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How to enzyme coursework, Make Your Coursework as Good as It Can Possibly Be. Many GCSE and A-level subjects are assessed in part by coursework in addition to exams, meaning that the mark you receive for coursework contributes to your overall grade. Many students prefer coursework, because it’s a chance to showcase your academic abilities away from the high-pressured environment of the exam room, making it ideal for broniatowski dissertation, those who don’t perform to enzyme, the best of their abilities in exams. However, the time you have available for coursework, in report, contrast with the time constraints of the exam room, can lull some students into a false sense of security. Coursework is arguably just as challenging as exams, just in different ways and, given the fact that you have more time, much higher standards are expected of you in coursework than in exams. Careful planning and research are needed for successful coursework, as well as strong data-gathering and enzyme biology coursework, essay-writing skills. Nyu Stern Mba Essay 3. In this article, we look at how to produce excellent coursework, from planning to proofreading. Though the amount of marks allotted to biology, coursework has generally been decreased, it remains an important component of many subjects. GCSE and A-level coursework typically takes the form of an extended essay or project. Its objectives vary from one subject to another, but there’s usually an book report emphasis on the student conducting independent research into a topic of their own choice.
Thus coursework often takes the form of some sort of investigation; it may, therefore, help to have your ‘detective’ hat on as you explore, investigate and analyse your topic. You can usually work on your coursework at home, though it’s sometimes completed under controlled conditions through sessions at school. To give you a better idea of how coursework varies from one subject to enzyme biology, another, here are some examples: English English coursework usually takes the form of an extended essay with a title of your choice. You’re usually given a choice of themes and/or texts to explore, and you could choose a format such as a comparison between a set text and for argumentative, another one. Geography Geography coursework usually focuses on the gathering, reporting and interpretation of data designed to answer a particular geographical question. You could investigate usage of a shopping centre, for example, or look at erosion on a particular beach. Sciences coursework for science subjects often takes the form of a scientific project or experiment that you conduct and report on enzyme yourself. If you#8217;re known to broniatowski, have plagiarised work, it could affect your chances of getting into university.
Before you start work on your coursework, it’s essential that you have a thorough understanding of the rules. Failing to conform to the rules inadvertently or not may result in your coursework (or possibly even your entire qualification) being disqualified, so it’s a serious matter. No plagiarism this is particularly dangerous given the ready availability of enzyme biology relevant information on the internet these days. Make sure everything is in your own words; you’ll need to sign a declaration stating that it’s your own original work. There’s only so much help your teacher can give you . They can provide guidance on what you need to include, and on report what the examiners will be looking for. You can ask them questions, but they’ll usually only enzyme be able to check through your first draft once and offer broad hints on updating it. Check the word count , and stick to it. Find out paper herbal medicine, whether footnotes, appendices and bibliographies are included in the word count. Coursework. Check what topics you’re allowed to do your coursework on; if there’s an exam on this topic, you’ll almost certainly have to choose a different one for your coursework. Take your time over choosing your topic. Mba Essay 3. Ideally, choose something you’re genuinely interested in, as your enthusiasm will come across and you’ll find it more enjoyable to coursework, write.
If there’s something you’ve been working on for the course so far that you’ve particularly enjoyed, you may be able to focus more on this as part of your coursework. For science coursework, you’ll need to choose something to investigate that you can measure, change and dissertation, control; it should be what’s called a ‘fair test’, meaning that you have to acknowledge all the controls you use in the experiment and why. Try not to pick a topic for which the enzyme biology coursework scope is short essay, too vast, as you’ll struggle to research it properly and you’re unlikely to do it justice, and it’ll be hard to keep within the word limit. Ask your teachers for some guidance on choosing your topic if you’re not sure what to write about; they might even tell you a bit about what previous students have done to give you some inspiration. Get the important timings worked out in an advance. Never leave your coursework until the last minute, even if this is enzyme, your normal approach to essays and mba essay 3, it usually works for coursework, you. Make sure you understand when the deadlines are, including time for submitting a first draft for comments from your teacher. Then schedule blocks of management in time for working on it, allowing plenty of time before the deadline to coursework, cater for any unexpected delays. Allow ample time for making corrections based on teacher feedback on your first draft, and keep some time aside before the deadline for final editing and proofreading. Broniatowski Dissertation. Because actual deadlines are few and enzyme, far between, you’ll need to take responsibility for the writing process and impose some deadlines on nyu stern yourself to ensure it’s finished in time. Write down your deadlines on a calendar, with the coursework broken into stages and dates assigned to each, by which time each task should be complete.
You can base your stages on the next few points in this article research and data gathering, a structure plan for enzyme, the piece of work, writing up, and so on. Book. Conducting your research and gathering data. Research is enzyme coursework, a vital part of broniatowski coursework. As coursework is primarily a research exercise, the enzyme biology coursework research phase is research medicine, crucial, so don’t be tempted to skimp on enzyme biology coursework it and go straight to writing up. Use as many different resources as you can to short body and conclusion, gather data: books, journals, newspapers, television, radio, the internet and anything else you think might be relevant. For science and enzyme biology coursework, Geography coursework, you’ll need to base your work on a hypothesis, so the essay with body and conclusion research stage should start by coming up with at least one hypothesis, otherwise your research will lack direction. The research phase for some subjects may involve site visits for gathering data, so allow plenty of time for this, particularly if you need your parents to drive you somewhere to do so. If it’s a scientific experiment you’re conducting for your coursework, you’ll need to pay careful attention to planning the experiment using rigorous scientific methods (also noting what Health and enzyme biology, Safety precautions you are taking), as well as reading up on the background and theory so that you have an 3 idea of what to expect from the outcome of your experiment. In the research stage, make notes about what you expect to happen, so that you can later compare your expectations with what actually did happen.
The experiment itself also forms part of the research and coursework, data-gathering stage for summary book report, your science coursework; in the write-up stage, which we come onto shortly, you analyse and write up the results. Once you’ve completed your research, the enzyme process of writing up begins. Nyu Stern 3. Before you get down to the actual writing, however, it’s advisable to write a plan for how you’re going to structure it essentially an essay plan for English coursework and other subjects for which the biology coursework coursework is based on an extended essay. It’ll look slightly different from an essay plan for science subjects and others that revolve around project work, but the principle is the same: plan out nyu stern mba essay, what order you’re going to enzyme coursework, present your information in. For big projects, this is particularly important, because with a lot of information to convey, you risk being disorganised and essays, waffling.
Make sure your writing is coursework, top-notch. For any coursework, but particularly coursework based around an extended essay, you’ll need to perfect your essay-writing abilities. Summary Report. For science coursework, writing up your project also involves data analysis, as you interpret the results of your experiment and biology, work your notes into formal scientific language. Follow the links below to find lots more useful advice on writing great essays. When you’re writing up, it’s important to find a place where you can work quietly, without distractions that could cause you to make careless errors. You wouldn’t want noise or distractions when you were in an exam room, so treat your coursework with the same reverence. For some subjects, namely the sciences and mba essay 3, Geography, it would be appropriate to include images, graphs, charts, tables and so on in your coursework. Enzyme Coursework. For example, for 3, Geography coursework, your extra material could include annotated images and maps of the site you’re talking about, plus tables, graphs and charts. An appendix could then detail your raw data; if, for example, your coursework focused on the results of a survey, you could put the raw survey responses in an appendix and coursework, provide summaries and analysis in the main body of the coursework. Don#8217;t leave the bibliography to the last minute; it#8217;s a vital part of your coursework.
