place. True, relations between the police and minority communities remain uneasy. But urban police departments are racially integrated, and a number of cities have appointed black officers as police chief.
Although bigoted police officers remain an unfortunate reality, the fact is that most deadly encounters between the police and black civilians involve black officers. Most police departments require better educated police officers than in the past, and new recruits are usually given extensive training in essay of toefl, crowd control, community relations, and similar sensitive subjects. Veterans of the criminal justice field overwhelmingly say that police abuse is apa thesis page much less prevalent today than at any time in the past, and police racism is much less a problem than in of toefl ibt, the pre-civil rights period. It should be noted that America’s record in curbing crime and in accommodating diverse cultures compares quite favorably to essay current conditions in other countries. In societies like Russia and of toefl, Mexico, uncontrolled crime ranks as the Plan and Synthesis Matrix greatest threat to of toefl democracy, political stability, and prosperity. Violent crime has led a number of Caribbean countries to make use of the death penalty. My Philosophy Paper! In Europe, robberies, assaults, and murders are on the rise in a number of countries, fueling demands to limit or cut off the flow of immigrants from Africa and the Middle East. European elites often express shock at the rough justice meted out by American courts, are appalled by America’s use of the death penalty, and essay of toefl, continue to regard America as incurably racist 35 years after the thesis in marketing management abolition of legal segregation. Now, however, it is Europe which is confronting the of toefl ibt challenge of reference page cultural diversity, and while the proportion of non-European immigrants in France, Germany, and essay, elsewhere does not compare with American figures, Europe is finding the experience a painful one. In Germany alone, there have been more instances of ethnic violence in essay, recent years than in the United States. Finally, no assessment of human rights in the U.S. would be complete without some consideration of the reflexively critical attitude towards America shared by many among our liberal elites.
A half-century ago, the U.S. was rightly regarded as having a serious human rights problem in the southern system of legal segregation and in the general denial of equal rights to non-whites. Ironically, America’s racial record was chastised much more severely after it had taken steps to dismantle segregation and other legal obstacles to equality. Indeed, the more America changed, the more tenaciously many critics, both here and abroad, held to the view of essay of toefl ibt a society dominated by write bigotry and “institutional racism.” During the latter stages of the Cold War, America was also accused of blocking popular revolution in ibt, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Although the major human rights organizations did not join with those who branded America as the lab report nerve center of world imperialism, they did criticize the U.S. for its support of of toefl El Salvador and other repressive Third World regimes. At the same time, some advocates of human rights resisted the thesis management idea that democracy was a precondition for essay ibt the full flowering of personal liberty. To accept the democracy argument, they claimed, would be to side with one of the contending sides in the Cold War - the West - and to automatically adopt a critical stance towards the Communist world, where democracy was unknown. The end of the Cold War, with its sudden and totally unexpected collapse of Soviet Communism, caught the critics of thesis management America off-guard. America could no longer be regarded as imperialist, or even as tolerant of human rights abuses, since its so-called client states moved expeditiously towards democracy and national reconciliation, and many formerly Communist countries embraced both democracy and market reforms. It was predictable that the U.S. would once again become a target for criticism, particularly since it emerged as the only country which could legitimately claim superpower status.
Although America no longer can be accused of supporting “reactionary” regimes in Central America, it can, and of toefl, is, derided for its failure to sign certain international covenants, such as the essay industrial in britain International Criminal Court. And since America cannot be criticized seriously for supporting repression abroad, it is increasingly attacked for essay of toefl tolerating official persecution of its own citizens at home. No society, and certainly not the write paper U.S., should expect that its failings will be ignored by the international community. At the same time, America should not be judged by a more rigorous standard than is applied elsewhere. During the postwar period America has forged an impressive record in promoting the spread of democracy and the respect for individual rights throughout the world, and in essay, expanding human rights and civil liberties among its own people.
America’s record is all the more impressive because of its success in reference page, building a peaceful and relatively integrated multinational society in essay of toefl ibt, an era in essay, which ethnic diversity is more often a source of division than of of toefl strength. An assessment of write for me America’s human rights record which ignores this context does a serious injustice to the United States. More to the point, it ultimately does a disservice to the principles on which the essay of toefl ibt human rights movement has been built. Arch Puddington is apa thesis vice president for research at Freedom House.