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Ambassador John Adams meets King George III of Great Britain


American Ambassador John Adams visits Britain, and meets King George III of England. For political and diplomatic reasons.

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Letter to john adams essay

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Brief Therapy: A Student Essay On Brief Therapy. Brief therapy refers to letter to john adams essay, a family or group of related interventions in which the therapist deliberately limits both the goals and the duration of contact (Wells, 1994). Brief therapy involves a wide range of approaches to psychotherapy, which unlike traditional therapies, set specific goals and limit the use writing argumentative essay number of sessions (Nugent, 1994). This essay briefly outlines the main features of to john adams essay brief therapy and critically evaluates it’s benefits and limitations. Despite controversial opinions, it is for essays, a very useful therapeutic tool for many mental health issues facing the average population, though severe addictions and psychoses often require long-term intervention.

It is important that the to john referral for brief therapy is based upon cautious and thorough assessment of client suitability, and therapists are aware of the cultural context and values of clients before attempting to confront or change their thinking or behaviour (Corey, 1996). Flexibility with regards to techniques, spacing and duration of sessions, interruptions and and against essay famous follow-up assessments is important, depending on each individual case and the skill of the letter to john therapist (Rawson, 2002). However, further research into brief therapy is needed, which will help practitioners make prescriptions with greater accuracy and the role in the economy essay effectiveness (Castelnuovo-Tedesco, 1967). Psychoanalysis began as brief therapy, but later dynamic theories became longer and more open ended (Coren, 2001). Stress-related emergencies of to john essay World War II necessitated the development of of business economy brief interventions, with the aim of symptom reduction and prevention of breakdown. The growing demand for mental health services, budget constraints and economic pressures further created the need for efficient and accessible intervention, making brief therapy popular in the ‘80's and letter essay ‘90's (Nugent, 1994). Idioms And Proverbs For Essay. Ferenczi (1951) and Rank (1945) pioneered ways to reduce treatment. Although most brief interventions range from to john, seven to essay, 25 sessions (Sperry, 1989) there is no clear consensus as to letter adams, the duration. Boundaries of time, place, security, confidentiality, therapist non-disclosure and conduct are stressed, while the environment must discourage a sense of timelessness and cozy self-reflection (Molnos, 1995). Brief therapy also involves directive skills and an active role by the therapist, who focuses on making goals as clear as possible, helping the client in systematic, step-by-step problem solving and using the pressure of time limit as a key towards change (Wells, 1982). It is essay age of proximity, thus defined by the therapist’s endeavour to improve the letter to john adams client’s condition in a short period of time (Shulman, 1989) while helping him develop skills to way to a date essay, manage future problems more effectively (Nugent, 1994).

In short, brief therapy involves the following basic principles: Time-limitation, focus on change, working alliance, therapist’s pro-activeness and optimism, flexibility of technique as well as focus on termination issues (Koss Shiang, 1994) Brief therapy has also been adapted to the majority of intervention theories, though it usually stems from psychodynamic or cognitive-behavioral theories. Letter. Some of the and against essay famous major models are: Interpersonal-developmental-existential approach Multimodal therapy Reality therapy Three-stage approach Solution focused brief therapy Neuro-linguistic programming Mann’s 12 session model Single-session therapy Two-plus-one model Contextual modular therapy (Feltham, 1997). Letter Essay. Critical Evaluation Of Brief Therapy: The significance of brief psychotherapy is not only and against of being famous a medical but a social one and it is widely practiced in clinical and institutional settings such as primary care, mental health services, industry, education and therapeutic work with the elderly or bereaved (Coren, 2001). It is of special relevance to the general physician because the patients he sees are the ones best suited for this form of treatment (Castelnuovo-Tedesco, 1967). In cases where large populations must be served through managed health care, brief therapy encourages fair and equal distribution of services to as many people as possible (Austad Berman, 1991).

In fact, psychotherapy has evolved from a long-term psychoanalytically dominated method that was once available mainly to socially privileged clients, into a brief service accessible to essay, a much wider population. And Proverbs For Essay. (Wells, 1994). However, there has been a lot of controversy regarding the morality and letter adams effectiveness of brief therapy, which is seen as essentially short and superficial, with questions about the permanence and depth of age of its results (Wilson, 1996). Comparing eight contemporary short-term therapies, Sperry (1989) concluded that none of them agreed upon a unified definition, targets or aims, nor the ideal client to treat. To John Essay. Even the title itself connotes a sense of negativity and way to write shortage (Feltham, 1997). Hence, a wide variety of terms have been used like time-conscious psychological therapy , time-sensitive, time-efficient and cost-effective therapy (Budman Gurman, 1988). Moreover, most psychotherapists, particularly those working in the private sector hold the view that long-term, open ended therapy is the superior form of intervention (Wilson, 1996) and the longer the therapy endures, the better the patient’s improvement. E.g.

Cognitive Behaviour therapy has been criticized for being superficial, technique-oriented and simplistic, denying the importance of client’s past, the role of unconscious factors and working only on eliminating symptoms, without exploring the underlying causes of adams essay difficulties (Corey, 1996). Yet empirical evidence shows that both long-term and short-term therapy give equal results, which proves that brief treatment is capable of delivering as much service in less time (Wells, 1994). Some of the recent research has in correct write essay, fact, demonstrated that therapeutic interventions designed for shorter number of sessions are more effective than longer interventions (Sperry, 1989) though results from adams, a randomized trial show that while short-term psychotherapy produced quicker benefits, long-term therapy produced more durable gains (Knekt et al., 2008). Research on crises demonstrates that most people only seek therapy when they are in severe crisis and therapy must be devised in a way to work within the time limit in which the crisis naturally resolves itself (Wells, 1994). Brief therapy is thus often highly beneficial to previously well-functioning individuals involved in a situational crisis, as it aims at words, relieving current conflicts rather than personality changes (Castelnuovo-Tedesco, 1967). In fact, the letter adams therapist himself can view this service as similar to of business economy essay, ‘intermittent parenting’ of a client (Mander, 2003). Adams. Besides, long-term therapy is more costly and a for of being requires a great investment of time while brief therapy does not cause much disruption to one’s daily life. E.g. families are often prepared to allow family therapy for a limited period of to john adams time and the therapist has to for essays, use this restriction by utilizing appropriate methodology (Coren, 2001). Brief therapy however, is not just limited to the removal of stressful symptoms but significant personality changes are possible, depending on the client and the therapist’s skill. Since time-limited therapies propose that people continue to letter, grow throughout their lives, they can support this development by focusing on obstacles rather than disease or deficits (Coren, 2001). All major models of brief term therapy recognize that the existential reality of an use writing essay agreed time limit is a powerful force for letter essay, change (Wilson, 1996).

According to Bandler (1993) it's easier to cure a phobia in ten minutes than in five years” as the a for essay human mind does not learn slowly but quickly. E.g. In Intensive short-term psychotherapy , Davanloo (1978) wasted no time in letter to john, identifying early signs of famous transference by pointing out to the client his passive-aggressive stance. While such approaches are criticized for their confrontational techniques, others view it as a way of communicating and reaching out to the client (Coren, 2001). In fact, the active role of the therapist, the expectations concerning the length of letter to john essay therapy, and the specificity of use writing goals facilitate therapy and avoid some of the pitfalls of long-term psychotherapy (Garfield, 1989). Time limits provide structure, encourage clients to be independent and self-reliant and increase optimism and hope that improvement is possible within a short period (Rawson, 2002). They also help to concentrate the patient’s material and the therapist’s work and prevent therapy from to john, becoming aimless and diffuse (Malan, 1979).

Brief therapy is thus not the hurried and superficial activity it’s critics suggest, but is simply a different way of therapy and counseling and as much “tender loving care” can be conveyed in brief as in lengthy therapy (Feltham, 1997). For Essay. However, although brief therapies reflect contemporary trends, they are also in danger of letter to john losing what is distinctively therapeutic and becoming the best form of “commodity” on describe of business essay, the therapeutic market or a “quick fix” (Coren, 2001). But as Randolph (1992) argues, brief therapy is realistic and geared to the needs of clients and not just the restraints of the market. Even the proponents of to john adams essay brief therapy question it’s appropriateness for different client groups (Wilson, 1996) and and against of being agree that it is to john essay, not suitable indiscriminately for all kinds of psychiatric problems. Whitaker (1996) stresses that eating, personality and sexual disorders and wow statements alcohol and drug addiction is not easily curable through brief intervention. To John Adams Essay. However, in Koegler and Brill's (1967) experience, even quite ill patients respond positively to of business in the, brief therapy, combined with tranquilizing drugs.

According to Garfield (1989) except for very seriously disturbed individuals, brief treatment can be considered for most patients in touch with reality, experiencing some discomfort, and who make the effort to seek help. Special care must be taken with patients with suicidal risk, as brief therapy rarely offers enough protection or time to resolve their difficulty, though it serves to prepare clients for long-term treatment or highlight the need for it (Castelnuovo-Tedesco, 1967) Wolberg (1965) states that the best strategy is to assume that every patient, irrespective of diagnosis, will respond to short-term treatment unless he proves to be resistant to it, although he made exception for major disorders and psychoses. However, he used short-term methods in treating chronic disease, obsessive-compulsive neurosis and letter to john essay borderline schizophrenia with “gratifying results. Moreover, the clinical criteria for therapy must underlie a well-defined and idioms for essay thorough assessment model like the DSM IV (Cooper Archer, 1999). Also, clients must have a right to both open-ended and time-limited therapies though, in letter to john adams, practice this is often influenced by extraneous factors, patient’s financial resources and the therapist’s availability (Coren, 2001).

A follow-up session is often important to evaluate the final result, and in cases where desired results are not obtained, provisions should be made for long-term treatment or one or more courses of brief psychotherapy (Castelnuovo-Tedesco, 1967). It can be very challenging for a therapist to for essays, achieve fixed goals within a short available time, hence the goals must be realistic. Instead of rigid rules about termination, contracts should be flexible, so that after the initial agreement of brevity, clients are given the choice to stop or opt for longer treatment, without being pressurized to do so. To John Essay. Also, the “repeated hellos and goodbyes” (Mander, 2003) can be difficult for both the client and therapist. As Wolberg (1965) states, there is age of, no time to make mistakes in brief therapy as it requires the letter adams “wisdom born of experience.” Thus, not only does it take time to establish a good working alliance, but being able to let go of clients, manage issues of loss, as well as achieve maximum benefits for the client within limited time requires maturity, skill and experience and can put great demands on the therapist. It would be useful if the recent innovations in brief therapeutic practice can be incorporated into correct write a date in an essay the diverse, empirically based foundation that was the major strength of the original version (Wells, 1994). Also, instead of promising miracle cures in letter to john adams, unrealistically few sessions, brief therapy needs to idioms and proverbs, use models of treatment applicable to a large number of people in different settings.

Lastly, awareness of unconscious processes like transference, symbols and metaphors as well as knowledge of the developmental theory can help make brief encounters more productive (Coren, 2001). In a climate of limited resources, time and funding, not only is there an increasing demand for to john adams, brief therapy (Wilson, 1996) but it is being recognized in it’s own right rather than a modification or ‘diluted’ version of traditional therapy (Coren, 2001). Words Use Writing Argumentative Essay. Thus brief therapy can be used very effectively, provided different therapists aim to match their techniques and adams clinical experience according to individual client needs. The Lessons I Learned From Being a Therapist. by Mark Tulin 6. Five Movies That Would Challenge Any Therapist. by Mark Tulin 3. How Gestalt Therapy Views Depression. by irishphoenix 15. Way To A Date Essay. Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Therapy. by CarlySullens 12. Guided Imagery Forest Path Script. by Blake Flannery 5. Progressive Muscle Relaxation Script. by Blake Flannery 1. Group Therapy Topics: Mental Health Educational Activities. by Blake Flannery 16. To John Essay. Hypnotherapist-uk 3 years ago from London, England. Great informative lens about Brief Therapy and age of the types available.

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Abigail letter essay - In her 1780 letter to her son John Quincy Adams

nyit college essay Our 2016 Ranking of the Best Northern Regional Universities are based exclusively on factors actual college freshmen said were most important to letter adams essay, their college decision. According to the most recent nationwide survey published by the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA, these factors include Academic reputation, financial aid offerings, overall cost, and success of way to write in an essay, graduates in the post-college job market. Each of these factors were weighted equally in our ranking and data was derived from a variety of letter to john essay, publicly available sources, including U.S. News World Report, the essay age of proximity, National Center for Education Statistics, and PayScale.com. Located on 188 acres in letter adams essay, Rochester, NY, lies Roberts Wesleyan College. Roberts Wesleyan offers its 1,415 undergraduates a choice among 50 majors and way to in an essay, a strong core curriculum in the liberal arts. It has a student/faculty ratio of 12:1, 63.6 percent of its classes have less than 20 students, and 50 percent of students graduate in four years. The cost for tuition and fees at Roberts Wesleyan total $27,364 per year and letter to john adams essay, graduates from Roberts Wesleyan College averaged $43,600 per year at essay, their first jobs. Academic reputation score: 43. Average financial aid: $ 18,440.

Average net price: $ 20,445. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Founded in 1933, Wilkes University is a private institution that prides itself on letter to john essay giving its students extra personal attention through a focus on both teaching and mentoring. Home to 2,388 students, Wilkes University has a student/faculty ratio of 14:1, 52.3 percent of its classes have fewer than 20 students, and 79.8 percent of essay age of, freshmen return for their second year. Tuition and fees at Wilkes University total $31,262 and the average starting pay for graduates is $ 47,900 . Average financial aid: $ 17,756. Average net price: $ 24,787. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. SUNY College—?Oneonta is home to 5,820 students who receive a liberal arts education with a pre-professional focus. Located in Oneonta, NY, SUNY College—?Oneonta offers more than 100 student organizations. Letter Essay. It has a small student/faculty ratio at 18:1, 38.1 percent of classes have less than 20 students, and SUNY College—?Oneonta has a 85.3 percent freshman retention rate. SUNY College—?Oneonta accepts only wow statements, 43 percent of its applicants, its out-of-state tuition and letter to john, fees total $16,670 per year, and wow statements for essays, graduates earn on average $42,200 a year in their first jobs.

Academic reputation score: 52. Average financial aid: $6,062. Average net price: $ 14,667. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. St. Francis University is oldest Franciscan college and one of the first Catholic colleges established in the United States. St. Francis University is home to 1,695 undergraduate students who can choose from 25 majors. Located in adams, Loretto, PA, St. Francis University has a student/faculty ratio of 14:1 and has rather small class sizes with 55.1 percent having less than 20 students.

St. Francis has an 81.8 percent freshman retention and accepts 76.1 percent of its applicants. Its tuition and fees total $31,078 per year and wow statements for essays, the average starting salary for graduates is essay, $41,400. Average financial aid: $ 18,724. Average net price: $ 23,747. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Towson University sits upon 328 acres in Towson, MD, and is the proximity, second largest public university in the state. Towson has 18,779 undergraduate students who learn in an environment that combines research-based learning with practical application. Towson has a student/faculty ratio of letter adams, 17:1, and 29.8 percent of its classes have fewer than 20 students. Wow Statements For Essays. The acceptance rate is 60.3 percent and 85.3 percent of students return for letter to john, their second year.

Towson University has a total out-of-state cost for describe in the economy, tuition and fees of $20,020 per year and the average starting salary for graduates is $44,300. Average financial aid: $ 7,396. Average net price: $13,945. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Salve Regina University was founded in 1934 and sits on letter to john essay 78 acres along the oceanfront in Newport, RI.

Salve Regina is home to 2,026 students, who enjoy a low student/faculty ratio of 13:1 with 38.9 percent of classes having fewer than 20 students. Salve Regina accepts 67.1 percent of its applicants, 81 percent of whom return for their sophomore year and 61 percent of whom graduate in four years. Tuition and fees at Salve Regina University total $35,690 per year and graduates earn on average $47,600 their first year out of school. Academic reputation score: 51. Average financial aid: $ 18,837. Average net price: $ 29,404. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Montclair State University is a public institution that was founded in 1908 in Montclair, NJ. It offers about 300 academic programs and over 300 organizations and clubs to its 15,431 students to choose from. Montclair State University boasts a student/faculty ratio of 17:1, 34.3 percent of its classes have fewer than 20 students, and 82.8 percent of freshmen return for words essay, their second year.

Out-of-state tuition and fees at Montclair State University total $21,153 per year and the average starting pay for graduates is to john adams essay, $42,600. Average financial aid: $8,174. Average net price: $13,265. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Founded in 1919 on proximity 215 acres just south of Springfield, MA, Western New England University is marked by the intentional collaboration of its programs in Arts and Sciences, Business, Engineering, Pharmacy, and Law. Home to letter to john essay, 2,667 undergraduate students, Western New England University has a student/faculty ratio of 13:1, 51 percent of its classes have fewer than 20 students, and 52 percent of students graduate in four years. The cost for out-of-state tuition and fees at correct way to write, Western New England University total $33,466 per year and the average starting salary for to john essay, graduates is $52,900. Average financial aid: $16,820. Average net price: $29,070.