As we said earlier, it’s important that you always use your own words in your coursework to for argumentative, avoid the possibility of biology falling foul of plagiarism rules. Nyu Stern Mba Essay. However, it’s acceptable to quote from another source, as you would in any piece of academic writing, but you must make sure that you state where it is from and use quotation marks to show that it’s a quote from somewhere else. The best way of citing another work is to biology, use a footnote; word processors will allow you to insert one, and 3, it just puts a little number at the end of the sentence and another in the footer of the document, into which you put the name of the author and work, and the page within that work that the quote can be found. At the enzyme end of your piece of work, include a bibliography that includes a list of every external source you’ve used in the creation of herbal your coursework. Stick to enzyme, a set formula when including books. A common format is: Author Surname, Initial. (Date) Title of broniatowski Book , page number. Lewis, C.S. (1960) Studies in biology coursework, Words , p. 45. When you get to university, you’ll be expected to include footnotes and bibliographies in all your essays, so it’s a good habit to get into and coursework gives you good practice at thesis resource in it. You can#8217;t proofread too many times. Having completed a first draft, received feedback from biology, your teacher, and honed your work into a finished piece of coursework, have a final check through it before you send off your coursework for submission. Sense check : have a read through your completed piece of work and short with introduction body, check that it all makes sense.
Make sure you haven’t contradicted yourself anywhere, or repeated yourself, or laboured the point. Biology. If there are any facts that you may have meant to look up to double check their accuracy, do so now. Word count : ensure that the completed work falls within the word count, and double check whether the bibliography should be included in the word count. If you’ve exceeded it, you’ll need to work through the piece and paper herbal, tighten up your writing, omitting unnecessary information, reordering sentences so that they use fewer words, and so on. Proofread : check your spelling and grammar, and ensure that there are no typos. Don’t just use the enzyme biology spellcheck go through it with a fine toothcomb, manually, and if you can, ask someone to read through it for book report, you to coursework, see if they spot anything you haven’t. Formatting : check that you’ve included page numbers, and that the font and line spacing is consistent throughout the work. Ensure that the font is plain and easy to read, such as Arial or Times New Roman.
Bibliography : check that you’ve included everything, that the format is the same for all sources mentioned, and book report, that the right information is included for each. Once this stage is complete, you’re ready to submit your coursework along with your declaration that it’s entirely your own work. Get ready for a feeling of immense satisfaction when you finally send off your hard work! 6 Responses to #8220;How to biology coursework, Make Your Coursework as Good as It Can Possibly Be#8221; December 14, 2015 at 8:41 am, Alex nuttal said: I like this web but it could look more appealing to a younger eye xx. December 14, 2015 at 8:42 am, Alex nuttal said: I love geographyxx.
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Character Analysis Essay English II As part of our study of the novel Of Mice and Men by essays John Steinbeck, you will be writing . a character analysis essay . Below are the criteria of enzyme biology coursework this assignment. Criteria ? Choose a character to analyze. ¦ George, Lennie, Slim, Curly, Curly’s Wife ? Identify one dominant characteristic of that character. ¦ DO NOT choose a physical characteristic. ¦ Choose a PERSONALITY trait. ? Develop your analysis of the short essay introduction body and conclusion character by biology coursework finding and analyzing. Character , Fiction , John Steinbeck 474 Words | 3 Pages. ? Images offer a powerful way to communicate. A single image can relate more to a person than text can. An artist can create a . piece of artwork to express how he or she feels or how they see something. Over time the art that was created long ago can change meaning from what the artist originally intended and the perception can change as well, either through mystification or personal experiences. Author John Berger in his book Ways of Seeing writes about the thesis on human resource management in various ways in which this can happen. Aesthetics , Art , John Berger 1244 Words | 5 Pages.
Essay Analysis Paper “Each year I watched the field across from the Store turn caterpillar green, then gradually frosty white. . I knew exactly how long it would be before the big wagons would pull into coursework the front yard and paper herbal medicine load on the cotton pickers at daybreak to carry them to the remains of slavery’s plantations” (Angelou, p. 115). Maya Angelou describes the life of cotton-pickers in the nonfiction story, “Cotton-Picking Time.” This paper will give an analysis of enzyme “Cotton-Picking Time” and discuss. Cotton , Cotton picker , Essay 907 Words | 3 Pages.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in enzyme coursework, a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and summary book report accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place.
Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of coursework your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for on human the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at enzyme biology, hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to broniatowski tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs.
Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in enzyme biology, and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on nyu stern your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on enzyme coursework a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only research paper, sometimes make sense to enzyme biology include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and summary pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on biology the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the on human resource, only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and biology need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and with body focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. Enzyme Biology. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on research your resume, but the enzyme biology, good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is summary report listed first) is still your best bet. Enzyme Biology. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in book report, your situation, skip the enzyme biology coursework, skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this.
If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out thesis on human resource management, how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to biology your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to on human stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Biology Coursework. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page.
You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the book, sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to enzyme the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. Broniatowski. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. Enzyme Biology Coursework. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in nyu stern mba essay 3, the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent.
You don’t need to enzyme include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to rubrics for argumentative essays make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. Enzyme Coursework. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. Broniatowski. This is biology coursework arguably the most important document of broniatowski your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13.
Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of biology coursework your career history and summary book report only include the experience relevant to the positions to biology which you are applying. And remember to broniatowski dissertation allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience?
No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the coursework, bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the paper herbal medicine, recruiter just isn’t going to coursework get through them. Broniatowski. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in enzyme biology, tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to broniatowski dissertation be understandable to enzyme coursework the average person. Dissertation. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Coursework. Use as many facts, figures, and nyu stern mba essay numbers as you can in your bullet points. Coursework. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals?
By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Summary. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. Enzyme Coursework. If you’re not sure how to resource in explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the biology, result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work.
There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in on human resource in, your bullet points. Not only is biology coursework this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to short introduction and conclusion the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into coursework a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the report, most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include?
Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the enzyme biology coursework, job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the dissertation, most recent or advanced degree first, working in enzyme, reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is short body more specific to biology coursework the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates.
The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. Essay Introduction Body. If you graduated from enzyme, college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Thesis On Human In. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to enzyme biology include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the nyu stern, relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and enzyme coursework any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to mba essay skip including skills that everyone is expected to enzyme biology coursework have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of nyu stern mba essay those sections and biology coursework listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there.
Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only rubrics for argumentative essays, add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it.
32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for biology coursework your church on for argumentative essays the reg. Biology. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by paper herbal, someone who disagrees with the enzyme, cause.
Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Essays. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for enzyme biology coursework having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to research paper herbal medicine include them. Gaps and coursework Other Sticky Resume Situations.
If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of book months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. Enzyme Coursework. If you have gaps of a few months in mba essay 3, your work history, don’t list the enzyme, usual start and end dates for each position. Essays. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at biology, your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for rubrics your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume.
Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. Biology Coursework. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out broniatowski dissertation, there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is biology coursework interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and broniatowski dissertation clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to biology take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc.
That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at report, it in enzyme biology, both Google Docs and Word, and thesis resource in then attach it to an email and enzyme open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and thesis on human management in send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the enzyme coursework, hiring manager has to take. Carve out dissertation, some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. Enzyme Biology Coursework. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. Thesis Resource. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and enzyme content strategist who is research herbal passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the enzyme, company’s branded content team.
If you’re an individual or company looking for thesis on human management help making your content better—or you just want to go out to enzyme coursework tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the paper, amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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Free Environmental Studies essays. Renewable energy is now capturing a good share of the enzyme biology, worldwide headlines because of concerns about declining supplies of fossil fuels, escalating population and industrialization triggering ever-increasing demand of broniatowski dissertation fuels. Worldwide ethanol demand is enzyme coursework increasing continuously. Nyu Stern Mba Essay 3! Conventional crops such as corn and sugarcane are unable to meet the global demand of biology bioethanol production due to their primary value of food and feed. Therefore, lignocellulosic substances such as agricultural wastes are attractive feedstocks for bioethanol production and rubrics, they are too cost effective, renewable and abundant. Bioethanol from this agricultural waste could be a promising technology, though the process has several challenges and limitations such as biomass transport and biology, handling, and ef’cient pretreatment methods for total deligni’cation of lignocellulosics. In this review are discussed efficient and essays, available technologies for bioethanol production from agricultural waste. Keywords: Bioethanol, Pretreatment, Bioethanol production, Biomass, Lignocellulosic biomass, Agricultural waste.
Fossil energy sources such as oil, coal, natural gas, etc are important factors for the world’s present economy development, they make everything work from enzyme biology coursework, fuel to electricity and other goods. (Uihlein A. Rubrics For Argumentative! et al., 2009). The last few decades brought with them excessive consumption of fossil fuels, especially in coursework, large urban areas, and a high level of pollution. (Ballesteros I et al., 2006). The global production of oil is book decreasing significantly from year to year and that’s due to the expansion of human population and increasing of industrial property, which is also generating a high energy consumption. (Campbell CH, Laherrere JH, 1998). Renewable sources , as wind, water, sun, biomass, geothermal heat might be the future, the alternative needed for the energy industry wheres the fuel production and the chemical industry may have as an alternative for the near future the biomass (Lynd LR, Wang MQ, 2003). The renewable biomass fuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, etc., derived from sugarcane, corn, switchgrass, algae, etc. can become the perfect substitutes for all petroleum-based fuels. Each person’s share of electricity and fuel used in making food and enzyme, goods and their transport represint the energy consumption rate. A possible motor fuel on organic farms in rubrics, the short and medium terms is represented by biogas. This alternative fuel can be produced by anaerobic digestion of organic material. When it is used as biofuel, the CO2 present in it is removed for increasing the biology coursework, energy content and it can be stored at report high pressure. Biogas can be a substitute as fuel for boilers, propane and natural gas and in rural areas for electricity generation. Biogas energy usage expansion has continued across the European Union.
According to Eur Observ’ER, about 13. 4 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of biogas primary energy were produced during 2013, which is 1.2 Mtoe more than in biology, 2012 representing a 10.2% growth. However, the biogas sector’s momentum was more sluggish than in 2012 (16.9% between 2011 and essays, 2012, giving an additional 1.8 Mtoe) and it is enzyme biology coursework expected to lose some of its impetus in 2014 in management in, a number of biology countries whose sector expansion controlling policy changes will limit the future use of dissertation energy crops. 52.3 TWh (TeraWatt hour) of biogas electricity produced in biology coursework, 2013 in the European Union. The growth of biofuels consumption for use in transport in the European Union (EU-28) has dwindled in the past few years and finally dropped by about 1 million toe (6.8%) between 2012 and for argumentative essays, 2013 according to biology, EurObserv’ER, to a consumption level of 13.6 million toe. Nevertheless, sustainable biofuel consumption, certified and thus eligible for inclusion in European targets increased slightly by 1.1% to 11.8 Mtoe (EurObserv’ER Database 2013). To meet carbon dioxide reduction targets specified in the Kyoto Protocol, countries across the globe have elaborated for future energy demands, state policies toward the increased and nyu stern 3, economic utilization of biomass. This were considered as well to biology coursework, decrease reliance and dependence on the supply of fossil fuels. Biomass can be a huge source of transport fuels such as bioethanol and 3, is commonly used to generate power and heat, especially through combustion.
In present ethanol is the most widely used liquid biofuel for motor vehicles (Demirbas A., 2005, Lewis SM, 1996). The importance of ethanol is increasing due to global warming and climate change. Bioethanol has been receiving widespread interest at the international, national and regional levels. The global market for bioethanol has entered a phase of rapid, transitional growth and coursework, many countries around the world are shifting their focus toward renewable sources for power production because of research paper herbal depleting crude oil reserves. The trend is extending to transport fuel as well. Ethanol has potential as a valuable replacement of gasoline in the transport fuel market. However, the cost of bioethanol production is more compared to fossil fuels.
Source: United States Energy Information Administration. Figure 1. World Ethanol Fuel Production and Consumption by Year. Table 1. World Ethanol Fuel Production and Consumption by Year. year production consumption. 2000 297.37 283.15. 2001 317.26 261.85. 2002 362.96 303.34. 2003 454.31 355.49. 2004 501.94 437.80. 2005 578.03 494.44.
2006 701.94 623.52. 2007 910.48 797.22. 2008 1201.22 1092.45. 2009 1296.34 1252.60. 2010 1487.61 1376.94. 2011 1448.46 1349.63. Current ethanol production based on corn, starch and sugar substances may not be desirable due to coursework, their food and feed value. Economy of the ethanol production process from grains is depen- dent on the market of its by-product e distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) e as animal food. Management In! The market of DDGS may not expand like that of enzyme coursework ethanol in the future (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). Resource Management In! Cost is an important factor for large scale expansion of bioethanol production. The green gold fuel from lignocellulosic wastes avoids the existing competi- tion of enzyme food versus fuel caused by book, grain based bioethanol production (Bjerre et al., 1996).
It has been estimated that 442 billion liters of bioethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass and that total crop residues and wasted crops can produce 491 billion liters of bio- ethanol per year, about enzyme biology 16 times higher than the actual world bioethanol production (Kim S., 2006). Lignocellulosic materials are renewable, low cost and are abundantly available. It includes crop resi- dues, grasses, sawdust, wood chips, etc. Extensive research has been carried out on ethanol production from lignocellulosics in the past two decades. Hence bioethanol production could be the route to the effective utilization of research paper medicine agricultural wastes. Rice straw, wheat straw, corn straw, and sugarcane bagasse are the major agricultural wastes in terms of quantity of biomass available (Kim S., 2006). Current industrial processes for bioethanol production use sugarcane (Southern hemisphere) or cereal grain (Nothern Hemisphere) as feedstocks; but they have to compete directly with food sector (Wheals et al, 1999).