Average starting salary: PayScale.com. SUNY—?New Paltz sits on 257 acres in New Paltz, NY. SUNY—?New Paltz is a highly selective public institution that offers over 100 unergraduate degress. The most popular areas of study at proximity, the school are Education; Business, Management, Marketing; Social Sciences; Visual and Performing Arts; and letter to john adams essay, Communication Journalism. SUNY—?New Paltz is home to 6,570 undergraduate students. The student/faculty ratio is 15:1, 39.6 percent of classes have less than 20 students, and SUNY—?New Paltz has an 87.5 percent freshman retention rate. The university accepts 43.6 percent of its applicants, its out-of-state tuition and fees total $17,058 per year, and the average starting salary for graduates is $ 39,200 . Average financial aid: $ 6,856. Average net price: $ 13,370. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Marywood University has a total cost for tuition and famous, fees of $31,695 per year. It is a private, Catholic intuition that continues to progress academically, as well as in its physical structure.

Marywood offers bachelor’s degrees in 64 areas, has a student/faculty ratio of 11:1, and 61.9 percent of adams essay, its classes have fewer than 20 students. The Role In The. Of its 2,148 students, 82.5 percent returned for their second year and 54 percent graduated within four years. The average starting salary for letter adams essay, students from Marywood University is $41,700. Average financial aid: $18,845. Average net price: $22,796. Average starting salary: PayScale.com.

Gannon University is a private, Catholic institution founded in 1925 and sits on 36 acres over age of, looking the lake in to john essay, Erie, PA. And Proverbs For Essay. Gannon is home to 3,111 students who are seeking a liberal arts education within the Catholic tradition. Gannon offers more than 50 areas of study to letter essay, its students. Gannon has a student/faculty ratio of 14:1 and 53.6 percent have fewer than 20 students. Age Of. Gannon accepts 80.4 percent of its applicants, 79 percent of whom return for their sophomore year. Tuition and fees at letter to john adams, Gannon University total $28,368 per year, and the average starting salary for graduates is $45,200.

Average financial aid: $ 17,168. Average net price: $ 20,485. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. An education at Norwich University aims to qualify students for all those high responsibilities resting upon a citizen of this free republic: to make moral, patriotic, efficient, and useful citizens. Located in essay proximity, Northfield, VT, the university is home to 2,256 students, 74 percent of whom are male. To John Essay. Norwich University boasts an intimate student/faculty ratio of 13:1, 57.3 percent of its classes have fewer than 20 students, and 79.3 percent of freshmen return for their second year. Tuition and wow statements, fees at Norwich University total $34,704 per year and adams, the average first-year salary for graduates is $53,200 a year. Average financial aid: $19,587. Average net price: $ 27,775. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Located on 35 acres in the borough of use writing argumentative, Brooklyn, CUNY—?Brooklyn College is home to 13,596 students. ?Brooklyn College’s programs are considered to be the most rigorous among the senior colleges within the City University of New York system.

The most popular areas of study at to john essay, the college are Business Administration and Management; Psychology; Accounting; Early Childhood Education; and Elementary Education. Brooklyn College has a student/faculty ratio of 16:1 and 32.6 percent of and against famous, its classes have less than 20 students. Letter Essay. The cost for out-of-state tuition and fees at CUNY—?Brooklyn College total $13,345 per year and the average starting salary for graduates is $43,400. Average financial aid: $7,468. Average net price: $ 6,637. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. St. Peter’s University is a private, Jesuit institution founded in 1872. For Essays. It sits upon 25 acres in Jersey City, NJ, and is home to 2,484 students who can choose from 48 majors. St. Peter’s also offers students an Honors Program, internships, service learning, study abroad, a Washington semester, the Guarini Institute for Government Leadership, and five year bachelor/masters degree programs.

The university accepts 54.1 percent of its applicants, 74.3 percent of letter to john adams essay, whom return after their freshman year, and 34 percent of whom graduate in four years. The student/faculty ratio is 13:1 with 66.8 percent of classes having less than 20 students. Tuition and fees at St. Peter’s University total $33,232 per use writing argumentative essay year and graduates earn an average of $ 41,200 per year as a starting salary. Average financial aid: $ 25,515. Average net price: $ 15,855. Average starting salary: PayScale.com.

Marist College sits on 210 acres overlooking the Hudson River in Poughkeepsie, NY. A private intitution founded in 1929, it has a total out-of-state cost for adams, tuition and fees of $32,500 per year. Marist offers more than 40 majors for way to write essay, its undergraduates to choose from. Marist has a student/faculty ratio of 16:1 and 47.5 percent of its classes have fewer than 20 students. Of its 5,566 students, 89.8 percent returned for their second year and 70 percent graduated within four years. The average starting salary for students from Marist is $43,400. Average financial aid: $12,540. Average net price: $33,526.

Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Niagara University is a private institution that was founded in letter adams, 1856 upon 160 acres overlooking the Canadian border in Niagara, New York. It is home to 3,227 students, who participate in service learning and study abroad programs. Essay. Niagara accepts 66.3 percent of its applicants, 80 percent of letter to john, whom return for words argumentative, their sophomore year. The student/faulty ratio is 12:1 and 51.4 percent of classes have fewer than 20 students. Tuition and fees at Niagara total $29,060 per year and first year graduates earn an average of $38,600 per to john adams essay year. Average financial aid: $20,853. Average net price: $17,586. Average starting salary: PayScale.com.

Ramapo College of New Jersey is often mistaken for a private university, due to its smaller size and interdisciplinary liberal arts curriculum. Ramapo offers about 40 programs in five schools to its 5,614 undergraduate students. Ramapo has a student/faculty ratio of 17:1 and 37 percent of its classes have fewer than 20 students. Age Of. Ramapo accepts 55.3 percent of its applicants and 87.5 percent of to john adams, freshmen return for their second year. Out-of-state tuition and fees at Ramapo College of New Jersey total $22,038 per year and the average starting pay for graduates is $ 40,800 . Average financial aid: $12,155. Average net price: $ 16,005. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Located on 280 acres in Lawrenceville, NJ, Rider University is home to 1,821 undergraduate students who learn in a learner-centered atmosphere. The most popular areas of study at the university are Accounting; Psychology; Elementary Education; Business Administration and Management; and Rhetoric and Composition. Rider’s student/faculty ratio is 12:1 and 50.8 percent of its classes have less than 20 students.

The cost for tuition and fees at Rider University total $36,830 per year and the average starting salary for Rider University graduates is for essay, $44,100. Average financial aid: $19,146. Average net price: $28,980. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. CUNY—?Hunter College has a total cost for out-of-state tuition and fees of $15,699 per to john year, and the role of business, 34.8 percent of to john, its students had their financial needs fully met. Describe The Role Economy Essay. Known for its large arts program that grants degrees in art, dance, film, music, and theatre, CUNY—?Hunter College has 16,689 undergraduate students who enjoy a student/faculty ratio of 14:1, and 37.7 percent of its classes have fewer than twenty students. Roughly 31 percent of applicants are accepted into CUNY—?Hunter College each year, 85.5 percent of whom returned for letter adams essay, their second year and argumentative essay, 22 percent of whom graduated within four years. The average starting salary for letter to john, students from CUNY—?Hunter College is a for, $43,800.

Average financial aid: $7,260. Average net price: $7,518. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Assumption College was founded in 1904 and sits upon 185 acres in Worcester, MA. It is home to 2,015 students, who can choose among the school’s bachelor’s degrees in more than 42 majors and 48 minors. Assumption’s academic atmosphere is distinguished by individual attention and the quest for personal excellence rooted in the Catholic tradition of the Augustinians. Assumption accepts 74.2 percent of its applicants, 83 percent of adams, whom return for their sophomore year. Tuition and fees at Assumption College total $36,160 per write essay year and on average graduates make $ 46,300 a year their first year out of school. Average financial aid: $ 20,117. Average net price: $ 26,674.

Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Over the past decade, Rowan University has made a significant investment in upgrading its facilities, constructing new buildings and residence halls. It is to john adams, now home to 10,951 students. Ranked by Kiplinger’s as one of the “100 Best Buys in idioms and proverbs, Public Colleges and Universities,” Rowan University has a total cost for adams, tuition and fees of wow statements for essays, $20,570. Letter To John Adams. The student/faculty ratio is 13:1, 44.6 percent of its classes have fewer than 20 students, and 85.5 percent of freshmen return for for essays, their second year. The average starting pay for graduates is letter adams essay, $ 43,500 . Average financial aid: $ 10,382.

Average net price: $ 19,164. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. On 32 acres in Camden, NJ, lies the Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey—?Camden. Rutger’s—Camden’s 4,842 undergraduate students can study within one of the the school’s three colleges and describe the role of business in the, schools: the College of the Arts and to john, Sciences, the School of Nursing, and the School of Business. The most popular areas of study at the university are Business Administration and Management; Psychology; Registered Nursing; Biology/Biological Sciences; and essay proximity, Criminal Justice. Rutger’s at letter essay, Camden’s student/faculty ratio is 11:1 and 37.1 percent of its classes have less than 20 students. The Role Of Business Economy. The four-year graduation rate is 27 percent and 58.6 percent of applicants are admitted into the university.

The cost for out-of-state tuition and fees at California State University at Chico total $27,978 per adams year and age of, the average starting salary is $44,400. Average financial aid: $ 12,107. Average net price: $ 16,040. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. New York Institute of Technology a private institution located on 215 acres in Old Westbury, NY. NYIT is home to 4,456 undergraduate students, who are pursuing a career-oriented professional education. The student/faculty ratio is a small 11:1, class sizes are quite small, with 61.6 percent having less than 20 students, and NYIT has a 75 percent freshman retention.

New York Institute of Technology accepts 74.4 percent of its applicants, its tuition and fees total $32,180 per year, and average starting salary for graduates is $52,500. Average financial aid: $16,035. Average net price: $22,600. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Emerson College is a private institution that emphasizes an education in writing, communications, and the liberal arts. It has a total cost for tuition and fees of $37,350 per year. Located in Boston, Emerson’s most popular degrees are Creative Writing; Cinematography and Film; Marketing; Radio and Television; and Broadcast Journalism. Emerson College has a student/faculty ratio of 13:1, and 62.8 percent of its classes have fewer than twenty students. Of its 3,731 students, 87.8 percent returned for their second year and 80 percent graduated within four years. The average starting salary for students from Emerson College is letter to john adams essay, $ 44,300 . Average financial aid: $ 17,720.

Average net price: $ 33,371. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. SUNY—?Geneseo is and proverbs, a public liberal arts college that was founded in 1871 and sits upon 220 acres in Geneseo, NY. An education at SUNY—Geneseo combines rigorous curriculum with rich co-curricular activities. It is home to 5,504 students, classes are medium sized (32.7 percent have fewer than 20 students), and the student/faculty ratio is 19:1. Essay. SUNY—?Geneseo accepts a 52.8 percent of its applicants, 90.8 percent of whom return for their sophomore year. Out-of-state tuition and fees at SUNY—?Geneseo total $17,424 per year and the average starting salary for graduates is $ 40,300 . Average financial aid: $ 5,108.

Average net price: $ 15,917. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Canisius College is a private, Catholic institution located on a 72 -acre campus in Buffalo, NY. Words Argumentative Essay. Canisius College is home to adams essay, 3,084 students who can choose from 125 undergraduate degrees. Canisius College has a student/faculty ratio of 12:1, 48.6 percent of its classes have fewer than 20 students, and 82.5 percent of a for essay famous, freshmen return for their second year. The tuition and fees at letter to john adams essay, Canisius College total $34,000 per year and the average starting pay for graduates is $38,300. Average financial aid: $23,110. Average net price: $19,668. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. CUNY—?Queens College offers more than 100 areas of study. Located on a date in an 84 acres in Flushing, NY, CUNY—?Queens College is letter to john essay, home to 15,351 students, the majority of whom live off campus.

The acceptance rate at CUNY—?Queens College is 36.7 percent, 87 percent of whom return after their freshman year. The student/faculty ratio is of business economy essay, 14:1, 41.4 percent of classes have 20 or fewer students, and 25 percent of students graduate in letter to john essay, four years. The total out-of-state cost for the role in the economy essay, tuition and fees is letter, $15,777 and the average starting pay for graduates of CUNY—?Queens College is $42,300. Average financial aid: $ 7,658. Average net price: $ 6,200.

Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Located atop 110 acres in Staten Island, NY, sits Wagner College. Wagner is home to 1,838 students who “learn by doing” in the college’s field-service driven curriculum. The student/faculty ratio is 14:1, 62.6 percent of classes have fewer than 20 students, 81.5 percent of students return for the second year, and 57 percent graduate within four years. Essay Age Of Proximity. The cost for tuition and fees at Wagner College total $40,750 per year and the average starting salary for graduates is $49,800.

Average financial aid: $ 22,028. Average net price: $ 27,470. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Alfred University is a private institution founded in 1836 that is committed to to john adams, both teaching and research, and devoted to the pursuit of idioms and proverbs, technical expertise, artistic creativity, and humanistic learning. Located in Alfred, NY, Alfred University is home to1,960 undergraduate students. The student/faculty ratio is a small 12:1, 59.3 percent of classes have less than 20 students, and the freshman retention rate is 74 percent. Letter To John Essay. Seventy percent of applicants to Alfred University are admitted, its tuition and and proverbs for essay, fees total $29,610 per year, and the average starting salary for graduates is $48,800. Average financial aid: $18,790.

Average net price: $ 20,055. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Fairleigh Dickinson University has a total cost for tuition and fees of $34,882 per year. To John Adams. Founded in 1942, Fairleigh Dickinson is idioms and proverbs, New Jersey’s largest private university with more than 12,000 students. Fairleigh Dickinson offers 100 undergraduate and graduate degrees and letter to john adams essay, has a student/faculty ratio of of business economy essay, 14:1. Sixty-seven percent of its classes have fewer than twenty students, and of its 8,382 undergraduate students, 73 percent returned for their second year and 37 percent graduated within four years.

The average starting salary for letter essay, students from essay Fairleigh Dickinson University is $48,100. Average financial aid: $25,611. Average net price: $17,791. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. La Salle University was founded in adams, 1863 and sits upon 133 acres in Philadelphia, PA. Age Of. It is letter to john, home to 4,409 students, who can choose among 40 undergraduate majors in areas such as Nursing Science; Speech Communication and Rhetoric; Marketing; Accounting; and Psychology. The faculty/student ratio is 13:1, 43.7 percent have fewer than 20 students, 57 percent of students graduate in four years. La Salle University only accepts 80.2 percent of its applicants, 80.5 percent of and proverbs for essay, whom return for their sophomore year. Tuition and fees at La Salle University total $39,800 per letter to john adams essay year the average starting salary for graduates is $ 46,900 . Average financial aid: $23,262.

Average net price: $ 24,015. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Sitting on a 58-acre campus in north Baltimore is the historically woman’s school of Notre Dame of Maryland University. Known for its strong pharmacy program, Notre Dame of Maryland is home to 1,234 students (95 precent female) who receive a strong liberal arts education that stresses critical thinking and clear communication. Notre Dame has a student/faculty ratio of 12:1 and 12.1 percent of its classes have less than 20 students. The four-year graduation rate is wow statements, 45 percent while the freshman-retention rate is 72.8 percent. The cost for tuition and fees at Notre Dame of Maryland University total $33,010 per year and the average starting salary for graduates is $ 51,000 . Average financial aid: $20,542. Average net price: $21,265. Average starting salary: PayScale.com.

Located on 105 acres in Philadelphia, PA, St. Joseph’s University is home to 5,374 students who can choose from 40 academic majors. St. Joseph’s is comprised of two main schools: The College of to john, Arts and Sciences and the renowned Erivan K. Haub School of Business. St. Joseph’s has a student/faculty ratio of 14:1 and 33.5 percent of its class have less than 20 students.

The four-year graduation rate is way to a date in an, 70 percent and the freshman retention rate is adams, 89 percent. The cost for tuition and fees at for essays, St. Joseph’s University total $40,580 per year and the average starting salary for graduates is $ 48,200 . Average financial aid: $18,444. Average net price: $34,347. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. CUNY—?City College was opened in 1847, making it the letter essay, oldest of the City University’s institutions of higher learning. ?City College is home to 12,629 students who can study in programs in Liberal Arts and Science, Architecture, Engineering, Education and Biomedical Education. The most popular programs at ?City College are psychology; Engineering; Social Sciences; Visual and Performing Arts; and English Language and Literature. The student/faculty ratio is a small 14:1, 43.6 percent of correct, classes have less than 20 students, and ?City College has an letter to john essay, 84.3 percent freshman retention rate. The university accepts 33.9 percent of its applicants, its out-of-state tuition and fees total $15,710 per year, and the average starting salary for graduates is $52,500.

Average financial aid: $8,461. Average net price: $5,820. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Molloy College offers students a rich and multidimensional educational experience, both in and out of the classroom. Located in Rockville Centre, NY, the total undergraduate enrollment is 3,375 students.

At Molloy it is easy to get involved in one of the school’s 40 plus student organizations. Thirty-nine percent of correct write a date essay, students graduate in four years, 88.5 percent of freshman return for to john essay, their second year, and 72.7 percent of wow statements, applicants are admitted to Molloy College. Letter Essay. The average starting salary for graduates is $59,400 and the total for tuition and fees is $26,850. Average financial aid: $14,320. Average net price: $22,464. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Ithaca College sits upon 670 acres in the Finger Lakes area of upstate New York. Students at Ithaca can choose from majors within the schools of Business, Communications, Health Sciences and Human Performance, Humanities and Sciences, and Music. It is essay age of proximity, home to to john adams essay, 6,234 students who enjoy small classes (58.8 percent have fewer than 20 students) and of business in the economy, a low student/faculty ratio of to john adams, 11:1. Correct Way To In An. Ithaca College only accepts 66.6 percent of its applicants, 84.3 percent of whom return for their sophomore year. Tuition and fees at to john essay, Ithaca College total $39,532 per year, and words, the average starting salary for graduates is $44,000.

Average financial aid: $20,750. Average net price: $32,769. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Le Moyne College is located on 161 acres in letter, Syracuse, NY, and is home to and proverbs for essay, 2,785 students who can choose from 33 majors. The aim of an education at Le Moyne is to help students discover their place in life and letter to john, apply knowledge toward making a difference.

It offers more than 90 clubs and activities to its student body, has a student/faculty ratio of 13:1, and 84.5 percent of freshmen return for proximity, their second year. Tuition and fees at Le Moyne College total $31,340 per year, and the average starting pay for graduates is letter essay, $ 48,400 . Average financial aid: $19,246. Average net price: $22,987. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Located on 12 acres in the center of Boston, MA, sits Simmons College.

Simmons is describe in the essay, home to 1,732 students who can choose among 50 undergraduate majors. The most popular areas of study at the university are Health Services; Business, Management, Marketing; Psychology; Social Sciences; and Communication Journalism. With a student/faculty ratio of adams essay, 10:1 and with 69.2 percent of its class having less than 20 students, students at Simmons enjoy a personalized academic environment. The cost for tuition and fees at Simmons College total $36,230 per year and the average starting salary for graduates is $48,600. Average financial aid: $ 21,197. Average net price: $ 29,907. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Quinnipiac University is located in Hamden, CT, and is home to 6,542 undergraduate students, over 60 percent of whom are female. Students at Quinnipiac can choose from over 50 undergraduate programs and more than 100 student organizations. Wow Statements For Essays. The student/faculty ratio is adams, 11:1, 46.7 percent of classes have less than 20 students, and 87.3 percent of freshman return for their second year. Way To Essay. The university accepts 67.2 percent of its applicants, tuition and fees total $40,670 per letter to john adams year, and the average starting salary for Quinnipiac University graduates is $ 50,800 . Average financial aid: $ 18,365.

Average net price: $ 35,117. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Located in Manhattan, NY, CUNY—?Baruch College’s 17-story building provides a solution to the challenge of college life in an urban location. Essay Age Of Proximity. CUNY—?Baruch College offers over 170 organizations for students to get involved in. It has a total out-of-state cost for tuition and letter adams, fees of in the economy, $16,575 per letter to john adams year and an enrollment of wow statements, 14,082 undergraduate students.

CUNY—?Baruch College has a student/faculty ratio of 16:1, 64.1 percent of to john adams essay, its classes have fewer than 20 students, and 90 percent returned for their second year. The average starting salary for students from CUNY—?Baruch College is $49,700. Average financial aid: $ 7,467. Average net price: $ 7,955. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Located on 428 acres in Smithfield, RI, Bryant University has a total cost for tuition and fees of $38,574 per year. Its First-Year Gateway program is nationally renowned and focuses on fundamental questions about the role of the individual’s character and leadership in a rapidly changing world of economy essay, organizations and business. Bryant has a student/faculty ratio of 16:1 and 25.3 percent of its classes have fewer than twenty students.

Of its 3,287 students, 87 percent returned for their second year. The average starting salary for students from adams Bryant University is $53,700. Average financial aid: $ 18,458. Average net price: $ 32,486. Average starting salary: PayScale.com.

University of Scranton is age of, a private institution founded in 1888. It is comprised of four colleges and schools and offers more than 80 undergraduate and graduate degrees. Located on 58 acres in Scranton, PA, the university is home to 3,942 students. The student/faculty ratio is a small 11:1, class sizes are relatively small with 48.5 percent having less than 20 students, and Scranton has an letter to john adams essay, 88.5 percent freshman retention. The University of Scranton accepts 75.1 percent of its applicants, tuition and fees total $39,906 per year, and the average starting salary for graduates is $ 47,900 . Average financial aid: $19,663. Average net price: $32,348. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Located on 22 acres in Riverdale, NY, Manhattan College is home to 3,403 students who can choose from several areas of study within the schools of arts, business, engineering, science, and a date in an, education. Manhattan provides a broad liberal arts education with specific focus in letter, the arts and sciences or professional preparation. Manhattan accepts 66.2 percent of applicants, has a student/faculty ratio of 12:1, and 46.5 percent of its class have less than 20 students. The school has a freshman retention rate of the role in the, 85.3 percent and letter, 60 percent of students graduate in four years.

The cost for tuition and fees at Manhattan University total $35,725 per use writing year and graduates earn an average salary of $57,500. Average financial aid: $18,884. Average net price: $26,151. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Fairfield University’s Catholic tradition emphasizes intellectual inquiry, the pursuit of social justice, and cultivation of the letter to john essay, whole person. Fairfield is home to 3,873 students who can choose among 40 majors and 80 student organizations.

Located in Fairfield, CT, the university boasts a student/faculty ratio of 11:1, with 53.3 percent of its classes having fewer than twenty students, and 87.8 percent of freshmen returning for wow statements, their second year. Tuition and letter to john essay, fees at Fairfield University total $43,770 per year, and the average starting pay for graduates is $50,900. Average financial aid: $19,855. Average net price: $36,853. Average starting salary: PayScale.com.

Rochester Institute of Technology was founded in 1829 on 1,300 acres along the Genesee River in Rochester, NY. It is home to 13,880 students, who can choose to major in the areas of liberal arts, art and design, and business as well as science and technology, and it boasts over 300 student organizations. Class sizes are fairly small, (43.3 percent have fewer than 20 students) and essay age of proximity, a Rochester has a student/faculty ratio of 14:1. Adams. Rochester accepts 60.2 percent of its applicants, 87.5 percent of whom return for their sophomore year. Tuition and fees at Rochester Institute of Technology total $35,768 per year and the average starting pay for graduates is $55,900 a year. Average financial aid: $ 18,073.

Average net price: $ 27,639. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Providence College is a private, Catholic school that has a total cost for tuition and fees of $43,245 per year. Providence is home to essay age of, 4,239 students who participate in a core curriculum that balances academic rigor, shared values, and uncommon camaraderie. Providence offers 50 bachelor’s degrees and over letter to john adams, 100 student clubs and organizations. Providence has a student/faculty ratio of 12:1 and 47.9 percent of its classes have fewer than 20 students. Proximity. Ninety and half percent of students returned for their second year and to john adams, 83 percent graduate in argumentative, fours years. The average starting salary for students is $ 50,900 . Average financial aid: $ 21,827. Average net price: $ 34,388.

Average starting salary: PayScale.com. The College of New Jersey’s aim is to keep the most talented students in-state for their college education. Located in letter to john adams essay, the capital city of Trenton, The College of New Jersey is home to words use writing argumentative essay, 6,653 students who can choose among 50 undergraduate programs and among 150 students organizations. The student/faculty ratio is 13:1, 38.8 percent of classes have less than 20 students, and TCNJ has a 94.3 percent freshman retention. The university only accepts 43.1 percent of its applicants, out-of-state tuition and fees total $25,637 per year, and the average starting pay for graduates is $50,300. Average financial aid: $ 10,110.

Average net price: $18,464. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Located in Baltimore, MD, Loyola University Maryland is one of the premiere Catholic university’s on letter to john the east coast. Loyola offers more than 30 undergraduate majors of study to its 4,004 undergraduate students. Loyola admits 58 percent of its applicants, 88 percent of whom return for their sophomore year, and 79 percent of whom graduate in four years. The most popular areas of study at the university are Business; Speech Communication and Rhetoric; Social Sciences; Psychology; and Speech-Language Pathology. With a student/faculty ratio of 12:1 and with 38.2 percent of its classes having fewer than 20 students, students at Loyola enjoy a personalized academic environment. The cost for tuition and fees at argumentative, Loyola total $44,255 per year and the average starting pay for graduates is to john adams, $52,000. Average financial aid: $ 25,428. Average net price: $ 31,306. Average starting salary: PayScale.com.

Bentley University is a renowned business university that focuses on training the the role of business, next generation of leaders. Located minutes from Boston, Bentley’s 4,247 students have plenty of opportunity for internships during school and jobs upon letter essay graduation, with an average starting salary of $58,000. Bentley’s student/faculty ratio is a for and against essay famous, 14:1, 28.9 percent of all classes have fewer than 20 students, and its freshman retention rate is 94 percent. Students at Bentley can choose among more than 100 student organizations on letter essay campus. The total cost to attend Bentley University is $42,511 and 39.2 percent of words use writing argumentative, students had their financial needs met in full. Average financial aid: $24,308. Average net price: $ 30,501. Average starting salary: PayScale.com. Villanova University was founded in 1842 on 260 acres in Philadelphia and was named after Spanish Augustinian St.

Thomas of Villanova. Villanova is adams essay, home to 7,042 students. Villanova is comprised of four colleges: the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, the Villanova School of Business, the College of Engineering, and the College of Nursing. Students at Villanova enjoy very small classes (48.2 percent have fewer than 20 students) and a low student/faculty ratio of 12:1. Villanova accepts only 48.9 percent of its applicants, 94.3 percent of whom return for their sophomore year.

Tuition and fees at Villanova University total $45,966 and the average starting salary for graduates is $53,300.

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What is a good resume 2017 format? Resume – is an letter to john adams, outline of a job seeker’s education level and professional achievements, most commonly prepared for job searching process to way to in an, apply for different positions. To John Adams! In some cases, you could find another name for a for essay of being a resume – CV. CV – curriculum vitae, usually used in UK, but some candidates are still searching some cv samples in US. What resume mistakes are the most common in 2017. As you know, any resume created by job seeker is following the main goal – to be considered by to john adams essay your potential employer.

And when we’re talking about essay successful cv 2017 format, it should include even more information than you could expect. Before we would start our resume 2017 format guidelines list, let’s try to to john, understand how good resume could help you to land the correct way to a date essay, job you’re looking for this year. Any resume is letter to john adams a “selling” document, where you should sell yourself in the most positive light to show that you’re the write in an, candidate they are looking for. The way you sell your skills, abilities, knowledge’s, experience and other treasures, which could bring value to your boss – this is the main goal and today we would like to talk about different approaches on how to sell your candidacy the letter to john, best way and what resume format 2017 is the best for words you. Resume format 2017: Which one to to john adams essay, choose? It’s very important to understand the main differences between the common resume formats to write a resume, which would not only help you to highlight your main achievements and experience, but would also hide some gaps or information you don’t want to show in your document.

Resume structure matters and some HR’s call such structure: resume format. Nowadays, there are four main resume formats, which could be used by any job seekers, based on their career path and level of experience. What resume formats 2017 are the most preferred by hiring managers. Chronological Resume Template 2017. According to the latest surveys across the hiring managers in US – chronological resume format is the most liked format by HR’s and job seekers. It’s good for the job seekers, who are experienced and would like to get the and against essay, same or even higher position on their future job. Who should use chronological resume format:

Job seekers without any employment gaps Candidates with a huge professional background Not junior specialists or trainees Those, who has a mixed experience in different fields. Chronological resume is used for to john adams essay those people, who are ready for a long and hard career path. Words Use Writing Argumentative! Most Likely, chronological resume templates are used by senior specialists, who can show their expertise and real experience. Chronological resume examples 2017. The main value of functional resume format is to highlight your skills and abilities. Letter! In other words, functional structure will show your main skills first and only then what you did and where. This resume format is for wow statements for essays those, who concentrate on their hard skills more, than listing their career path.

Don’t panic – you need to create a list of your strongest skills and add include them into your resume the letter to john adams essay, way it would show you in the most positive light. There are tons of different books about resume writing contain sections about how you should write or edit functional resume template. You can easily buy them and read, but there is no need to proximity, do that. Letter To John Essay! All you need to do – is just understand the main value of this format. What is the main value? “Doesn’t matter who you were and describe in the essay how long you were on a good position – the only one thing could help hiring manager to letter, understand whether you are good candidate or not and it’s your skills.” Who should use functional resume format: Huge employment gaps in your work history, which you can’t explain in your resume. Correct Write In An! You are “job-changer” You are too young or fresh grad and don’t have enough working experience. Looking for letter to john essay a new career or going to change your specialty. Your career path was not the best and describe the role essay it’s better to find another resume writing approach.

Skills-based resume is the one of the best resume templates when we’re talking about selling your skills, but not experience. Letter To John! In some cases it works much better and HRs are looking for such candidates. Combination resume format is a good mix of the two resume templates we have already considered before: functional resume template + chronological resume template. Those job seekers, who are looking for for essays a positions, which requires a lot of skills and expertise and need to show their level of expertise in a specific field – this resume template is the essay, best solution they could find. Instead of essay, writing two or even more pages resume, combination resume template will help you to solve your problem.

It’s an adams essay, outstanding solution for and against essay the experienced job seekers who would like to try themselves in essay, a new career field. Generally combination resume focused more on skills you have included, but at the same time you have enough place to show your reader your experience and achievements – which are very important for a good specialists. If you have some to show – combination resume template is the best choice for you in 2017. How does hiring managers build their applicants consideration process. Usually they have some urgent positions they need to close asap or less urgent positions (they have more time to consider more candidates + to choose the best for the announced role). For the most HR’s, each position more often consist of words argumentative, three piles (according to the most used employment processes in many recruitment agencies and letter to john adams huge companies) like:

“To invite for an interview” “Maybe, but not sure, let’s contact them later if needed” “Sorry, it is 100% not your position, good luck!” Our main goal at the first step is to go through the first brief scanning and to find your resume in the role in the, “YES” pile. It’s not an easy task. And you know why? Because during the day, hiring manager can process over 100 resumes and to john essay you need to know how to attract their attention and how to help them to read your resume easy, without any extra efforts. We can’t 100% say that there is the essay, one and the best resume format 2017, which could cover all your needs and would show all you advantages as a candidate in the most positive light. But we know that there are some most common resume formats , which could help you to highlight your advantages and conceal your gaps – showing your future boss that you are the best candidate for this position. What resume blocks should a good resume format 2017 include? How do you think, what is the most important information recruiters would like to see in your resume?

Below we prepared some information, which will show you the most important blocks and how the presence of this information affects on HR’s attention and interest to to john adams, your candidacy. So, what are they looking at correct write a date essay first: According to the latest resume writing rules, you can not include your age you resume. Letter Essay! The most common personal details are: Also, if we’re talking about essay age of proximity US resume – you would have better chances to be considered, if you would include a photo to letter to john, your resume. It should be places in the top left or right corner of your resume, based on what resume 2017 template you have choose. Name of School, College, City. State Degree, Major. Date of Graduation. What should you include to your education block:

There is a for of being no need to list all you educations. Include only the most recent. If you have already finished university – add it to your resume. Graduate date is important GPA is optional, but if it’s over 3.0 – it’s a good idea to letter to john adams essay, include it as well. Your potential employer is looking for candidates with relevant experience behind their backs at firsts, and only then start scanning candidates without any experience. And here how can win this game: Include words, which would show that you are result-oriented person and correct way to essay you tried to to john adams essay, do your best to correct write in an essay, achieve company’s goals. Examples : created, built, developed, gained. You should never tell your potential employer, that you are the hermit – which is working 8 to 6 without talking to anybody. Letter Adams! You are team-player, who is looking for ways on how to build a great team and support all communication processes or even to improve them.

Tailored skills – it’s a good chance to get a call after you have submitted your resume. Read more about skills-based resume format 2017. Achievements: how to write and what to include. When you have already finished with writing your resume, it’s a good time to open it and read once again. The Role Of Business In The Economy Essay! Why do you need? Looks like you have already checked it for all possible mistakes and anything was not lost, but..Now we’d like to talk about achievements. What do you know about achievements block and how you should write them to attract recruiters attention?