Although these are the predominant feedstocks that are used today, projected fuel demands indicate that new alternative, low-priced feedstocks are needed to reduce ethanol production costs (Palmarola-Adrados et al, 2005). The largest potential feedstock for enzyme coursework, ethanol is lignocellulosic biomass, which includes materials such as agricultural residues (corn stover, crop straws, sugar cane bagasse), herbaceous crops (alfalfa, switchgrass), short rotation woody crops, forestry residues, waste paper and other wastes (municipal and industrial) (Kim and Dale, 2005). Bioethanol production from broniatowski dissertation, these feedstocks could be an attractive alternative for disposal of these residues (Wymam, 2001). Importantly, lignocellulosic feedstocks do not interfere with food security. Moreover, bioethanol is very important for both rural and biology, urban areas in terms of energy security reason, environmental concern, employment opportunities, agricultural development, foreign exchange saving, socioeconomic issues etc. To avoid conflicts between food use and industrial use of crops, only wasted crops are assumed to book report, be available for producing ethanol. Wasted crops are defined as crops lost during the enzyme biology coursework, year at thesis on human all stages between the farm and households level during handling, storage and transport. The agriculture residue includes corn stover, crop straws and sugar cane bagasse. The full utilization of some crop residues may give rise to soil erosion and enzyme biology coursework, decrease soil organic matter. Therefore, a 60% ground cover by residues, instead of 30%, is recommended due to rubrics for argumentative, uncertainties of local situation (Kim and Dale, 2004). Most wasted biomass comes from rice, corn, and wheat.
The US, Asia and biology coursework, the European Union are leading producers of agricultural by-products, such as straw from rice, corn and cereal crops. Surplus straw offers an ideal feedstock for the manufacture of medicine cellulosic ethanol, presenting no competition to the production of food or animal feed. Nor is any additional land use required to produce bioethanol based on enzyme coursework these types of feedstock, as they are automatically created as a by-product during existing production of rice, maize and cereals. As a result, about 240 million tons of cereal straw are produced each year as an agricultural by-product in the EU alone. Only a small part of this is currently utilized.
Long term studies have shown that up to 60% could be taken of the field and are thus available for rubrics, further uses. By processing this amount of straw, about 25% of the predicted EU demand for petrol could be replaced by cellulosic ethanol in 2020, solely out of surplus material. Enzyme Coursework! This means that cellulosic ethanol can play a key role along Europe??s path towards sustainable and climate-friendly road transport. Figure 2. Lignocellulosic feedstocks of different regions worldwide. In the US, corn stover is the main residue available for conversion into cellulosic ethanol, the rubrics essays, second most important feedstock being cereal straw. The Billion Ton study released by the Department of Energy estimates the volumes of corn stover and cereal straw available in a sustainable way at 190-290 million tons. In Brazil, where sugar cane has already been used to produce bioethanol for many years, some 545 million tons of sugar cane are forecast for the 2011-2012 harvest, which will in turn give rise to approx. 73 million tons of coursework bagasse. Thesis Management In! Even after deduction of the enzyme coursework, amounts used to generate energy in existing plants, around 11 million additional tons of cellulosic ethanol could be produced. This is equivalent to short body, about 50% of biology Brazil??s current ethanol production (Clariant International Ltd, 1995 ‘ 2012).
The most important processing challenge in the production of biofuel is pretreatment of the biomass. Lignocellulosic biomass is composed of three main constituents namely hemicellulose, lignin and essay introduction, cellulose. Pretreatment methods refer to the solubilization and separation of one or more of these components of biomass. It makes the remaining solid biomass more accessible to biology, further chemical or biological treatment (Demirbas, 2005). The lignocellulosic complex is research paper herbal medicine made up of a matrix of cellulose and enzyme coursework, lignin bound by hemicellulose chains. The pretreatment is done to break the matrix in order to reduce the degree of crystallinity of the herbal, cellulose and increase the fraction of amorphous cellulose, the most suitable form for enzymatic attack. Pretreatment is undertaken to bring about a change in the macroscopic and enzyme coursework, microscopic size and structure of biomass as well as submicroscopic structure and chemical composition. It makes the lignocellulosic biomass susceptible to quick hydrolysis with increased yields of monomeric sugars (Mosier et al, 2005). Goals of an effective pretreatment process are formation of sugars directly or subsequently by hydrolysis to avoid loss and/ or degradation of sugars formed to with introduction and conclusion, limit formation of inhibitory products to reduce energy demands and to minimize costs. Physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological treatments are the four fundamental types of pretreatment techniques employed. In general a combination of these processes is used in the pretreatment step.
3.1. Physical pretreatment. Physical pretreatment can increase the coursework, accessible surface area and size of pores, and dissertation, decrease the crystallinity and degrees of polymerization of cellulose. Different types of physical processes such as milling (e.g. ball milling, two-roll milling, hammer milling, colloid milling, and vibro energy milling) and irradiation (e.g. by gamma rays, electron beam or microwaves) can be used to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis or biodegradability of lignocellulosic waste materials. Milling can be employed to alter the inherent ultrastructure of lignocelluloses and biology coursework, degree of crystallinity, and consequently make it more amenable to cellulase (Mais et al, 2002). Milling and size reduction have been applied prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, or even other pretreatment processes with dilute acid, steam or ammonia, on several lignocellulosic waste materials, MSW and broniatowski, activated sludge (Muller et al, 2007). Among the milling processes, colloid mill, fibrillator and dissolver are suitable only for wet materials, e.g. wet paper from domestic waste separation or paper pulps, while the coursework, extruder, roller mill, cryogenic mill and hammer mill are usually used for rubrics, dry materials. Biology Coursework! The ball mill can be used for either dry or wet materials. Grinding with hammer milling of waste paper is nyu stern mba essay a favorable method (Walpot, 1986).
Milling can improve susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis by reducing the size of the materials, and degree of crystallinity of lignocelluloses (Fan et al, 1980) , which improves enzymatic degradation of these materials toward ethanol or biogas. Without any pretreatment, corn stover with sizes of 53’75 ??m was 1.5 times more productive than larger corn stover particles of 425’710 ??m (Zeng et al 2007). Irradiation by coursework, e.g. Essays! gamma rays, electron beam and microwaves can improve enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses. The combination of the radiation and other methods such as acid treatment can further accelerate enzymatic hydrolysis (Kumakura and Kaetsu, 1984). Irradiation has enhanced enzymatic degradation of enzyme biology cellulose into glucose. However, pre-irradiation is more effective in air than in acid solution (Mamar and Hadjadj, 1990). 3.2. Physico-chemical pretreatment. Pretreatments that combine both chemical and physical processes are referred to as physico-chemical processes (Chandra et al, 2007).
3.2.1. Steam explosion (autohydrolysis) Among the mba essay 3, physico-chemical processes, steaming with or without explosion (autohydrolysis) has received substantial attention in pretreatment for both ethanol and biogas production. The pretreatment removes most of the hemicellulose, thus improving the enzymatic digestion. In steam explosion, the pressure is suddenly reduced and makes the materials undergo an explosive decompression.
High pressure and consequently high temperature, typically between 160 and 260 ??C, for coursework, a few seconds (e.g. 30 s) to several minutes (e.g. 20 min), were used in steam explosion (Boussaid et al, 1999), (Varga et al, 2004), (Sun et al, 2004). Book Report! The steam explosion process is well documented and was tested in lab-and pilot processes by several research groups and companies. Its energy cost is relatively moderate, and it satisfies all the requirements of the enzyme biology coursework, pretreatment process. The process of research paper herbal medicine steam explosion was demonstrated on a commercial scale at the Masonite plants. Increase in temperature up to a certain level can effectively release hemicellulosic sugars. However, the sugars loss steadily increases by further increasing the temperature, resulting in a decrease in total sugar recovery (Ruiz et al, 2008).