Here we’re going to essay, give you some useful tips, which would help you to stand out from the mass and increase you chances from the mass. HR’s do not believe you enough, before they would not see facts in your resume. Describe Of Business In The Essay! And you must be ready to show them. Good example: Trained XX newcomers, who we able to support Y department with Z KPI’s results. What about some percents and numbers. Essay! You even can’t believe how HR’s loves them, when they can imagine what a good candidate could join their company.

Good example: Customer base was grown by X amount/ Y percents (%) Useful note: Be careful with numbers. A For And Against Famous! Often HR’s ask their candidates on adams essay, how such numbers were measured, And if you cant clearly explain that, they would understand that you are dishonest. Skills is the one of the most important blocks in your resume. You should know that there are two types of skills in resume writing and it’s important to use them right way. All the skills are divided into two groups: hard skills and soft skills. Hard skills are those, which you could measure and assess. For example “Adobe Photoshop” is a skill which you can check using a test or during the write a date, trial period.

Soft skills are those, which are really hard to measure. It’s more like your own assessment or guess. To John Adams Essay! For example it could be – “problem solving” or “non-conflict”. If you feel that you need to show your skills over your job history, you should use skills-based resume template to essay age of, increase your chances. But it works not for all positions.

Usually, professional hiring manager, on to john adams, average need up to six seconds to scan your resume and up to 40 seconds to understand if you’re the person they would like to spend time on and proverbs for essay, you. Interesting fact is: Fresh and letter to john adams attractive resume template will bring you more chances to age of, be in “Yes” pile, compared with other resume templates. Why so? Because HR’s are also people and whiteblack templates are not as memorized as new one’s. Check out the latest resume templates 2017 to be the winner this year. What makes a good resume format 2017? We know that there are tons of different rules, which would help you to letter adams essay, do your resume much better, but we tried to share the most important with you below: Show your reader that you are professional. Put in order your skills and idioms try to tailor your resume for a specific position you found.

Help you potential employer to navigate your resume. To John Essay! It should be easy-reading and all the information should be logically structured. For Essays! No mess. Concise – it’s your key to success. Letter To John Adams Essay! No need to add more information if you feel it could be useless. Idioms And Proverbs! It’s better to letter adams, omit some blocks and and proverbs for essay let HR to letter to john adams, call you to clarify any information they need to know Never send your resume, before you would check it twice for of business economy grammar or spelling mistakes. Hrs hate it. Don’t let a stupid mistake to to john adams essay, be a reason of not being considered. Where HR’s look at and proverbs for essay first in your resume 2017 format. What information is really important to highlight formatting your resume 2017. Place your personal information at the top of to john adams, your resume Last Name and in the economy First Name should be at the top Make sure your e-mail or phone number is to john adams easy to find if needed Add photo to your resume – resumes with photo are more viewed by HRs Skills block is use writing argumentative essay very important – the most important first, then others Experience – the to john adams, last place of working (show achievements there, because it’s one of the most viewed place in essay, any resume) Education block – it’s ok to place it at the end.

What mistakes do job seekers make on their resume 2017? It’s better to avoid any mistakes in your resume 2017, but still we would like to show you the most common resume mistakes, which played a crucial role in making a final decision concerning some candidates, who applied for vacant positions. Please have a look on them below and you will find out that the most common mistakes of the most job seekers is letter adams resume length and not tailored resume . Essay! Other mistakes are easy to fix if you will use correct resume format 2017 and would follow all the guidelines. What are the most common resume mistakes. Have a look on the diagram above and remember what you should never DO. Resume 2017 lengths – depends on to john, position. We can’t say there are some specific rules about for essay resume length, furthermore – it depends on position you applying for.

Many hiring managers dispute over this question, but according to the latest resume writing trends 2017 , more and more hiring managers favor one-page resumes over two-page resume formats. Why so? Hiring managers are really busy people and if they would need one day to scan 100 resumes – they would need much more time to letter to john, close vacant positions. But, in correct way to in an, some cases you would need much more than one page to show your relevant experience and approach. To John Adams Essay! What is that and when you can use more than 2 pages? Academic or federal resume templates need special approach in write, resume writing and this another big story about how to format such resumes in 2017. How to to john adams, compress your resume 2017 using smart approach? If you are using MS Word to craft your resume or have already downloaded resume template 2017, it’s a really good idea to use writing argumentative, edit it a little bit. Essay! Try to words use writing argumentative, edit margins a little bit to 1.16 cm to to john essay, save more space for other blocks in age of, your resume. Fonts. Why they are so important?

It’s obvious – choosing a good font would not only essay save a place in you resume, but will also highlight the most important information in your CV. How choose a right resume font you could read more here . Bullets. Wow Statements For Essays! Interesting fact is letter essay – HR’s hates resumes, which were formatted bad. And Against Essay Of Being! What do we mean bad? Have you ever tried to to john adams essay, make a fast decision reading 500 words of somebody’s resume to understand if the candidate is proximity good for vacant position. Using bullets in your resume 2017, you should help your reader to find the letter essay, most important information included in your resume. Two columns. Some resume formats 2017 are created using two-column resume structure. It’s interesting and in the same time pretty good to navigate for hiring manager decision, which would save their time and way to write essay would help you to stand out from a crowd.

Do not bullet everything. It’s OK to use bullets to highlight some skills, or even small paragraphs, but there is no need to use bullets across all your resume. Line spacing. If you still need to save more space for other information, which you would like to add to your resume, single line spacing – is a good decision in your case. At the end, we would still advise you not to letter to john adams essay, remove all the information from your resume. Our resume formatting tips must help you to save space, but should not remove any value out of for essays, your resume. What resume fonts are better to letter, use, if you would like to get a job this year? We cant say it should be some specific fonts, but we would like to give some suggestions, which would help your reader to essay age of proximity, scan your winning resume much easier. How resume fonts looks like in your 2017 resume template. Have a look on this picture above.

As you can see, font size is very important part of letter, your resume and you should keep it in your mind, when you writing your document. Some candidates prefer standard fonts, some candidates use more exotic fonts. Wow Statements For Essays! But we still recommend you to use easy-reading fonts to make HR’s life easier. Try to follow the to john adams essay, best practices: Use subheadings and headings, when necessary – good font is a for essay of being famous 12 points for that. To John Adams Essay! 10 points is really good for write a date in an essay the main body of your resume.

If you need to highlight some headings, use 12 or even 14 points fonts so solve this problem. 14 points is not the best font size for the body of your resume. Letter To John Adams Essay! It’s too big and it’s hard to read. 8 or even 9 are too small. And Proverbs! HR’s hates them, because they can’t read it at all. How to check if your resume is easy to read? It’s more easier than you even expect. Bring your resume to your friends and ask them to scan it in 15 seconds to letter to john adams essay, grab the most needed information about you. If they are able to do that – it’s ok.

If not, you need to change your resume styling. Which format your resume 2017 should be? Office word format (.doc or .docx) – the one of the most often file formats, which HR’s are preferred to of being, see. Using this type of letter essay, extension, would guarantee you a 100% open by any hiring manager in any Microsoft Office. PDF (.pdf) – Another type of the role essay, file, which is used by some job seekers. Letter To John Adams! It’s good if you would like to show some graphics or any other pictures in your resume. But it’s not good, if we’re talking about ATS system.

Recognition of such resumes, using .pdf extension is not very good. The Role In The! MS. RTF (.rtf) – another file format, which use less than 1% of candidates. It’s not a good idea to adams, use this format, because you can lose all your settings and formatting inside your resume, if it’s going to be open using newest MS Word versions. We tried to show you how important to essay age of proximity, use the right resume formatting approach and how important to use your resume template 2017 to get the job you dream on! Read the latest resume 2017 guide. Get the latest resume writing tips to win the competition! We tried all the best resume builders 2017 and ready to share with you our experience. Screens, Poses and Cons of letter essay, each resume builder. Get inspired by our latest resume template 2017 designs.

Just have a look and be surprised! Follow the latest resume 2017 format rules and get the job this year. All you need to know about how to write an outstanding resume in describe the role economy, 2017 and avoid mistakes your competitors will do.

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Essay Letter to John Adams from Abigail Adams - 640 Words | Bartleby

12 Best Online Resume Builders Reviewed. Letter. Have you ever considered using an online resume builder to create your resume? They can save you the time, blood, sweat, and tears that come with laying out way to, a resume solo. Letter Adams. That’s why using a professional resume builder online is an excellent choice for and proverbs anyone who wants a nice looking resume fast. But which online resume builder should you choose?

Well, that’s harder than it sounds. Some have amazing resume templates but cost an arm and a leg. Others take a hand-holding approach and will virtually write your resume for adams you. This article reviews 14 of the best resume builders online. You can check out the prices, functionality, and the number of templates and features. And that way, you can choose the one that best fits your needs. Uptowork is our online resume builder (here) . So, we aren’t going to review ourselves as that would be self-promotional. We won’t tell you that we’re awesome because our quick resume builder is easy to use. We will skip the idioms, part where we say we provide you with lots of to john adams tips and write essay, the best resume templates.

No. Letter Adams. Instead, we will just encourage you to see for yourself. For Essays. Go ahead. To John Essay. Try out our professional resume builder online. Here’s an example of what our easy resume builder is capable of:

Starter Version $4.99 for 30 days non-recurring payment Premium Version $9.99 for for essay 30 days non-recurring payment. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Yes - can match your cover letter to every available resume builder template. You can make your resume on letter Resumonk’s online resume builder either for free or for a yearly fee of correct write a date $19. That makes it one of the cheapest CV makers at just over $1.50 a month. Letter To John. You can move resume format sections around as you see fit and use the describe of business economy essay, writing tips inside the platform. The premium plan comes with resume tracking, unlimited PDF downloads, and a cover letter builder. Letter Adams Essay. Free Version (4 branded templates) Premium Version $19 per a for famous, year full features Lifetime Version $59 one time payment full features for life. Number of Professional Resume Templates.

Pro: The professional CV builder has an easy-to-use interface. Resumonk has built tips into the platform so you don’t have to leave the page. Con: Using the resume builder for free means getting branded resume builder templates and the ability to to john adams download your resume format as a PDF. SlashCV is a free online resume builder with 28 basic, pre-designed PDF templates. Once you’ve created your resume, you can export it to Dropbox so that it’s easy to save and wow statements, send. To John. The free resume builder is write, minimalistic with no fuss and no extras - you put in your information and it spits out a resume. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: If you’re looking for adams a resume builder free download with no bells and whistles, this is it.

SlashCV is essay of being famous, scaled-down and to john adams essay, has slashed its online resume builder down to the basics. Con: A lot of features don’t exist here. There is and proverbs, no cover letter builder, no tracking, no tips if you get stuck, and no fancy templates. If you’re not sure how to build a resume on your own, this platform might not be for to john essay you. To start, you have the way to a date, option to import your Word or LinkedIn resume.

Or you can choose a pre-written resume from your field. Or maybe you’re feeling like a boss? Well, you can also import and letter essay, overwrite Richard Branson or Sheryl Sandberg’s resume. Correct Write A Date Essay. After working on the resume builder template, you can save, share, and track your resume to see how many views it gets. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: There is an option to get free feedback on your resume before you share it. You can also export your resume as a Google Doc or pay for personal domain name inside the platform. Con: There are no tips inside this online resume maker. You can see full resume samples, but there is no guidance on how to create a resume for yourself. Adams Essay. Cvmaker gives you two choices.

A basic text editor for free, giving you a printable resume template. Here you have the option to use writing essay move sections, add sections, and add your information with no fuss. Or a paid version that upgrades you to a more advanced rich text editor with more fonts and colors. Once you’re finished you can download your resume as a PDF, TXT, or HTML document. So, it’s a choice between color or ‘my resume woke up like this.’ Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: Cvmaker is essay, a simple, free tool that saves you from a for essay, choosing a resume format . If your sole reason for using an online CV builder is to avoid making margins in letter to john Word, Cvmaker has you covered. Con: There are no tips inside this online resume generator so you’re on your own. Correct Way To Essay. Cvmaker also adds a pre-packaged reference section that you can’t delete. It comes complete with the phrase “References available upon request.” (You can delete the phrase.) When it comes to letter adams essay what you should put on your resume , lose the reference section and this phrase.

You can tell that a lot of design work has gone into Resumup’s templates. Of Being Famous. Using creative resume builder templates is a way of to john adams essay making your resume unique. Much like putting hobbies and interests on your resume to show that your personality is a good fit for essay a company. Letter To John Adams. The functionality of the a for of being, online resume builder changes depending on adams which template you choose. Some templates allow you to fill in blanks and others don’t. With Resumup, it’s important to and proverbs get attached to letter to john a resume builder template.

After all, that’s what you’re buying here. Free Version (2 templates Facebook and Plain Text for Notepad) 1 Template for 1 Month $15 for 1 month access to 1 template 1 Template for correct essay 1 Year $6 per month ($72 per year) Any Template for to john adams 1 Month $20 for 1 month for access to any template Any Template for a Year $8 per month at ($96 per year) Lifetime Plan $149 for a for essay of being famous lifetime access to any template. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Two templates are free. They include a Facebook ad and an ATS-friendly plain text version of your resume for Notepad.

There are no free resume builder templates that download as regular documents. Letter Essay. Most templates make you upgrade to add basic sections like skills or achievements. Premium version only. For Essay. Not for all resume builder templates. Pro: The CV creator has a lot of letter to john adams essay fancy templates including an infographic template. A lot of them are also mobile friendly.

So, if you want a resume that stands out, you’ve got options. Con: A lot of these resumes have heavy design elements. That means they are not all fill-in-the-blank deals like everything else on the Internet. It’s best if you’re savvy at manipulating graphics. Otherwise, you may find the functionality on proximity this online CV builder a bit challenging. 7. Resume Genius and Resume Companion. The Resume Genius and Resume Companion online resume builders are the to john, same, with minor branding and template differences.

Choose a resume builder template to get started. The easy resume builder will give you instructions on how to wow statements fill in each blank space. You pay at the end before downloading your resume. You’ll want to be careful. Resume Genius and Resume Companion will charge you full price after the 14-day trial run. 14-day Access $1.95 for 14 days which self-renews to letter adams $39.95 per month ($479.40 a year) Annual Payment $95.40 a year ($7.95 per month) Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: The easy resume builder gives you prompts and tips as you go along so you know what to put in each space. It also gives you pre-written responsibilities matched with “job keywords” that you choose. Con: You can’t leave fields blank when you’re working on a section.

The resume wizard will prompt you to fill them in before allowing you to move to describe the role of business in the the next section. So, you shall not pass without filling in the blanks. Resumebuilder will onboard you by asking for your field, title, and level of letter to john adams essay expertise. Much like the wow statements for essays, Myperfectresume platform. Once you’ve done that, you have to essay log in using either your email, Facebook, or Google+ details. Yes, they’ve integrated Resumebuilder with Google+. This is another online resume builder where you can’t leave fields blank. The resume generator will prompt you to fill them in wow statements for essays before allowing you to move to the next section. Number of letter adams essay Professional Resume Templates. Free: None Paid: 28 paid templates in different colors (only 3 with text aligned left)

Pro: The online resume maker includes tips. You can also find pre-written responsibilities if you do not want to write your resume on your own. The resume generator is great for a for and against of being famous Google + enthusiasts, who can log in letter to john essay with their account. Way To Essay. Con: The CV builder asks for a lot of letter information. It does not let you move forward until you’ve filled in all blanks with information. So, if you get writer’s block, prepare yourself for a locked room experience. Resume Baking - “ a resume builder that’s easy as pie .” This is a free resume builder, and words argumentative, it’s the only free online resume builder accompanied by a free cover letter builder. You can import information from LinkedIn and Facebook.

The sections are easy to move around (drag and drop) and fill in, but there are no tips inside the CV creator. Instead, there are lots of resume samples, objectives, and cover letters. You choose your template at the end. You can share your resume across various social media (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Google+). The site will tell you how many views your resume has. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: Resume Baking is the letter to john adams, only free resume builder online that lets you write cover letters. It also lets you download your resume, track your resume, and conduct a job search. The CV maker has examples for job seekers who struggle with how to write a resume objective or how to make a cover letter . Con: The resume builder templates use colors, fonts, and wow statements for essays, layouts that may not be appropriate. Try to match modern resume templates with the type of job. Letter Adams Essay. Pair more traditional resume builder templates with traditional jobs and creative resume templates with creative jobs.

Starting from the dashboard, you’ve got the option to create a cover letter or a new resume. The cover letter is already written for idioms and proverbs for essay you. All you have to adams essay do is fill in the blanks if you don’t want to try writing your own. The easy resume builder is straightforward and provides you with tips. Write A Date Essay. Once you’re ready to adams publish, you can pay for a proofreading service. You also need to pay to print, send, or export your resume as a PDF or Word document. Free Version Plain Text only downloaded to Notepad 7-day Access $5.95 for 7 days access self-renews to $29.95 per month.

Proofreading Service $38 and economy essay, includes 7 day access to to john adams download your resume. Essay. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: The easy resume builder’s functionality is straightforward. Once you’re done, you can save your resume as a PDF and as a Word doc. Tou can request proofreading services if you want a real person to check your resume for you. Adams. Con: The trial period for access to the premium version is a week shorter than it is on other online resume builders. That means you have less time to access your resume or create alternative versions. Enhancv will assign you a resume builder template based on your field and experience.

You can’t choose your own adventure here. It is describe the role in the, good about showing you what’s locked until you upgrade. So, you can see what’s on offer and not choose it by accident. The upgrade includes new colors, backgrounds, icons, and fonts. The idea is to let you can enhance your CV as much as you want. Free Version You can test drive unlocked features and letter to john adams essay, download resumes for one month for free. Premium Version $14.90 per month ($178.80 for a year) Annual Version $11.92 per month for a year ($143.04 for a year) Student Rates $2.90 per month annually ($34.80 for a year) Number of Professional Resume Templates. One template with 2 unlocked layouts and one locked layout.

Pro: Enhancv will soon add an option to customize your resume to individual jobs. That way, you can tailor your resume to specific jobs inside the resume creator. Another nice touch is correct a date, a video that you can watch before buying a package that shows you premium perks. Enhancv is a good resume builder for students as it is the only one on this list that offers student rates. Con: You only letter to john have one pre-assigned resume builder template. If you don’t upgrade your account, you get a branded version. A For. Kickresume kicks out the letter to john essay, registration information. It spares you by giving you immediate access to the online resume builder. Write A Date. You choose your resume builder template and get started. You have the ability to chat with assistants in to john essay real-time as you go. Also, if you’re into details, notice the wow statements, witty John Snow and Jane Vader template mockups.

Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: One of the only resume creators on the list that has a proofreading service. It will cost you around 20 bucks but it’s always a good idea to have an actual person proofread your resume. Con: There are only five cover letter templates. So, choosing a fancier resume builder template means that you might not find a cover letter that matches. Choosing an online resume builder format is letter essay, all about finding one that feels comfortable. The one thing to keep in mind is describe of business in the, that not all CV templates are good for all jobs. To John Adams. You may find lots of great resume templates, but you will need to decide if they’re going to wow statements for essays help or hurt your chances of letter adams essay landing an interview.

But if you’re interested in saving yourself time and frustration an online resume builder is for essays, a handy tool. One that can provide you with a neat and presentable resume in no time flat. Letter To John Adams Essay. Not sure how to match the design of your template to your profession? We can help! Let us know your most pressing template questions in the comments, and we will help you figure out how to choose the best one. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork.

She loves writing about words use writing resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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A Letter to Abigail by John Adams, Essay -- revolutionary war, freedom

Essay: Using Humor in the Teaching-Learning Process To Improve the Students’ Speaking Skill. It is important for English techniques and strategies to help enhance students’ speaking abilities, among other English skills they also need to develop. Furthermore, realizing that speaking is very important for English learners, it is essential for English teachers to encourage the students to letter to john essay speak. They seem to have difficulties in deciding what material must be used and how to teach speaking appropriately. Way To Write Essay. Moreover, they must be able to letter to john adams essay find out the ways of how to make speaking easier and introduce the for essays, fun activities for to john adams, the students to learn. In this case, teachers have responsibilities to wow statements for essays guide the students during the learning process and to give motivation to them to improve their English especially in the speaking skill. Teachers’ effective use of humor is generally viewed as a positive factor in the classroom (Check 1986:5). It may even influence the effectiveness of adams teacher power and compliance-gaining strategies. Wheeless, Stewart, Keamey, #038; Plax (1987) note that compliance is an enactment of power. For Essay. Likewise, if teachers exert humor in the classroom, they will be seen as more powerful by their students. To John. Possibly, teachers could gain more compliance from students through the utilization of humor.

1.1Statement of the problem. Teachers come in two types: Boss teacher and lead teacher. Boss teacher is substantially known as authoritative, imposing, demanding, dominant, and oriented. A For Essay Famous. Undoubtedly, these characteristics lead to letter to john essay learners’ misbehavior, poor self-esteem, and low learning motivation. Conversely, lead teacher is known as democratic, open-minded, facilitator and most importantly motivator and friendly; He plays up the emotional growth of proximity learners in an effective classroom environment. Letter Essay. Students are entirely influenced by a for classroom setting, the content of the syllabi and especially the adams essay, way they are presented.

This means that the more inappropriate learning conditions occur the less enjoyable lessons; and the more bored the students will be. Hence, teachers should be aware of how to harmonize students with EFL learning, and hasten to look for the suitable strategy that allows them to enhance learning especially speaking skill. Because teachers at essay, Abbes Laghrour university face many obstacles in English language teaching and as for the students, they lack confidence to speak English with their teachers and classmates because most the of them complain about such difficulties in pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, psychological obstacles as shyness, fears, hesitation They also lack of opportunity to use English in their daily lives.for learning and helps them feel at ease, secure, increases their sense of letter adams essay The study is a suggestion to use humor as a pedagogical and psychological strategy in classroom which makes students influenced positively to a for of being famous raise their desire belonging to the class. Adams. So that allows them to age of be engaged and get involved into the lesson, creates friend-ship between teacher and learners; as well as, facilitates communication between them. Students certainly will get rid of anxiety and boredom; they will get ready to receive information and enhance learning in letter to john adams general and speaking skill in correct way to write a date particular. 1.2.

The aim of the study. The researcher aims in letter to john adams this study to interview EFL learners by increasing their level of correct write in an essay speaking skill. Admitting the fact that students need to enjoy learning to progress, the study attempts to attest to the effectiveness of humor as a pedagogical and psychological strategy through investigating its positive effects on learning. In order to letter adams essay check the validity of the hypothesis, the following questions should be answered: A- Does the use of humor in the English foreign language classroom facilitate the proximity, students’ speaking skill? B- How can teachers use humor in the teaching process? C- What guidelines can be made for the use of humor in English as a foreign language? 1.3. The Hypothesis. This work attempts to test the following hypothesis:

Teaching English by using humor can improve the students -speaking skill. Humor is a powerful tool needed by teachers to adams create a multi-harmony relationship: teacher-teaching, teacher-students, students -students, students-learning. It represents the and against essay famous, effectiveness of communicative classroom since it helps avoid classroom monotony and anxiety as well as it allows students’ self-esteem and self-confidence to arise. Letter Adams. Humor not only establishes students’ engagement and involvement in for essays the lesson, but also develops students’ productivity in EFL through providing positive learning atmosphere. Teachers’ mood is one of the to john adams essay, major factors that impacts students’ attitudes toward learning.

Harmer (1998) claims that teachers’ characteristics like being fed up and in a bad-humor negatively influence their learners, so they should look for age of, enjoyable and invigorating strategies. Adams Essay. Humor, for instance, is a pedagogically effective strategy that can be used to avoid the age of, negative impact of the negative characters of teachers since “students enjoy being entertained and amused”(Harmer, 1998, p.1).In other words, the happier learning students feel; the more successful they will be. Humor is defined by saying what makes the others amused.(Vossler, Sheidlower, 2011)say that in classroom, humor is not only letter to john, being funny or saying what is laughable, but also is giving the impression of famous being friendly and letter to john essay having affinity with learners .Gatt (2000) defines Humor as follows: It is the ‘breathing-out of the soul’. When during the lesson the students only listen to the teacher, who may be teaching in the same tone, then it is as if they only idioms and proverbs for essay, breathe in and have no opportunity to breathe out. They need humor, which the teacher can find in very different places. Therefore the teacher must bring in to john adams humor during his lessons and this humor should result from the words use writing essay, vitality and momentum of the lesson. Adams Essay. Students prefer being in classroom situation that stimulates them to learn.

Leonard (1968) asserts that the best environment for learning is the way to in an essay, interactive (as cite in Wrench, 2008, p.46) where students participate rather than being merely receptive (Jones #038; Jones, 1981, as cited in Wrench, 2008, p.46).As for the fundamental role humor plays in classroom, it creates active students in adams essay a communicative environment. The smooth running of lessons ensues. Furthermore, (Morrison, 2008) describes humor by tonic for effective teaching. She states that the purposeful use of humor ignites students’ boredom, stress, depression, shyness, fear, and essay anger. Humor is the best “brain food”. It is the link between brain and learning; it rings the brain’s bell to activate “memory” to start storage to push them up for exchange information’ to speak out loud without any fears. So, information presented humorously is adams, extremely memorable. And Proverbs For Essay. Berk, also, notes that Humor can create an unforgettable image if it is accompanied by the use of” your words plus your physical expressiveness in your eyes, face, hands and arms, and the rest of your body”(2003, p. 64). Sylwester assumes that emotions are considered as the stimulus of learning; they attract the attention which is required to letter learn (as cited in Morrison, 2008, p.2).Emotions can be presented by humor. Words Argumentative. When teacher uses humor, students become enthusiastic to attend the class for a long time, and feel interested in what is being said by the teacher. Humor does not only prepare successful learners but also successful speakers whereas, the letter to john, pronunciation is the most important goals of learning languages.

As for essay famous, teaching, it is letter adams essay, necessary to words essay use humor since it retains students’ attendance, improves trust between teacher and learners, and provides positive energy. This latter maintains high morale and adams makes flexible learners; it enables them to be up to different situations and changes by evaporating stress when facing obstacles. Humor is “catalyst for creativity”. It allows thinking critically which results producing and combining new ideas. Those ideas are necessarily demanded for managing problems-solving .Correspondingly, Morrison (2008) states that humor gives an “optimistic energy” that increases confidence so as to respond to stress and idioms and proverbs for essay adapt to difficulties. She distinctly mentions humor is the letter adams, paramount source of in the economy creativity and imagination. Humor positively affects the brain.

It enables learners create various ideas. Letter To John Essay. Loomans #038; Kolberg #038; Weston #038; Allen go further, arguing that what makes somebody laugh may be is not for use writing argumentative essay, another since humor differs according to gender, generation and culture. However, some forms of humor are universal. Therefore, teachers should apply that latter to suit all learners (2002).Moreover, they confirm that teachers necessarily have positive attitudes toward what they do to letter adams essay fulfill their satisfaction and argumentative essay enthusiasm in order to, at the end, lighten the class. Being humorous as well is one of the essential basics for much more lightened class; it permits learning to be a “joyous experience not a dread one”. Loomans categorized humor benefits. Social benefits: it sparks creativity, improves the likelihood of belonging to teams, and decreases conflicts.

Physical benefits: it contacts the internal organs and sends them messages to reduce stress, as well as regulates blood pressure. And most importantly, benefits for learning: it reinforces many learning skills such as critical thinking skill, communication skill, and cooperative learning skill. 1.5. Research method. In this study, the researcher has been looking for to john, a correlation between two variables humor and students’ speaking skill achievements. Of Being. In other words, this study examines whether humor is an effective pedagogical, and psychological strategy or not; it is a students’ requirement or not. The method adopted has been based on two questionnaires delivered to the first year English LMD students and teachers at Abbes Lagrour University. The students’ questionnaire results reveal the importance of humor in EFL process as a students’ requirement and its importance to letter to john adams improve their speaking skill achievements. The second questionnaire delivered to English teachers of the same students. Researcher has been based on students and their teachers requirements, needs and point of view about the research topic as they considered the wow statements for essays, main sides of the teaching- learning process .Analysis and the discussions of the results of both questionnaires to decide whether humor is an effective teaching-learning tool to enhance the to john adams, speaking skill or not.

1.6. Limitation of the study. It is important to indicate some difficulties when collecting background data. Looking for references especially books was the main obstacle the researcher faced. Gathering information for the review of literature took time what hindered the progress of the use writing, study conducted. First, this research is conducted through the use of letter to john adams two questionnaires as one procedure which is oriented toward students and and proverbs teachers only. Classroom observation procedures needs a long period of letter time to collect information and to essay famous watch thoroughly what is going on in the adams essay, classroom and pay attention to the sudden changes that may take place in order to guarantee its reliability. Second, the term humor is very assorted that makes the researcher has been obliged to use the term humor in its general meaning without precise one kind at the expense of another, in some times the a for and against, researcher use terms as (laugh, amusement), as a synonyms of the letter to john adams essay, term humor. Chapter 1 (theoretical part) Section 1 Humor.

Humor is the link between effective teaching and successful learning. Way To A Date In An. A side from being a social behavior and an integral part of letter essay our humanity, humor is a powerful teaching tool that promotes non threatening learning environment, and breaks the essay age of proximity, ice down between teacher and to john students. Then rapport and trust Relationship between them are evolved. In that sense, Tom Davis says: “The job of the teacher is to correct way to a date essay get students laughing, and when their mouths are open, to letter give them something on which to chew”. Why humor is solidly related to teaching? “Attitude and behavior are a key part of your role as a tutor, since they can be so influential”(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. 141). Being boring is one of the major sins in teaching (powers, 2005) as boredom and dullness can kill students motivation and words use writing argumentative negate their desire to learn (Deiter, 2000). Letter To John Adams Essay. In addition, content is firmly connected to pedagogy; what is taught is as important as how it is taught(Chickering #038; Gamson, 1987);the teacher should be able to present the lesson in engaging way (Flanagan, 2007) Humor is the demanded strategy. It helps “to your subject knowledge with influencing social interactions and proximity shaping the climate and motivations of students”(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. 141).Appropriate and timely humor in letter to john the classroom can foster cognitive processes, affective and emotional processes (Berk, 1996), as well as contribute to over all teaching effectiveness (Kher #038; Molstad #038; Donahue, 1999). Although humor is valuable teaching tool, many teacher underutilize it (Deniere, 1995), and challenge its use in classroom (Berk, 1998).Gravely said, ??This is words argumentative essay, a time in to john school history when humor is vanishing and in some instances has disappeared altogether” (Morisson, 2008, p.71).

Then, a contradiction has arisen between what is discovered, about humor, by scholars and what really happens in classroom. In general, humor is saying something or acting in a way that makes the and against famous, others amused. To Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary, since the late 16th century, humor takes the following definition: ‘the quality in something that makes it funny or amusing; the letter, ability to laugh at things that are amusing’. In Latin, the term derived from ‘umor’ which refers to wow statements for essays ‘bodily fluid’ (control human health and emotion). Similarly, in ancient Greek, humor derived from ‘humors’ that means ‘the balance of fluids in the human body’. Webster’s Dictionary defines humor as “quality of imagination quick to perceive the ludicrous or to express itself in an amusing way; fun; caprice; disposition; mood; state of letter to john essay mind.”(As cited in Shade, 1996, p. 9) Apart from tending to provoke laughter and provide amusement, humor has been differently defined by many authors. According to Levine (1969), ‘humor is regarded as trifling, destructive and degrading force to morality, religion, and art. Seen differently, it is liberating, socially constructive, and even ennobling art’ (p.1).Morrison believes that our cognitive emotional growth is mainly influenced by the use of humor in our lives (2002, p.23).Humor is ‘an amusing communication that produces positive emotions and cognitions in the individual or in the group’ (Romero #038; Cruthirds, 2006, p. 59).However, Hurren thinks that humor is any message, verbal or non verbal, communicated by a for and against of being the teacher and to john makes the essay, students feel amused (2006). ‘At its basic level, humor is an intended or unintended message interpreted as funny’ (lynch, 2002, p423).

Vossler #038; Sheidlower go deeper , claiming that humor, at its heart, it is not the behavior of telling jokes, but it is that strategy used to create rapport between teacher and students in a way makes them feel closer to their instructor (2011) since ‘ laughter is the shorter distance between two people’ (McGhee, 2002 as cited in essay Role, 2011, p. 4)May ,Humanistic Psychologist states that Humor is the capacity to perceive, appreciate, or express what is funny, amusing, incongruous, ludicrous, etc. It is ‘the healthy way’ that keeps you away from way to write in an essay, problems; it provides you with the appropriate mood needed to perceive and solve problems (as cited in Lyons, 2005, p. 3). Humor is a basic part of ‘humanity’s unique capacity for language’. It is considered as a universal human experience (Kruger, 1996). 2- Basic theories about humor. 1.2. Theories of Humor. The different definitions of humor reveal the distinct perspectives the letter to john adams essay, authors rely on when expounding humor and what social function it serves.

Those perspectives respond to diverse theories that facilitate the describe the role of business economy essay, process of explaining humor in adams more organized way (Martin, 2007) because it is crucial to for essays understand theories of humor rather than erect its definition (Brooks, 1992). Adams Essay. Although each theory focuses on words a certain area of humor, the pioneers allege that their theory is the letter adams, most reliable. 1.2.1. Superiority Theory. “Everything is funny as long as it’s happening to someone else!” The superiority theory of humor traces back to Plato and Aristotle. A For And Against Essay Of Being Famous. They believe that our feeling of superiority over people we laugh at gives us the pleasure of humor.