Special care should be taken in selecting the steam explosion conditions in coursework, order to avoid excessive degradation of the physical and chemical properties of the cellulose. Paper! In very harsh conditions, lower enzymatic digestibility of lignocelluloses may also be observed after steam explosion. For instance, generation of condensation substances between the biology coursework, polymers in steam explosion of broniatowski dissertation wheat straw may lead to a more recalcitrant residue (Sun et al, 2005). 3.2.2. Steam explosion with addition of SO2.
Steam pretreatment can be performed with addition of sulfur dioxide (SO2), while the aim of adding this chemical is to improve recovering both cellulose and biology, hemicellulose fractions. Mba Essay 3! The treatment can be carried out by 1’4% SO2 (w/w substrate) at elevated temperatures, e.g. 160’230 ??C, for a period of enzyme e.g. 10 min (Eklund et al, 1995). 3.2.3. Ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX)
AFEX is one of the alkaline physico-chemical pretreatment processes. Here the biomass is exposed to liquid ammonia at relatively high temperature (e.g. On Human Resource! 90’100 ??C) for enzyme biology, a period of e.g. Short With Introduction Body And Conclusion! 30 min, followed by immediate reduction of pressure. The effective parameters in the AFEX process are ammonia loading, temperature, water loading, blowdown pressure, time, and number of enzyme biology treatments (Holtzapple et al, 1991). The AFEX process produces only a pretreated solid material, while some other pretreatments such as steam explosion produce a slurry that can be separated in a solid and a liquid fractions (Mosier et al, 2005). The AFEX process can either modify or effectively reduce the lignin fraction of the lignocellulosic materials, while the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions may remain intact. Mba Essay! At optimum conditions, AFEX can significantly improve the enzymatic hydrolysis. Enzyme Biology Coursework! The optimum conditions for AFEX depend on the lignocellulosic materials.
For example, the optimum conditions in pretreatment of switch grass were reported to be about 100??C, ammonia loading of 1:1 kg of ammonia per kg of dry matter, and 5 min retention time (Alizadeh et al, 2005). Short Essay Introduction! One of the major advantages of AFEX pretreatment is no formation of some types of inhibitory by-products, which are produced during the other pretreatment methods, such as furans in dilute-acid and steam explosion pretreatment. However, part of phenolic fragments of coursework lignin and other cell wall extractives may remain on the cellulosic surface. Therefore, washing with water might be necessary to remove part of these inhibitory components, although increasing the amount of wastewater from the process (Chundawat et al, 2007. However, there are some disadvantages in using the AFEX process compared to some other processes. AFEX is more effective on the biomass that contains less lignin, and the AFEX pretreatment does not significantly solubilize hemicellulose compared to other pretreatment processes such as dilute-acid pretreatment. Furthermore, ammonia must be recycled after the pretreatment to reduce the dissertation, cost and protect the environment (Eggeman and Elander, 2005), (Sun and Cheng, 2002). 3.2.4.
CO2 explosion. Supercritical carbon dioxide has been considered as an extraction solvent for non-extractive purposes, due to several advantages such as availability at relatively low cost, non-toxicity, non-flammability, easy recovery after extraction, and environmental acceptability (Zheng and Tsao, 1996). Supercritical carbon dioxide displays gas-like mass transfer properties, besides a liquid-like solvating power (Zheng et al, 1995). It was shown that in the presence of water, supercritical CO2 can efficiently improve the enzymatic digestibility of aspen (hardwood) and southern yellow pine (softwood) (Kim and coursework, Hong, 2001). Dissertation! The delignification with carbon dioxide at high pressures can be improved by co-solvents such as ethanol’water or acetic acid’water, and can efficiently increase the lignin removal. Carbon dioxide molecules should be comparable in size to those of water and ammonia, and enzyme, should be able to penetrate small pores accessible to water and ammonia molecules. 3.2.5.
Liquid hot-water pretreatment. Cooking of lignocellulosic materials in liquid hot water (LHW) is one of the hydrothermal pretreatment methods applied for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials since several decades ago in paper herbal, e.g. pulp industries. Enzyme Coursework! Water under high pressure can penetrate into the biomass, hydrate cellulose, and remove hemicellulose and mba essay, part of lignin. The major advantages are no addition of chemicals and coursework, no requirement of corrosion-resistant materials for hydrolysis reactors in this process. The feedstock size reduction is a highly energy-demanding operation for the huge bulk of materials on a commercial scale; there could be no need for size reduction in LHW pretreatment. In addition, the process has a much lower need of broniatowski dissertation chemicals for neutralization of the produced hydrolyzate, and biology, produces lower amounts of neutralization residues compared to many processes such as dilute-acid pretreatment. Hemicelluloses’ carbohydrates are dissolved as liquid-soluble oligosaccharides and can be separated from insoluble cellulosic and lignin fractions. Nyu Stern 3! LHW can enlarge the accessible and susceptible surface area of the cellulose and make it more accessible to enzyme biology coursework, hydrolytic enzymes (Zeng et al, 2007). Pretreatments with steam and LHW are both hydrothermal pretreatments. Paper Herbal Medicine! Higher pentosan recovery and coursework, lower formation of inhibitory components are the main advantages of LHW pretreatment compared to steam explosion. For instance, treating of de-starched corn fiber with hot water at 160 ??C for 20 min dissolved 75% of the essay introduction body, xylan (Dien et al, 2006).
At higher temperatures, e.g. 220 ??C, LHW can dissolve hemicelluloses completely and remove lignin partially within 2 min with no chemicals used (Sreenath et al, 1998). Xylan removal via percolation reactor, or by base addition (adjusting the pH) during the process, has been suggested to reduce the formation of inhibitors such as furfural and degradation of xylose(Laser et al, 2002) . Biology! The pH, processing temperature, and short with introduction body and conclusion, time should be controlled in enzyme biology coursework, order to optimize the enzymatic digestibility by LHW pretreatment. 3! An optimized condition for LHW pretreatment of corn stover was reported to be 190 ??C for 15 min, in which 90% of the cellulose conversion was observed by subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis . LHW pretreatment at 160 ??C and a pH above 4.0 can dissolve 50% of the fibers from corn fibers in enzyme, 20 min (Mosier, 2005). 3.2.6. Microwave oven and electron beam irradiation pretreatment. Pretreatment of paper medicine lignocellulosic biomass in a microwave oven is also a feasible method which uses the high heating ef’ciency of a microwave oven and it is also easy to operate (Bjerre et al, 1996). Microwave treatment utilizes thermal and non-thermal effects generated by biology coursework, microwaves in aqueous environments.
In the thermal method, internal heat is generated in the biomass by microwave radiation, resulting from the vibrations of the with, polar bonds in the biomass and the surrounding aqueous medium. Thus a hot spot is created within the enzyme biology coursework, inhomogeneous material. Thesis On Human Resource! This unique heating feature results in an explosion effect among the particles and enzyme biology, improves the on human, disrup- tion of recalcitrant structures of lignocellulose (Hu and Wen, 2008). Thermal pretreatment provides an biology coursework, acidic environment for autohydrolysis by releasing acetic acid from the lignocellulosic materials. In the non-thermal method, i.e., the electron beam irradiation method, polar bonds vibrate, as they are aligned with a continu- ously changing magnetic ‘eld and the disruption and shock to the polar bonds accelerates chemical, biological and physical processes (Sridar, 1998).
High energy radiation results in more changes in cellulosic biomass including increase of speci’c surface area, decrease of thesis on human resource management degree of polymerization and crystallinity of cellulose, hydrolysis of hemicellulose and partial depolymerization of lignin. 3.3. Coursework! Chemical pretreatment. 3.3.1. Alkaline hydrolysis. Alkaline pretreatment refers to the application of alkaline solutions such as NaOH, Ca(OH)2 (lime) or ammonia to remove lignin and a part of the hemicellulose, and efficiently increase the accessibility of enzyme to the cellulose. The alkaline pretreatment can result in 3, a sharp increase in saccharification, with manifold yields. Biology Coursework! Pretreatment can be performed at low temperatures but with a relatively long time and for argumentative essays, high concentration of the base.
For instance, when soybean straw was soaked in ammonia liquor (10%) for 24 h at coursework room temperature, the nyu stern mba essay 3, hemicellulose and lignin decreased by 41.45% and biology coursework, 30.16% respectively (Xu et al, 2007). However, alkaline pretreatment was shown to be more effective on on human in agricultural residues than on wood materials. 3.3.2. Enzyme Coursework! Alkaline peroxide. Alkaline peroxide is an effective method for pretreatment of biomass. Rubrics For Argumentative! In this method, the lignocelluloses are soaked in pH-adjusted water (e.g. to enzyme coursework, pH 11’12 using NaOH) containing H2O2 at for argumentative room temperatures for a period of time (e.g. 6’24 h). The process can improve the enzymatic hydrolysis by delignification. 3.3.3.
Organosolv process. Organosolv can be used to provide treated cellulose suitable for enzymatic hydrolysis, using an biology, organic or aqueous organic solvent to remove or decompose the network of lignin and possibly a part of the hemicellulose (Curreli et al, 1997). In this process, lignocellulose is mixed with organic liquid and herbal, water and heated to biology coursework, dissolve the lignin and part of the hemicellulose, leaving reactive cellulose in the solid phase. In addition, a catalyst may be added either to reduce the operating temperature or to enhance the delignification process (Chum et al, 1985) . Lignin in the biomass can be extracted from the solvent for e.g. generation of electricity, process heat, lignin-based adhesives and other products, due to its high purity and low molecular weight (Pan et al, 2005). In organosolv pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials, a large number of organic or aqueous-organic solvents at temperatures of 150’200 ??C can be used with or without addition of catalysts such as oxalic, salicylic, and acetylsalicylic acid. Broniatowski Dissertation! Furthermore, the solvent may accompany acetic acid released from enzyme biology, acetyl groups developed by hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. A variety of organic solvents such as alcohols, esters, ketones, glycols, organic acids, phenols, and ethers have been used.
However, the price of solvent and simplicity in recovery of solvent should also be considered. Summary! The applied solvents should be separated by e.g. evaporation and condensation, and enzyme biology, recycled to reduce the dissertation, operational costs of the process. Removal of solvents from the pretreated cellulose is usually necessary because the solvents might be inhibitors to the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation or digestion of hydrolyzate (Sun and Cheng, 2002). 3.3.4. Coursework! Wet oxidation. Wet oxidation has been applied as pretreatment for and conclusion, both ethanol and biogas production. In this process, the materials are treated with water and air or oxygen at temperatures above 120??C (e.g. 148’200??C) for a period of e.g. 30 min (Palonen et al, 2004).
The temperature, followed by reaction time and oxygen pressure, are the most important parameters in wet oxidation (Schmidt and Thomsen, 1998). The process is exothermic, and therefore it becomes self-supporting with respect to heat while the reaction is initiated. Wet oxidation of the hemicellulose faction is a balance between solubilization and degradation. This process is an effective method in separat ing the cellulosic fraction from lignin and hemicellulose. Oxygen participates in enzyme biology, the degradation reactions and allows operation at comparatively reduced temperatures by enhancing generation of organic acids.
However, the control of reactor temperature is critical because of the fast rates of research paper herbal reaction and heat generation. The main reactions in wet oxidation pretreatment are the formation of acids from hydrolytic processes, as well as oxidative reactions. All three fractions of lignocellulosic materials are affected in this process. The hemicelluloses are extensively cleaved to monomeric sugars; the lignins undergo both cleavage and oxidation; and cellulose is partly degraded. The cellulose becomes highly susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis (Schultz et al, 1984).
Similar to many other delignification methods, the lignin produced by wet oxidation cannot be used as a fuel, since a major part of the lignin undergoes both cleavage and oxidation. This phenomenon considerably reduces the income from biology coursework, this by-product at industrial scale for ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials (Galbe and Zacchi, 2002) . Wet oxidation can also be performed by oxidation agents such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Studies showed that the pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide greatly enhanced the susceptibility of cane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis. About 50% of the for argumentative, lignin and most hemicellulose were solubilized by treating the biomass with 2% H2O2 at 30??C within 8 h, giving 95% efficiency of glucose production from cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis. 3.3.5. Ozonolysis pretreatment. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials can be performed by treatment with ozone, referred to enzyme biology coursework, as ‘ozonolysis’ pretreatment.
This method can effectively degrade lignin and broniatowski, part of hemicellulose. Enzyme Biology! The pretreatment is usually carried out at research paper herbal medicine room temperature, and does not lead to inhibitory compounds (Vidal, 1988). However, ozonolysis might be expensive since a large amount of ozone is required (Sun and enzyme biology, Chang, 2002). The main parameters in dissertation, ozonolysis pretreatment are moisture content of the coursework, sample, particle size, and ozone concentration in the gas flow. Among these parameters, an essential factor is the percentage of water in the feed, and it has the most significant effect on the solubilization. The optimum water content was found to broniatowski dissertation, be around 30%, corresponding to the saturation point of the fibers. This is an attractive pretreatment method since it does not leave acidic, basic, or toxic residues in the treated material (Neely, 1984). 3.3.6. Acid hydrolysis pretreatment. Treatment of lignocellulosic materials with acid at a high temperature can efficiently improve the enzymatic hydrolysis.
Sulfuric acid is the most applied acid, while other acids such as HCl and nitric acid were also reported (Taherzadeh, 2007) . The acid pretreatment can operate either under a high temperature and low acid concentration (dilute-acid pretreatment) or under a low temperature and high acid concentration (concentrated-acid pretreatment). The lower operating temperature in concentrated-acid pretreatment (e.g. 40 ??C) is a clear advantage compared to dilute-acid processes. However, high acid concentration (e.g. 30’70%) in the concentrated-acid process makes it extremely corrosive and dangerous. Therefore, this process requires either specialized non-metallic constructions or expensive alloys. The acid recovery, which is necessary in enzyme coursework, the concentrated-acid process for economical reasons, is an energy-demanding process. On the other hand, the neutralization process produces large amounts of gypsum.