Cornett (1986) cites that humans feel joy at being superior to letter adams others. Essay Age Of. They laugh at inferior people mistakes which they never do and at their own past follies since they feel superior to who they were in to john essay the past. He adds that what may be funny can be represented by clowns, caricatures, puppets, and impersonators. The Role In The Economy Essay. Also, ‘Defects in others are humorous as long as they are not harmful to the victims’ (p. Letter Adams Essay. 26). Monro (1988) asserts that ‘humor is derisive’.

Pleasure derives from feeling superior at those who have ‘failing’ or ‘defect’; ‘laugher always looks down at whatever he laughs at’. He claims that the way to a date in an essay, originator of this theory named ‘Thomas Hobbes’ (1588- 1679) who states that laughter results from ‘vainglory’, i.e. we laugh at letter adams essay, others ‘misfortunes’ or ‘infirmities’, at our past mistakes. Monro cites laughter definition according to Bregson (1859-1941), supporter of superiority theory of humor: ‘laughter is idioms and proverbs, society’ defense against the eccentric who refuses to letter adams essay adjust himself to its requirements’. In other words, humor is a reaction to what considered inexplicable. Laughing at argumentative essay, inferior and ugly people primarily is caused by feeling superior over letter adams them. Hill (1988) indicates ‘We laugh maliciously when we possess superior knowledge over the people we ridicule.

We laugh at people who have an inferior moral character or at people who are uglier or distorted than ourselves’ (p. 40). This type of humor elevates inequality in correct a date in an essay society. Differences in religions, nationalities, races, and occupations lead some people to feel superior at others. To John Essay. The superiority is the core of finding pleasure when laughing at proximity, inferior people. 1.2.2. Incongruity Theory.

According to this theory, humor is perceived at the moment of realization of incongruity between what really happen and what is expected to happen. Berk (2005) voices that incongruity can be called ‘contrast resolution’. To John. It is “the juxtaposition of the ‘expected’ with the correct write essay, ‘unexpected'”. To John Essay. Deckers #038; Kizers (1975) maintain that the condition for humor takes place is the divergence between what is expected to happen and what really happens. Kerr (2001, p. 2) notes that “Having a sense of humor is about having a sense of balance, perspective and essay age of proximity proportion. A sense of letter to john adams humor is the age of proximity, ability to recognize the incongruities and absurdities that confront us on a daily basis. In other words, it is the letter, ability to look at the same thing as everyone else and see something just a little different”. Shade (1996) suggests that successful humor is the outcome of the abrupt changes which occur incongruously. It mainly derives from ‘jokes’ and essay age of ‘riddles’ in which incongruity may be presented by ‘contradiction’, ‘understatement’, ‘exaggeration’, ‘surprise’, ‘reversal’, ‘ludicrous’. He adds that the incongruity in humor results when there is: first a discrepancy between the punch line and the body of a joke, and essay second a violation of expectancies.

These may involve: a) Two conflicting sets of rules, b) Two different frames of describe of business essay reference, or c) The reversal of figure and ground. (p.11) Degrading a value is an essential feature of incongruity theory. Monro (1988) states “humorous incongruity consists in degrading something exalted by bringing it into contact with something trivial or disreputable”(p. Letter To John Adams Essay. 351). This idea is supported by wow statements Spencer (1820-1903) (as cited in Monro, 1988, pp. 352, 353). Letter Essay. Spencer defines humor as “descending incongruity”. Nevertheless, he confirms that incongruity, not degradation, is the correct way to write a date, paramount source of humor. German philosophers Kant (in 1790) and letter adams essay Schopenhauer (in 1819), the developers of this theory, proclaim “The basis of write in an this theory is that humor is created when we expect one thing and is (sic) suddenly presented with another .Humor, then, is the result of these unexpected connections” (as cited in Shade, 1996, p. Adams Essay. 11). For Schopenhauer (1788-1860) (as cited in Monro, 1988, p.352), humor is the pleasure that derives from the “unexpected connections between ideas”.

Kant (1724-1804) (as cited in Monro, 1988, p.351) identifies incongruity by ??frustrated expectation”. He believes that humor comes up when the in the essay, concept you expect would happen ends into to john adams, nothing i.e. humor derives from a for and against essay of being, your recognition that your expectation have not realized. In his point of view, humor is ‘penetrating’ as long as it connects two completely different attitudes, or it makes a reversal of values. Incongruity encompasses both the intellectual and emotional elements. Kant #038;Schopenhauer phrase that the letter essay, mental component of humor realized when the unexpected connections between two things come about.

Differently stated, pleasure arises as a result of “the rigors of logic, reason, and thinking”. Shade asserts that humor has another imperative component ‘the emotional element’. ‘Attention’, ‘anticipation’, ‘tension’, ‘surprise’ help humor crop up (1996, p. 11). Furthermore, Spencer declares “laughter is an overflow of nervous energy, and that the abrupt transition from a solemn thought to a trivial or disreputable one leaves us with a fund of nervous energy which needs to be expended in laughter”. It means that emotions we feel as sudden changes take place released by humor. 1.2.3. Relief Theory. In this theory, humor is seen as catharsis. It is the preferable strategy used to argumentative essay challenge pent- up emotions. Seaward (2006) regards humor as a response to stressful situations .Monro (1988) highlights that relief is the core of humor. People laugh as strain removed. Letter To John Adams. He defines humor as the temporary way adopted to get released from the wow statements for essays, restraint of the to john adams, conventional social requirements (pp.

353, 354). Freud (1856-1939), the originator of release theory, mentions that through humor, we can trick the ‘censor’, the internal inhibitions, that handicap the achievement of our ‘natural impulses’. Idioms And Proverbs For Essay. He considers his humor theory and his theory of dreams interpretation similar. Humor, exactly like dreams, can beguile censor. Suppressed wishes then may come true. Through humor, we give ‘vent’ to our ‘repressed desires’ (as cited in to john Monro, 1988, pp. 354, 355). For Shade, laughter gives us some temporary freedom from the numerous restrictions, such as constrains of conventionality and the rigidity of logic, under which we live our daily lives. This theory focuses on and against the social and letter essay behavioral elements of humor. Laughter helps elude the dictatorial social conventions .For example “when someone at a meeting uses humor to add a little levity to a tense situation or discussion.

This allows everyone to laugh for a moment, break away from the topic at hand for a minute or two, regroup their thoughts, and a for and against essay of being famous begin addressing the issue, perhaps with a new perspective” The most noticeable thing about these theories is that each theory has its own perspective and area of focus which means that no theory can fully explain the nature of humor and its social functions. 3-Kinds (types) of humor. Humor is in huge variety of to john essay more than 20 types .The research focuses on the famous only describe the role in the essay, as below: Types of adams essay humor Definitions Examples. idiom a form of correct way to write essay expression peculiar to a language, especially one that has significance other than its literal one. He was as mad as a cut snake means that he was angry. irony a figure of letter to john adams essay speech or literary device in correct way to write a date in an essay which the letter essay, literal meaning is correct write, the opposite of that intended Exclaiming, ‘What a beautiful day for a picnic!’ in the middle of a thunderstorm. joke something said or done to to john excite laughter or amusement; a playful mischievous trick or remark.

What does a storm cloud wear under its coat? parody humorous or satirical imitation of a serious piece of literature or writing; to imitate in such a way as to ridicule. Scieszka , Jon, The true story of the three little pigs. Munsch, Robert, The paper bag princess. pun the humorous use of a word in idioms for essay such a manner as to bring out different meanings or applications, or of words alike in sound but different in meaning; a play on words. Police were called to a daycare centre where a three-year-old was resisting a rest. a puzzling question, problem, or matter David was out for a walk when it started to rain. He did not have an adams essay umbrella and correct way to a date in an essay he wasn’t wearing a hat. His clothes were soaked, yet not a single hair on his head got wet. How could this happen? spoonerism a slip of the tongue whereby initial or other sounds of adams words are transposed My dunny fog is maned Nitsy is a spoonerism for My funny dog is named Mitsy.

4- Forms of Humor in Classroom. Humor in the classroom can take many forms. The Role Of Business In The Economy. A study of letter humor in the college classroom, done by idioms and proverbs for essay Bryant, Chomsky, and Zillman (1979), leaks that humor in letter lectures can be classified as jokes, riddles, puns, funny stories, humorous comments. Cartoons and comic verse have been discovered as other creative ways to incorporate humor in classes (Kher et al., 1999). Riddle is a question that is difficult to understand, and that has a surprising answer, that you ask somebody as a game. The term riddle derives from the a for famous, old English word “radels” or “radelse; it is related to letter to john adams Dutch “raadsel” and wow statements for essays German “ratsel” (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2008). It is to john adams essay, a word game; an essay age of enigma; a puzzling fact, it is letter to john adams essay, similar in nature to describe the role of business essay a joke but with a specific format (a question- answer format).

For instance, ‘Matt: How do you keep fish from smelling? Jenny: Cut off their noses’. Riddles are preferably related to subject matter. The main objective for utilizing riddles is to teach students how to analyze and discuss ideas (Shade, 1996). For example, ‘Imagine that you are in a boat, in the middle of the sea.

Suddenly you are surrounded by hungry sharks, just waiting to feed on you. How can you put an end to this’? (The answer is: stop imagining). Such humorous riddle brings students to use their higher order thinking in order to to john adams solve it. Additionally, riddles may aim to teach vocabulary, spelling, even phonology. Shade suggests the for essays, use of letter puzzlers: Build on a letter to letter essay make a word: What comes after L? Bow (elbow) What comes after E? Z (easy) What comes after B? 4 (before) Pun is the clever or humorous use of a word that has more than one meaning, or words that have different meaning but sound the same (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary).Partingtone describes pun by the “creative use of language” (2006, p. 110). He stresses that pun never play with merely one word but with group of words. Write Essay. In the same line of thoughts, Koestler explains “The pun is the adams, dissociation of a single phonetic form with two meanings ‘ two strings of thought tied together by an acoustic knot”(1964, p. 65).

Pun should occur intentionally, Ritchie (2004) holds that spontaneous puns are not very funny and are rarely kept to be used later. According to Partingtone, puns can take the form of: ‘ Reversals, such as spoonerism, for example, a half- warmed fish (i.e. half formed wish) ‘ Blending (or porte-manteau words) for example; anecdotage (anecdote _dotage, that is, how the aged ramble on) ‘ Anagrams, for example, Mother-in-law ‘ Woman Hitler; Election results ‘Lies, let’s recount. ‘ Re segmentation or meta-analysis, for the role of business in the essay, example, four candles ‘ fork handles. ‘ Reverse Coinages, for example, speakable (from unspeakable), underwhelmed (from overwhelmed) ‘Not-as-They-Seems, for letter to john adams, example, a cat burglar (stole our best mouser). He further clarifies that puns can be categorized into homonymy puns and homophony puns. Homonymy puns means words alike in sound and spelling. For example ‘club’ refers to two homonyms: ‘association of people’ and ‘heavy weapon’. Whereas, homophony puns are words alike in sound only.

For instance, ‘leek’ and ‘leak’. The pleasure takes place when one meaning reinterpreted by the other meaning. Joke is something to correct way to essay say or to do to make people laugh. The term ‘joke’ emerged in late seventeenth century. It is originally slang; it derives from letter to john essay, Latin ‘jocus’ which means ‘jest’ or ‘wordplay’ (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2008). It is seen by write in an (Morrison, 2001, p. To John. 160) as “a short story or short series of correct write a date in an words spoken or communicated with the letter adams, intent of being laughed at or found humorous by the listener or reader”. To be perceived laughable, jokes need comprehending the multiple meaning of words, idioms, and metaphors; discovering ambiguity, perceiving and ultimately comprehending the incongruity; and appreciating the unexpected or sudden change of perspective (Shade, 1996, p. 3).According to (Schmitz, 2002, p.93), jokes can be classified into three classes: universal jokes, culture jokes, and linguistic jokes. Universal jokes refer to “humor that is obtained mainly from the context and idioms for essay the general functioning of the world; ?? in other words, they are jokes which any one can laugh at.

For example, Teacher: Gwen, come here and to john adams point out Africa from describe the role of business in the economy essay, this globe. Gwen: here. Teacher: Correct! John, who discovered Africa? Class: Gwen!. Cultural jokes need cultural background knowledge; jokes teller and listener should share the same culture, or at letter to john essay, least, the joke- teller should be aware of the age of proximity, listener culture. For instance, “What do you call a dog at the beach?””A hot dog”. Linguistic jokes “based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages”, such as, Grammar teacher: Sam, can you tell me any two pronouns? Sam: Who, me? Teacher: Good answer, Sam! Shade illustrates this class the following examples: ‘ Lexical based on multiple- meanings of words; Dave: What has 18 legs and catches flies.

Lynn: A baseball team. ‘ Deep structure involves alternative interpretation for a word or phrase; Sam: What animal can jump higher than a house. Chris: Any animal. Houses can’t jump. ‘ Metalinguistic focuses on the language form instead of the letter to john adams, language meaning; Kathy: What’s at the end of everything? Tim: the letter g. ‘ The phonological based on the phonological structure of for essay words; Rebecca: What is letter essay, this? Waiter: it’s bean soup. Rebecca: I don’t care what it’s been.

What is it now? (1996, p. 3.4). Berk (1996; 2002) mentions that teachers may present humor in form of the role in the economy essay funny quotations, questions, examples, skits/dramatizations, exercises and problems. ‘ Humorous questions: they are often used in adams all courses. The teacher asks series of serious questions followed by funny questions in order to capture the students’ attention. For example, a. The Role Economy. How many of you think this one is the correct answer? b. How many of you think this one is the correct answer? c. How many of you don’t care? d. How many of you want to go back to bed’? Humorous examples: they are the easiest way the essay, teacher uses to correct in an illustrate concrete or abstract content in the subject area. ‘ Humorous problem sets: they may replace the serious textbook problems and practiced as problem- solving exercises or homework. ‘ Skits/ dramatization: they are the best warm- up practice.

They can be presented by to john adams music, Masterpiece Theater. ‘ Humor forms are sorted into larger groups. (Chee, 2003) identifies four main forms: textual, pictorial, verbal, action/ games. – Textual examples: stories, jokes. – Pictorial examples: cartoons, comics. – Verbal examples: puns, word games, acronyms. – Action/ games examples: theater, video, role play, contests. ‘ Disparately, (Shade, 1996, p.2) classifies them into distinct forms: verbal, figural, visual and auditory. – Verbal humor includes jokes, puns, riddles, anecdotes, wit. – Figural humor includes comic, cartoons and caricature. – Visual humor includes impersonation, impression.

– Auditory humor includes mime, impersonation, practical jokes, and sight gags. 5-Benefits of humor. 5.1. Use Writing Essay. Psychological benefits. John F. To John Adams. Kennedy was reported to have said, “There are three things which are real: God, human folly, and argumentative laughter. The first two are beyond our comprehension.

So we must do what we can with the letter to john adams essay, third” (Hunsaker, 1988). One of the things which can be done with humor is to take advantage of describe of business essay its coping mechanism or psychological benefits. For example, humor is seen as reducing discomfort and easing tension, a way of mitigating failure or coping with defeat (saving face), a way of letter adams disarming an idioms aggressor, coping with adversity, or to make the serious and less interesting more palatable (Linstead, 1985).Humor can serve as an outlet (though temporary) for frustration, apathy, resentment, hostility and anger; it can offer an escape from the harshness of reality and lighten the letter, burdens present in the classroom (Weaver, 1987). The psychological benefits of humor are supported by several theories. The Anxiety Reduction Theory purports the level of the role in the essay humor arousal is directly associated with the anxiety level of students which, if true, further buttresses the case for letter adams essay, the use of humor as a release valve in idioms for essay the classroom (Herbert, 1991). The Psychoanalytic Theory contends that humor is a socially acceptable expression of forbidden impulses, often with a release of tension through laughter (Coleman, 1992). To John Adams Essay. Another theory of humor, the Arousal Theory, illustrates the stress-reducing effects of humor. This theory explains the function or laughter as that of reducing built-up tension and energy (Lefcourt #038; Martin, 1986).

In accordance with this theory is Martin and Lefcourt’s ( 1988) and Wilson’s (1979)contention of humor as an effective implementation device for a for and against essay famous, reducing stress, anxieties ,and hostilities encountered in everyday life situations. Martin and Lefcourt (1988) contend that nurturing children’s sense of humor may arm them with a coping skill to combat the stresses of to john adams life. Freud (1960) labeled humor as, “the highest of the defensive processes (i.e., defense mechanisms).” In his analysis in a for essay of being famous 1932, Freud went on to explain humor as a reflection of the letter to john, confidence to reduce stress to a manageable state (Rains berger, 1994). And Against Essay Of Being. Similarly, laughter was seen as a means of burning off extra energy or tension (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1986). Martin and Lefcourt attribute this stress reducing effect of humor to its capability of allowing people to put distance between themselves and the problem at to john essay, hand. Korobkin, (1988); believes that humor may be a classroom advantage by reducing fears and anxieties of students. And Proverbs. Korobkin (1988) also found that humor decreases academic stress and anxiety toward the subject matter. Another related theory relevant to the use of humor in the classroom is the Relief Theory.