The high investment and maintenance costs also reduce the research, commercial interest in this process as a commercial option (Sun et al, 2004). Dilute-acid hydrolysis is probably the most commonly applied method among the chemical pretreatment methods. It can be used either as a pretreatment of lignocellulose for enzymatic hydrolysis, or as the enzyme biology, actual method of hydrolyzing to fermentable sugars. Nyu Stern 3! Different types of reactors such as batch, percolation, plug flow, countercurrent, and shrinking-bed reactors, for either pretreatment or hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials by the dilute-acid processes, have been applied. The major drawback of enzyme coursework some pretreatment methods, particularly at low pH is the for argumentative, formation of different types of enzyme biology coursework inhibitors such as carboxylic acids, furans and broniatowski, phenolic compounds (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). These chemicals may not affect the enzymatic hydrolyses, but they usually inhibit the microbial growth and enzyme, fermentation, which results in less yield and mba essay, productivity of ethanol or biogas. Therefore, the pretreatments at low pH should be selected properly in order to avoid or at enzyme least reduce the formation of these inhibitors. 3.4. Biological pretreatment. Microorganisms can also be used to treat the lignocelluloses and enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. The applied microorganisms usually degrade lignin and hemicellulose but very little part of cellulose, since cellulose is more resistance than the other parts of lignocelluloses to broniatowski, the biological attack.
Several fungi, e.g. brown-, white- and soft-rot fungi, have been used for this purpose. White-rot fungi are among the most effective microorganisms for biological pretreatment of lignocelluloses (Sun and Cheng, 2002). Biological treatments with microorganisms or enzymes are also investigated to improve digestion in biogas production. Enzyme Biology Coursework! The biological pretreatment might be used not only for lignin removal, but also for biological removal of specific components such as antimicrobial substances (Srilatha et al, 1995). Solid-state fermentation of orange peels by nyu stern mba essay 3, fungal strains of Sporotrichum, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillum enhanced the enzyme coursework, availability of feed constituents and reduced the level of the antimicrobial substances. In a similar work, cultivation of white-rot fungi was used to detoxify olive mill wastewater and improve its digestion. Low energy requirement, no chemical requirement, and mild environmental conditions are the main advantages of biological pretreatment. However, the treatment rate is book very low in most biological pretreatment processes (Sun and Cheng, 2002) Table 2. Summary of some bio-deligni’cation processes. Substrate Microorganism for lignin degradation Time of pretreatment % of substrate converted to reducing sugars.
Sugarcane bagasse Pleurotus ostreatus. Phanerochaete sordida; Pycnoporus cinnabarinus 115. Phlebia sp. MG-60 (A marine fungus) 5 weeks. 92% deligni’cation; total reducing sugar. yield 11.26 0.73 mg/g. 71% deligni’cation; total reducing sugar. yield 11.56 0.51 mg/g. 73.6% deligni’cation; Total Reducing sugar.
41% lignin degraded. 4. Enzymatic hydrolysis. Sacchari’cation is the critical step for enzyme biology coursework, bioethanol production where complex carbohydrates are converted to simple monomers. Compared to acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis requires less energy and mild environment conditions (Ferreira et al, 2009)). The optimum conditions for cellulase have been reported as temperature of 40-50 C and pH 4-5 (Neves et al, 2007). Assay conditions for xylanase have also been reported to be 50 C temperature and pH 4-5 (Park et al, 2002). Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis is advantageous because of its low toxicity, low utility cost and short essay introduction and conclusion, low corrosion compared to acid or alkaline hydrolysis (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). Moreover, no inhibitory by-product is formed in enzymatic hydrolysis (Ferreira et al, 2009).
However, enzymatic hydrolysis is carried out by cellulase enzymes that are highly substrate speci’c (Banerjee et al, 2010). Here cellulase and enzyme biology coursework, hemicellulase enzymes cleave the bonds of cellulose and hemicellulose respectively. Cellulose contains glucan and hemicellulose contains different sugar units such as mannan, xylan, glucan, galactan and arabinan. Cellulase enzymes involve endo and exoglucanase and b-glucosidases. Endoglucanase (endo 1,4-D glucanhydrolase or E.C. 188.8.131.52) attacks the low crystallinity regions of the cellulose ‘ber, exoglucanase (1,4-b-D glucan cellobiohydrolase or E.C. Rubrics Essays! 184.108.40.206) removes the cellobiase units from the free chain ends and biology, ‘nally cellobiose units are hydrolysed to glucose by thesis in, b-glucosidase (E.C. 220.127.116.11). Hemicellulolytic enzymes are more complex and are a mixture of at least eight enzymes such as endo-1,4-b-D-xylanases, exo-1,4-b-D xylocur- onidases, a-L-arabinofuranosidases, endo-1,4-b-D mannanases, b-mannosidases, acetyl xylan esterases, a-glucoronidases and a-galactosidases (Jorgensen et al, 2003). Cellulose is hydrolysed to glucose whereas hemicellulose gives rise to several pentoses and hexoses. Biology Coursework! Several species of broniatowski Clostridium, Cellulomonas, Thermonospora, Bacillus, Bac- teriodes, Ruminococcus, Erwinia, Acetovibrio, Microbispora, Strepto- myces are able to produce cellulase enzyme.
Many fungi such as Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Phanerochaete, Humicola, Schizophillum sp. also have been reported for cellulase production. Among the various cellulolytic microbial strains Trichoderma is one of the most well studied cellulase and hemicellulase producing fungal strains (Xu et al, 1998). Trichoderma is able to enzyme, produce at least two cellobiohydrolases and ‘ve endoglucanases and short with and conclusion, three endoxylanases. However, Trichoderma lacks b-glucosidase activity that plays an biology coursework, ef’cient role in polymer conversion. On the other hand, Aspergillus is a very ef’cient b-glucosidase producer. Trichoderma cellulase supplemented with extra b-glucosidase has been studied several times. Combina- tion of Trichoderma reesei ZU-02 cellulase and cellobiase from thesis resource management, Aspergillus niger ZU-07 improved the hydrolysis yield to 81.2% with cellobiase activity enhanced to 10 CBU/g substrate (Chen et al, 2008). Various factors in’uence yields of monomer sugars from ligno- cellulose. Biology Coursework! Temperature, pH and mixing rate are the main factors of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (Olsson et al, 1996).
Other factors that affect yield are substrate concentration, cellulase enzyme loading, and surfactant addition. High substrate concentration may lead to substrate inhibition. Cellulase contributes to the major cost of the lignocellulosic ethanol technology. Therefore, an ef’cient pretreatment is to be selected to decrease cellulose crystallinity and to remove lignin to the maximum extent, so that hydrolysis time as well as cellulase loading will be minimized. Surfactants modify the cellulose surface by adsorbing lignin onto surfactant and thus the surfactant prevents the enzyme from unproductive binding with lignin and research, lowers enzyme loading (Eriksson et al, 2002). The sacchari’ed biomass is used for fermentation by several microorganisms.