Meyer (1990), a proponent of the Relief Theory, suggests that reduction of tension and letter anxiety is its central element. Sullivan (1992) contends that by a for and against essay of being reducing classroom anxiety through the use of humor, test anxiety may be reduced simultaneously. Essay. There also exists evidence from a study conducted by Sarason (1960) that highly anxious students perform better on correct in an essay tests when humor is introduced into the testing situation (Gibbon, 1988). Another psychological implication of humor is the enhancement of learners’ self-esteem (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). A successful learning process involves the to john adams, assumption, “I can do it.” Humor, or taking oneself lightly, can encourage students in use writing the learning process, which often involves risk-taking, temporary setbacks, and embarrassing exposure. Low self-esteem limits a student in the ability to take risks beyond the adams essay, narrow role of for essays perceived competency (O’Connell, 1996). To John Essay. By using humor and the skill of laughing at oneself, a student can be more self- forgiving, thereby allowing him or herself to become lost in the learning process. 5.2. Wow Statements For Essays. Sociological benefits. The sociological implications of humor are equally telling. The social theory of humor explicates the means both for establishing better group interactions and transmitting cultural mores (Coleman, 1992).

One of the major functions of schools is socialization: To acculturate knowledgeable, understanding, compassionate, and empathic new members to society (Callahan, Clark, #038; Kellough, 1992). Effective teachers are individuals, according to Hageseth (1995), who can “take themselves lightly, but take their work and to john essay life seriously as they encourage others to do likewise.” They are individuals who can modulate a tense, difficult situation into use writing argumentative, an intriguing challenge, who can interject an uplifting gesture into a stressful moment. Letter To John Adams. As such, teachers can encourage students to appreciate the universality of the idioms for essay, human condition, that all are here to make the world work by complementing one another (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997).Teachers can model achieving power through knowledge and equality, not through exploitation, manipulation, and one-up man ship .Through teaching, teachers facilitate learning through enthusiastic, generous sharing, laughing at their own foibles, and their encouragement to take risks in the safe environment of the learning situation. To John Essay. The socialization process involves learning how to be with oneself, with others, and with life’s adversities and challenges. Students learn this valuable skill by using humor as a tool of growth and wow statements for essays wisdom. Humor can be used as a binding force through which group members share common experiences, develop group cohesiveness, and play and work together toward common goals (Duncan, 1984). Humor can help bond relationships or be used as the lubricant for healthy competition within or between groups (Herbert, 1991). In general, humor, when used appropriately, can be an letter essay effective tool for socialization and interpersonal relations. 5.3. Educational benefits. Humor serves many educational (communication) functions as well.

Maslow, after all, defines humor and laughter as “education in and against of being a palatable form” (Weaver #038; Cotrell, p. To John. 168).Colwell and Wigle (1984) further believe that humor strengthens teacher-student rapport by enabling students to see teachers have “well rounded personalities”. Other proponents of humor in the role of fostering a strong, positive rapport between student and teacher are Ackerman and Dummer, (1982); Bryant, (1979); and Wilson (1979). A teacher who shares a warm, genuine sense of humor with the class portrays oneself as being human just like the students (Herbert, 1991). Pollak and Freda (1997) ask “If a teacher cannot laugh at what he or she does not know, then how can students be expected to recognize their own educational needs and be truly willing, even anxious to learn?” For example, if an English teacher puts a sentence on the board to label parts of speech and a student points out a mistake the teacher has made in labeling one of the more complicated components, that teacher has several options. One is to deny the mistake; another is to pretend the mistake was made on purpose; another is to essay age of own the error, thereby revealing his or her humanness and ability to recover. To John. Students are endeared to that teacher because of the willingness of the “authority figure” to dethrone him or herself to model the learning process in its reality. And Against Essay Of Being Famous. The reality of learning is that trial and error, stumble and letter essay recovery, are not only inevitable but crucial for real learning to take place. Of Business. If a teacher can laugh at adams, himself or herself and laugh with (never at) students, the teacher is well on the way to establishing a positive climate and eliminating much of the stress that is often present in classrooms today. Words Use Writing Essay. Students may never give a teacher the chance to share knowledge or brilliant insights if rapport is not first established. Perhaps Weaver and Cotrell (1987) best summarize the educational role that humor plays in the classroom:

A warm, genuine, sense of humor can reveal humanness- a comfortable, secure attitude with themselves as instructors, with their course material (knowledge), with their students, and with their relationship with students. Letter To John. Certainly, one of the important benefits of humor is that it breeches the broad gap between instructors and students. Use Writing Essay. It brings them closer together-joining them, in letter adams essay a sense, in a quest for knowledge. When teachers confront negative students with humor, they often find that this use of of business essay humor is an effective way to reduce the adams, students’ anger and hostility (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). Humor is a powerful tool in education and can be used within the classroom to put the and proverbs, students at ease and make the learning process more enjoyable.

As educators become active participants in their students’ laughter, they will have an essay opportunity to become engaged with them (Ackerman #038; Dummer, 1982). A humorous response exerts a powerful force over idioms for essay a tense situation. Students, as a result, feel more comfortable in situations in which they are not entirely in control of their own feelings. Weaver and Cotrell (1987) encourage teachers to establish a climate of reciprocal humor. Asking students for humorous material encourages class interaction and a more “give-and-take” classroom atmosphere. Adams Essay. Humor “…has a central place whether as a natural product or as a life-saving response to in the economy the exigencies of the institution – boredom, ritual, routine, regulations, oppressive authority” (Gibbon, 1988). Essentially, the primary value of humor in the classroom is to “stimulate, illustrate, motivate, and letter adams essay ease tension” (Kelly, 1983). Age Of. The reduced tension affects and creates benefits in other areas as well (Rainsberger, 1994). Letter To John. Harris (1989) contends that frequent laughter in a classroom creates an environment in which the students feel safe to try new things.

Students are not bound by the confines of rigorous expectancies, but have freedom from these boundaries to experience true knowledge for its own sake. Kelly (1983) believes that a large reason for increased enjoyment of school is the positive attitude and learning climate created as a result of the of business economy, reduced stress level. Classrooms with decreased tension and reduced stress foster greater creativity and imagination and contribute to letter adams essay an enjoyable classroom setting in which students portray a positive attitude conducive to enthusiastic learning. By reducing stress, humor can make learning more enjoyable, which leads to a relaxed atmosphere as well as a positive attitude about school in general. Neu liep, (1991); Korobkin, (1988); Perret, (1984); Long, (1983); Ziv, (1976); Ziv, (1983); and Bergen (1990) propose that creativity, imagination, and ideas are encouraged and enhanced by an enjoyable classroom where the students eagerly await new challenges. Evidence suggests that asking students to use humor in answering test questions improves creativity scores (Ziv, 1983).Creative thinking, a necessary tool for problem solving can also be facilitated by the use of correct way to in an essay humor. When employing brainstorming techniques, for example, if a teacher offers a thought that is “incongruous or unexpected or incompatible” (Fry #038; Allen, 1996), that input can help students see a situation in two very rational but drastically different perspectives. Coleman (1992) finds that humor, creativity, and letter to john cognition were closely related and like Fry and Allen (1996) determine that the use of describe the role essay verbal, incongruous humor increases the likelihood of students developing more creative thinking processes. The essence of creative thinking therefore, is that ability to perceive situations from various points of view.

Humor is an effective device in interpersonal communication skills. Victor Borgeonce stated that “laughter is the shortest distance between two people” (Sullivan, 1992).One knows that communication and interpersonal skills are extremely important tools in the academic classroom. These tools can be effectively implemented when students feel comfortable or non-threatened. Many scholars argue that the use of humor aids in creating an open communication climate in the classroom (Herbert, 1991; Korobkin, 1988; Perret, 1984; Long, 1983; Ziv, 1983; Mogavero, 1979; Ziv, 1976; Dixon, 1973; Gilland #038; Mauritsen, 1971; and Coser, 1960). Laughter can help ensure a rapturous reception of the instructor’s forthcoming prophetic lecture. In addition, laughter is seen to coordinate human interaction as a turn-taking cue, approval and letter adams invitation for the hearer to respond in kind, an for essay invitation to elaborate, and a resource in affiliation (O’Donnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983).Power struggles often surface in classrooms .When two sides come into conflict, humor can be used to relieve the pressure to to john essay provide both opponents with the opportunity to cool off (Iapoce, 1990).

In such situations, humor provides the teacher with the chance to re think the situation and react with a rational consequence as opposed to a punishment established out of stress and way to a date in an anger (Curwin #038; Mendler, 1990). Adams. Such a rational response spares the child’s self-esteem. As a result of the ability to diffuse tension in such situations, humor actually enhances relationships and brings people closer together.”When humor is shared, people feel close and warm with each other” (Chenfeld, 1990). Sullivan (1992) believes the bottom line is that utilizing humor to wow statements reduce stress makes school a more enjoyable experience for both teachers and students. 6- Guidelines of using humor in teaching process. Humor can be a liberating force, or it can be a destroying one. Some guidelines to to john adams ensure that humor has a positive effect may include: beginning class with an essay proximity amusing thought or joke; the use of humorous stories and letter anecdotes; relating student-oriented activities that often contain comic material; and taking “commercial breaks”(O’Donnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983). The aim here is to actively involve students on an intellectual and describe of business economy emotional level- to assume an involved, interested stance .Stat (1988) writes, “To involve your audience emotionally, you must create a drama- comedy (humor) is often the letter, best tool to correct way to in an use.” There are situations in which humor can prove counterproductive. If used at the wrong time, it has the letter to john adams essay, ability to cause distraction.

If used in excess, it may become uncontrollable and transform the classroom into a circus. If used inappropriately, it may potentially damage self-esteem, or cause embarrassment (Bariaud, 1988). For Essays. Considering the potential of humor to be abused, there is clearly a need for guidelines concerning its use in the classroom. Bryant and Zillman (1988) cite that teachers’ use of humor must be perceived as natural, or else it may backfire. Teachers who normally feel uncomfortable using humor must be wary of attempting to to john adams essay force it into their classrooms.

If humor is irrelevant to the role in the economy the subject matter, valuable class time may be wasted and the class may become unruly, thereby contributing to poor classroom management (Sullivan, 1992). Bryant and Zillman (1983) suggest that teachers of letter to john adams essay children, especially young children, should refrain from using humor unless they are certain that the children have the faculties and wow statements knowledge to letter adams understand it. For example, irony and other forms of “distortion humor” can confuse children and a for essay of being famous create faulty ideas that are difficult to correct. The basic component of to john some humor is ridicule. Some researchers suggest that sarcasm and other forms of ridicule may be useful as a behavior management technique , although most strongly discourage it .Collins (1986) notes that sarcasm is brutal by wow statements for essays nature and can severely damage students’ self-esteem, as well as teacher-student relationships. Bryant and adams Zillman (1988) suggest that although sarcasm and ridicule may serve a corrective function, the words use writing argumentative essay, long-term consequence of diminished esteem in the eyes of to john essay students may make the immediate gains in terms of behavioral correction not worth the describe of business in the essay, costs. In addition to the guidelines previously discussed, a number of researchers offer other suggestions. Sullivan (1992) cautions that: (1) teachers must recognize when humor is not appropriate; (2) teachers should never joke about a student’s name because of the potential damage to the student’s self-esteem; and letter to john adams (3) teachers should not simply tell jokes in essay age of class, but should keep their humor relevant to the instruction since telling jokes reduces valuable class time and may result in sexist and racist humor that will create problems. The use of non-relevant humor, or that which is not at all related to the subject matter at hand, is letter to john adams essay, shown to be an a for essay famous especially effective aid in letter adams essay information acquisition for younger children, those of preschool to early primary school age (Zillman #038; Bryant, 1983). The effectiveness of non-relevant humor diminishes with age so that by correct write a date adulthood, non-relevant humor is not only acceptable, but can even hinder the acquirement of information.

It is also crucial that a student never feels that he or she is being made the object of ridicule. Although the teacher may dominate the student for the moment, often deep and strong resentments result that may last throughout the essay, school year (Quina, 1989). Sullivan (1992) and Herbert (1991) contend that teachers should be willing to of business in the laugh at themselves and should be careful to letter adams match their humor to the level of their students. In addition, Herbert (1991) recommends using visual examples of humor, opening class with a joke, and telling humorous anecdotes. However, he suggests that humor should always serve a specific purpose; it should not be aimless. Cornett (1986) presents a list of way to a date in an essay forty-nine specific ways in which planned humor can be incorporated in the classroom. Her only guidelines are that teachers should adopt a playful mind, think funny, and encourage humor from their students. Although a vast array of humor categories exists, one must carefully and cautiously discriminate in the choice of humor being used. Clearly, the misuse or abuse of letter humor in the classroom may have negative effects. Humor arising from a sexual or racial context should have no place in the classroom and should be avoided at all times.

The victims of such humor may feel that they are being forced to hear a derogatory statement about their heritage or gender. Words Argumentative. One might assume that the teacher has a prejudice against that particular group of people, and letter essay the classroom environment becomes negative and hostile (Dickmeyer, 1993). Humor may unconsciously allow the a for and against of being, person to get at the target of such humor. The “target” is the individual who is placed in letter adams essay one of these situations by way to humor (Edwards #038; Gibboney, 1992). Letter To John Adams. The target is on argumentative essay the receiving end of the humorous comment, whether it be joke, pun, or funny story and is focused on when the humor takes place.

As mentioned earlier, targets of instructor’s humor can be self, student, or other. To John. Humor may be ineffectively utilized to wow statements promote the superiority of one group or person over another as expressed by adams the Superiority Theory of humor (Gruner, 1978). This theory focuses upon the heightened sense of self- esteem, confidence, and reduced threat that are coupled with a humorous response to a typically stressful experience or situation (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1988). Age Of. It is embodied in the slur, the put down, and the barb in which an individual or group laughs at another, supposedly inferior individual or group (Pollio, 1983). Examples of this type of humor are the various ethnic, racist, and sexist jokes which are increasingly becoming taboo in a more enlightened, sensitive society (Coleman, 1992). A major premise of this theory is that people laugh when they feel superior to to john adams others (Meyer, 1990). Closely related to the Superiority Theory is the Disparagement Theory of Humor, whereby humor, as disguised aggression, is used at the expense of others to garner a small victory in the midst of defeat (Rainsberger, 1994). A final theory of humor, the wow statements for essays, incongruity theory, emphasizes the occurrence of two or more illogical or incongruent events, often eliciting the double-take or puzzled look before the laughter (Coleman, 1992).At the end and letter to john essay as a resume these types of humor should be remain out of the classroom: ‘ Sexual humor: celebrating the a for and against of being famous, fun of sex, mildly flirtatious to outright obscenity and lewdness. ‘ Ethnic/Racial -humor: in which a particular ethnic group is demeaned, ridiculed, or made fun of. ‘ Religious -humor: making fun of particular religions or religion in general.

‘ Hostile -humor: in which an attack on someone’s dignity is the primary focus. These may be insulting, invective, or involve a put-down of someone. ‘ Demeaning to Men/ Women- humor: in which males/ females are discredited or put-down, often by the opposite gender. ‘ Sick-humor: making fun of death, deformity, disease, or handicapping conditions. (1996, p. 87). ‘ Aggressive humor: by saying, showing or make such allusion may provoke students’ anger. Through this chapter, it seems to be clear that humor is advocated as a pedagogical strategy. Many authors recommend the use of humor in the academic context.

They argue its significance by a variety of studies conducted to adams essay survey its supportive role to enhance learning. No matter how humor has been defined and and proverbs what principles humor theories are based on, but what worthwhile role it plays in the teaching- learning process. Essay. In addition to wow statements for essays its therapeutic function in medicine and psychology, humor has the letter adams essay, potential to give rise to successful learners and, thus, to successful workers. In order to be effective, teaching strategies require some rules to be obeyed. The appropriate and timely humor relies on the role of business in the economy essay a set of principles. Following these standards, it will be easy for professors to make humor an integral part of material to be learnt, and to john essay then their teaching will be conducive to optimal learning.

Section 2 Speaking skill. Speaking is one of the most demanding skills in the daily life. Every person needs to a for and against essay of being famous communicate with others through speaking. Speaking plays an important role in making a social interaction with another people in order to gain information. Thus, it is letter to john adams essay, necessary for every people to and proverbs have a good speaking skill. As the needs of English increase over letter to john adams the year, people do not only communicate with those who come from the same country, but also with those who come from different countries. In order to be able to convey meaning and talk to people around the essay of being, world, they must be able to speak English since it is an letter to john essay international language. Due to its importance, it is very reasonable why the objective of the English teaching as a compulsory subject at university level is to enable students to a for essay famous communicate in both oral and written forms. As the language is essay, a means of communication, students have to be accustomed to idioms and proverbs speak utterances orally in the classroom even in the very simplest way, such as greeting, answering, expressing ideas, giving responses, and the like.

The actual situation of students’ speaking English competencies at Abbes Laghrour University insure that the most of students are at low level, despite teachers use hard efforts and letter to john adams essay many techniques to enhance their students’ speaking level. From a daily observation the researcher ‘which is a student at the same university ‘ has been noticed that the write a date in an, majority of students keep silent during lessens; hesitate in letter adams the participation, or using humble and individual words or short sentences at most by French or Arabic phonetics and and proverbs for essay pronunciation. In the oral presentation, students read their projects or just memorize what they want to present word by word neither more nor less. Also few of students participate by read the to john essay, information from Tablets, Computers, or the Handout of the teacher himself. Proximity. Another observation is letter to john, that students distinguish between teachers based on their reputation; general personality and the role essay behavior .That enable to to john adams essay classify teachers into two sets, beloved and non beloved .these affection toward teachers’ impact maybe positively or negatively on students’ speaking participation and thus their speaking skill achievements. 1-Definition of speaking. Speaking is one of two productive skills in a language teaching. It is defined as a process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal or oral form (Chaney, 1988:13 and Gebhard, 1996:169). Moreover; Nunan (2003:48) defines that speaking consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning.

To know deeper what speaking is, Nunan differentiates it from writing. Describe The Role In The Essay. First, in spoken language, speaking must be listened by others. It has temporary and immediate reception. To John Adams. When we do listen from other people, it has special prosody some like stress, rhythm, and intonation. It must be there an intermediate feedback for communicating directly. By speaking activity, orator or speaker have to pay attention of planning and editing by channel. Whereas the second,in written language, the activity is done as a visual term.

The time for essay age of proximity, doing it, is letter, permanent and it is delayed reception. The writer uses punctuation as well to make others clearer in vision or reading the meaning. There is no feedback or it is usually delayed or indirectly communicating. The planning is unlimited and correct way to write a date essay there are often editing and revision in any parts of the written language. Based on the utterances above, they can be concluded that the differences between spoken language and the written one as follow: Spoken language Written language. Temporary; immediate reception. Prosody (rhythm, stress intonation. Planning and to john adams editing limited by channel Visual.

Permanent; delayed reception. Delayed or no feedback. Unlimited planning, editing, revision. 2-The importance of speaking. Human being as social creature always communicates to and proverbs for essay one another. It can be occurred with the essay, process of interchange of the a for and against essay famous, thought or ideas which include interactions. For examples telling information or some news, asking other helps for their needs, or etc.

All of to john them can be done trough speaking to others directly. It means that the describe the role in the, activity of speaking itself has a very important role in human life. Ramelan (1992:13) says that all human being whenever they live always speak language, although they do not have any writing system to record their language. From the statement above it can be concluded that speaking is very important in mastering foreign language. Letter To John Adams. Thus speaking capability can be measured whether a foreign language learner in correct way to a date essay successful in learning or not. But in mastering speaking skill can be seen not only from the performance of letter to john learners in spoken, but also we have to proximity see from their competence in using the letter essay, language. Speaking competence is not only the theoretical study but also it is daily activities and human’s need for growing. As according to Chomsky in use writing argumentative essay Garnham (1985:23) said linguistic performance is the actual use of language in letter to john adams essay concrete situation.

And also according to William O’Grady, et.al (1996:4) states that linguistic competence is the ability in producing and understanding an unlimited number of the role of business essay utterances. From the two definitions above, we can conclude that speaking skill consists of linguistic performance and linguistic competence. In other word, we can say that speaking skill is a mental motor skill, it consist of the coordination of sound, mechanism, which is produce by our muscles and to john adams it is also has as a mental aspect .That is the ability in arranging the meaningful words and explain and convey thinking, feeling, and idea. Speaking ability means the ability to think .Based on the explanation above, to measure the students’ speaking, has five competences as follows: Hornby defines pronunciation as the way in correct write in an which a language is adams essay, a spoken, way in which a word is the role in the economy, pronounced (Hornby, 1974:669). It means that pronunciation is an important of language, including its aspect like accent, stress, and intonation. Grammar and pronunciation has a close relationship. In addition to to john adams the sound system learners must be taught by using structure system of language.

Learners must be given insight into word order, inflection and derivation into the other meaningful features of the English language. It will help students to speak fluently. Hornby (1974:979) defines vocabulary is range of words known or used by a person in trade, profession, etc. If students have many vocabularies, it will be easier for him to wow statements for essays express his idea. d. Fluently Hornby (1974:330) defines fluency as the adams, quality of being able to speak smoothly and essay easily. Essay. It means that someone can speak without any hesitation. Someone can speak fluently even though he makes errors in pronunciation and grammar. Self confidence becomes an important factor in speaking learning process.

A student with good grammatical and vocabulary master usually has a big confidence to express idea, suggestion or answer the question. He feels like that, so he thinks he knows what will he say and wow statements for essays how to express. 4 -Aspects of speaking. Eventually, aspects of the to john adams, speaking skill need to be closely scrutinized and put into idioms and proverbs, consideration. These aspects pose some challenges and identify some guidelines for letter adams essay, understanding this skill and hence design instructional activities to prepare learners to idioms communicate effectively in real life situations. A. Speaking is face to face: Most conversations take place face to face which allows speakers to get immediate feedback, i.e. Adams. ‘Do listeners understand? Are they in agreement? Do they sympathize (Cornbleet #038;Carter, 2001: 16) . Thus communication through speaking has many assets, such as facial expressions, gestures and even body movements. Speaking also occurs, most of the time, in situations where participants or interlocutors are present. For Essays. Such factors facilitate communication (Widdowson, 1998 #038; Burns, 1998).

B. Letter To John Essay. Speaking is interactive: Whether we are speaking face-to ‘face or over the telephone, to one person or a small group, the wheels of conversation usually turn smoothly, with participants offering contributions at appropriate moments, with no undue gaps or everyone talking over each other (Bygate, 1998: 30 and Cornbleet #038; Carter, 2001: 27) Turn taking, a main feature in interaction, is an unconscious part of normal conversation. Wow Statements. Turn takings are handled and signaled differently across different cultures, thus causing possible communication difficulties in conversation between people of different cultures and languages (Mc Donough #038; Mackey, 2000: 84). C. Speaking happens in real time: During conversations, responses are unplanned and spontaneous and the speakers think on their feet, producing language which reflects this (Foster et al., 2000: 368).These time constraints affect the speaker’s ability to letter essay plan, to organize the message, and to control the language being used.

Speakers often start to say something and change their mind midway; which is termed a false start. The speaker’s sentences also cannot be as long or as complex as in writing. Similarly, speakers occasionally forget things they intended to say; or they may even forget what they have already said, and so they repeat themselves (Miller, 2001: 27). This implies that the wow statements, production of speech in real time imposes pressures, but also allows freedoms in terms of compensating for these difficulties. The use of formulaic expressions, hesitation devices, self correction, rephrasing and repetition can help speakers become more fluent and essay cope with real time demands (Bygate, 1987: 21; Foster et al., 2000 and Hughes, 2002: 76). Actually, exposing students to these spoken discourse features facilitates their oral production and helps them compensate for the problems they encounter. It also helps them sound normal in and proverbs for essay their use of the foreign language.

5- Purpose of speaking. It was argued that the purpose of speaking can be either transactional or interactional. Apparently, there are some differences between the to john adams essay, spoken language used in both transactional and correct way to in an essay interactional discourse. In transactional discourse, language is used primarily for communicating information. To John Adams Essay. Language serving this purpose is ‘message’ oriented rather than ‘listener’ oriented (Nunan, 1989: 27). Clearly, in this type of interaction, accurate and coherent communication of the message is important, as well as confirmation that the message has been understood. Examples of language being used primarily for a transactional purpose are: news broadcasts, descriptions, narrations and instructions (Richards, 1990: 54- 55). Speaking turns serving this purpose tend to be long and involve some prior organization of describe of business in the economy essay content and use of linguistic devices to to john adams essay signal either the organization or type of information that will be given (Basturkmen, 2002: 26).

On the other hand, some conversations are interactional with the purpose of establishing or maintaining a relationship. This latter kind is sometimes called the interpersonal use of language. It plays an important social role in oiling the wheels of social intercourse (Yule, 1989: 169). Examples of interactional uses of language are greetings, small talks, and compliments. Apparently, the language used in a date in an essay the interactional mode is listener oriented. Speakers’ talk in letter to john essay this type tends to be limited to quite short turns (Dornyei #038; Thurrell, 1994: 43 and Richards, 1990: 54-55). However, in spite of the distinctions between the two types, in most circumstances, interactional language is combined with transactional language. This helps to ease the transactional tasks to be done by keeping good social relations with others. In, other words, we can say that speakers do one thing by doing another (Brazil, 1995: 29). So both purposes can be viewed as two dimensions of spoken interaction. Analyzing speaking purposes more precisely, Kingen (2000: 218) combines both the transactional and interpersonal purposes of speaking into an extensive list of twelve categories as follows:

1- Personal – expressing personal feelings, opinions, beliefs and ideas. 2. Descriptive- describing someone or something, real or imagined. 3. Narrative-creating and telling stories or chronologically sequenced events. 4. Write Essay. Instructive-giving instructions or providing directions designed to letter produce an outcome. 5. Questioning-asking questions to obtain information. 6. Comparative-comparing two or more objects, people, ideas, or opinions to make judgments about argumentative them.

7. Imaginative-expressing mental images of people, places, events, and objects. 8. Predictive-predicting possible future events. 9. Interpretative-exploring meanings, creating hypothetical deductions, and letter to john essay considering inferences. 10. Persuasive-changing others’ opinions, attitudes, or points of words view, or influencing the behavior of others in some way. 11. Explanatory-explaining, clarifying, and supporting ideas and opinions.

12. Informative-sharing information with others. This list corresponds closely to the language functions explained by Halliday (1975). 6-Main Factors That Hinder Students from Speaking. It has been mentioned earlier that there are some psychological factor that hinder students from practicing their speaking in English class. Each of them is explained below. 6.1. To John. Fear of mistake. As argued by many theorists, fear of mistake becomes one of the main factors of students’ reluctance to speak in English in the classroom With respect to the fear of making mistake issue, Aftat, (2008) adds that this fear is linked to the issue of correction and negative evaluation. In addition, this is also much influenced by the students’ fear of being laughed at by other students or being criticized by the teacher.

As a result, students commonly stop participating in the speaking activity (Hieu, 2011).Therefore, it is important for teachers to convince their students that making mistakes is not a wrong or bad thing because students can learn from their mistakes. Shyness is an emotional thing that many students suffer from at for essays, some time when they are required to speak in English class. This indicates that shyness could be a source of problem in students’ learning activities in to john adams the classroom especially in the class of speaking. Therefore, paying attention on this aspect is also quite important in order to help the students do their best in their speaking performance in the classroom (Gebhard, 2000). In line with this, Baldwin (2011) further explains that speaking in front of people is one of the more common phobias that students encounter and feeling of shyness makes their mind go blank or that they will forget what to say.

This theory is also supported by the result of this research in which most students fail to perform the speaking performance at their best. As they say, their inability to show their ability in speaking is also influenced much by correct essay their feeling of shyness. In other words, it can be said that shyness plays an important role in speaking performance done by the students. Anxiety is a feeling of tension, apprehension and nervousness associated with the situation of learning a foreign language (Horwitz et all cited in Nascente, 2001). Further Nascente writes that, among other affective variables, anxiety stands out as one of the main blocking factors for effective language learning. In other words, anxiety influences students in learning language.

Therefore, paying attention to this factor of to john adams learning should also be taken into consideration. The fact that anxiety plays an important role in students’ learning is also shared by other researchers like Horwitz (1991) as cited in Sylvia and Tiono (2004). He believes that anxiety about speaking a certain language can affect students’ performance. It can influence the quality of oral language production and make individuals appear less fluent than they really are. This explanation suggests that teachers should make an attempt to create a learning atmosphere which gives students more comfortable situations in their learning activity. 6.4. Lack of Confidence. It is commonly understood that students’ lack of confidence usually occurs when students realize that their conversation partners have not understood them or when they do not understand other speakers. In this situation, they would rather keep silent while others do talking showing that the students are lack of confidence to wow statements communicate. In response to this, Tsui cited Nunan (1999) says that student who lack of confidence about themselves and their English necessarily suffer from letter adams essay, communication apprehension.

This shows that building students’ confidence is an important part of teacher’s focus of attention. This means that the teacher should also learn from both theories and practical experience on how to build the students’ confidence. 6.5. Lack of Motivation. It is mentioned in the literature that motivation is a key to for essays students’ learning success (Songsiri, 2007). With regard to the issue of motivation in letter to john adams essay learning, Nunan (1999) stresses that motivation is important to notice in that it can affect students’ reluctance to speak in English. In this sense, motivation is a key consideration in determining the preparedness of learners to communicate.

Zua (2008) further adds that motivation is an inner energy. She says that no matter what kinds of motivation the words argumentative essay, learners possess it will enhance their study interest. It has been proven in many studies that students with a strong motivation to succeed can persist in learning and gain better scores than those who have weaker motivation of success showing that to learn is adams essay, urgent for every teacher. 7- Ideas about using humor in speaking lessons. Humor as we have seen is an open ended teaching tool , it may be just a small smile with students till make them laughing out loud or giggling; between this and that; the describe the role of business in the economy essay, researcher proposes some thoughts to introduce humor in adams the teaching process. 7.1. Tongue twisters are a great way to correct write in an practice and improve pronunciation and fluency.

They can also help to improve accents by adams using alliteration, which is the repetition of one sound. Examples: ‘ Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of famous pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Where’s the peck of to john essay pickled peppers Peter Piper picked’? Betty Botter bought some butter. But she said the butter’s bitter. If I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter.

But a bit of better butter will make my batter better. So ’twas better Betty Botter bought a bit of better butter. ‘ How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood As a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could chuck wood. ‘ She sells seashells by essay age of the seashore. ‘ How can a clam cram in a clean cream can’? I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream. ‘ I saw Susie sitting in to john essay a shoeshine shop. 7.2. Students always have difficulty expressing what they want to say, no matter how advanced their vocabulary is .Teacher has to downloaded short jokes from the wow statements for essays, Internet, cut them into strips, and distribute them randomly. The goal is to express the short joke in students’ own words, without reading or memorizing.

Teacher should be sure to model how a person tells a joke (like telling a story, with facial expressions or everything).He might need to help them with understanding some jokes, as some are contextual /cultural. A: I have the perfect son. B: Does he smoke? B: Does he drink whiskey? B: Does he ever come home late? B: I guess you really do have the letter to john adams, perfect son. How old is he?

A: He will be six months old next Wednesday. Girl: You would be a good dancer except for two things. Boy: What are the two things? A family of mice was surprised by a big cat. Father mouse jumped and said ‘Bow- wow!’ The cat runs away. ‘What was that father’? asked baby mouse. ‘Well, son, that’s why it’s important to learn a second language. 7.3. Create dialogue comic strip. This is use writing argumentative essay, a simple worksheet with single comic strips for letter adams, students to correct way to write use their imagination and fill the speaking bubbles freely.

There are no conditions except that they have to write at least 2 sentences, but the idea of the essay, exercise is to give them the freedom to find their own words (or ask for them) and at the same time have fun inventing something crazy to fill the bubbles with. Wow Statements. There is no right and wrong in letter to john adams essay terms of content. This is to check grammar and vocabulary. From: busy teacher .org. 7.4. Psychology quiz. Teachers in ESL classes can practice this fun quiz with students’ .quiz to make them think about their priorities in life in a fun way. Nice way to relax the and proverbs for essay, class. Letter Essay. It takes 5 minutes to use it. From: busy teacher .org. Teaching and learning English in Abbes Laghrour University have faced many difficulties.

As for students, they wish to speak English fluently, but face with language barriers such as pronunciation and words grammar usage. Moreover, they lack of to john adams essay opportunity to speak or use language in of business daily lives. They are too shy to speak with their classmates or teachers because they are being passive and have little speaking activities to practice. In addition, all of four skills, teaching and learning of letter to john adams speaking skills seem to essay be the most crucial part, because in letter essay the classroom almost of instructions are given in the university as many as teachers who are non-native speakers, and having no interaction occurs in the classroom. These difficulties in primary and secondary schools, where the English curriculum and environment do not meet the demand of the learners, and do not focus on speaking, have affected on learning English in university level where listening and speaking skills are most used. Therefore, to help the learners improves speaking skills, various kinds of words argumentative essay strategies should be considered. One of them is probably using pedagogical humor during the teaching learning process because it strengthens the relationship between the education parties in order to create fun, confidence and boldness in students’ personalities to enhance all their language kills achievement especially speaking.

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