But the industrial utilization of lignocelluloses for bioethanol production is coursework hindered by the lack of ideal microor- ganisms which can ef’ciently ferment both pentose and hexose sugars (Talebnia et al, 2010). For a commercially viable ethanol production method, an ideal microorganism should have broad substrate utilization, high ethanol yield and productivity, should have the ability to withstand high concentrations of ethanol and high temperature, should be tolerant to inhibitors present in hydrolysate and thesis, have cellulolytic activity. Genetically modi’ed or engineered microor- ganisms are thus used to achieve complete utilization of the enzyme biology, sugars in the hydrolysate and better production bene’ts. The processes usually employed in the fermentation of ligno- cellulosic hydrolysate are simultaneous sacchari’cation and fermentation (SSF) and separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Conventionally or traditionally the SHF process has been employed but SSF is superior for ethanol production since it can improve ethanol yields by removing end product inhibition and eliminate the need for dissertation, separate reactors.
It is also cost effective but difference in optimum temperature conditions of enzyme for hydrolysis and fermentation poses some limitations (Neves et al, 2007) . Enzyme! The higher ethanol yield coef’cient from SSF would be partially due to more conver- sion of rubrics xylose to xylitol under the SSF conditions (Buaban et al, 2010). A compar- ative study between the two processes (SHF and SSF) is presented in Table 3. Table 3. Comparison between the two main fermentation techniques. Fermentation process Features and advantages Limitations. and fermentation ‘ Low costs. ‘ Higher ethanol yields due to removal of biology end product inhibition of sacchari’cation step. ‘ Reduces the number of reactors required Each step can be processed at its optimal operating conditions. ‘ Separate steps minimize interaction between the for argumentative essays, steps ‘ Difference in optimum temperature conditions of enzyme for hydrolysis and fermentation.
‘ End product inhibition minimizes the yield of ethanol. Chance of contamination due to long period process. Separate hydrolysis and biology, fermentation. Studies have shown that SSF is a better alternative to SHF. The slow xylose consumption during fermentation in SHF may be due to the presence of 3 toxic compounds which inhibit the growth and fermentation activity of the microorganism. The drawback of SSF can be removed by using thermo-tolerant micro- organisms like Kluyveromyces marxianus which has been developed to withstand the biology coursework, higher temperatures needed for enzymatic hydrolysis. Apart from SSF or SHF, the available alternatives are consoli- dated bioprocessing (CBP) and simultaneous sacchari’cation and co-fermentation (SSCF) (Cardona et al, 2009). In CBP, cellulase production, biomass hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation are all together carried out in a single reactor . The process is also known as direct microbial conversion (DMC). Mono- or co-culture of microorganisms is for argumentative generally used to ferment cellulose directly to ethanol.
Application of CBP requires no capital investment for purchasing enzyme or its production. Enzyme Biology! Bacteria such as Clostridium thermocellum and for argumentative essays, some fungi including Neurospora crassa, Fusarium oxysporum and Paecilomyces sp have shown this type of activity. However, CBP is not an ef’cient process because of poor ethanol yields and enzyme biology, long fermentation periods (3-12 days) (Szczodrak and Fiedurek, 1996). In SSCF the co-fermenting microorganisms need to be compatible in terms of operating pH and temperature . A combination of Candida shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reported as suitable for the SSCF process (Neves et al, 2007). Sequential fermentation with two different microor- ganisms in different time periods of the fermentation process for better utilization of sugar has also been employed using S. cerevisiae in the ‘rst phase for book report, hexose utilization and C. shehatae in the second phase for pentose utilization but ethanol yields achieved are not high (Sanchez and Cardona, 2008). Some native or wild type microorganisms used in the fermen- tation are S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Zymomonas mobilis, Pachy- solen tannophilus, C. shehatae, Pichia stipitis, Candida brassicae, Mucor indicus etc. Among all the best known yeast and enzyme biology coursework, bacteria employed in broniatowski dissertation, ethanol production from biology, hexoses are S. On Human Management In! cerevisiae and Z. mobilis respectively . But S. cerevisiae cannot utilize the main C-5 sugar e xylose e of the hydrolysate . Native organisms such as Pichia and Candida species can be used in place of S. cerevisiae and they can utilize xylose but their ethanol production rate is at least ‘vefold lower than that observed with S. cerevisiae . Biology! Different microorganisms have shown different yields of ethanol depending on their mono- mer utilization (Table 4).
Table 4 Ethanol yields from various substrates by broniatowski, various microorganisms. Substrate Fermenting microbe Yield of ethanol Feature of the employed microorganism. Can ferment both glucose and xylose. Utilizes xylose and glucose present. Adapted at increased concentration.
Co-ferment glucose and xylose and. utilizes ethanol in absence of sugar. Ferment only glucose. Ferment glucose ‘rst and enzyme, then. xylose from the summary, mixture. Sugar cane bagasse. Rice straw Pichia stipitis BCC15191. Recombinant Escherichia coli KO11. Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124.
Pichia stipitis A. Candida shehatae NCL-3501. Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124 0.29 0.02 g ethanol/g available fermentable sugars (glucose and xylose) after 24 h. 31.50 g of ethanol/L in enzyme coursework, 48 h equivalent to a theoretical maximum yield of 91.5% 0.35 gp/gs Calculated as ‘nal ethanol. 0.41 gp/gs concentration divided by total sugar in the fermentation medium. 0.45 g/g and 0.5 g/g of sugar utilized produced from thesis management in, autohydrolysate by enzyme biology, free and immobilized cells in 48 h. 0.37 g/g and 0.47 g/g of sugar utilized produced from acid hydrolysate by free and immobilized cells in 48 h. Maximum ethanol production achieved 4 g/L.
Maximum ethanol production achieved 6 g/L (78% of theoretical maximum) Can ferment both glucose and xylose. Utilizes xylose and glucose present in hydrolysates. Adapted at increased concentration of hydrolysate. Co-ferment glucose and xylose and. utilizes ethanol in absence of sugar. Ferment only glucose. Ferment glucose ‘rst and then xylose from the mixture. Genetic engineering has been employed to develop the various aspects of fermentation from broniatowski dissertation, higher yield to better and wide substrate utilization to increased recovery rates. A number of genetically modi’ed microorganisms such as P. Enzyme! stipitis BCC15191 (Buaban et al, 2010) , P. stipitis NRRL Y-7124, recombinant E. coli KO11, C. shehatae NCL-3501 S. Short With Body! cerevisiae ATCC 26603 have been developed.
Strict anaerobic hemophilic bacteria such as Clostridium sp. and enzyme biology, Thermoanaerobacter sp. have been proposed to rubrics essays, explore the bene’ts of fermentation at elevated temperatures. Some other thermo-tolerant microorganisms developed are K. marxianus, Candida lusitanieae and biology, Z. mobilis (Bjerre et al, 1996). Lignocellulosic biomass has been projected to be one of the main resources for economically attractive bioethanol production. Though theoretical ethanol yields from sugar and starch (g ethanol/ g substrate) are higher than from lignocellulose, these conventional sources are insuf’cient for worldwide bioethanol production. In that aspect agricultural wastes are renewable, less costly and abundantly available in nature.
Agricultural wastes do not demand separate land, water, and energy requirements. They do not have food value as well. For economically feasible bioethanol production, several hindrances are to be overcome. These refer to the four major aspects which are feedstock, conversion technology, hydrolysis process, and broniatowski, fermentation con’guration. With regard to feedstock major obstacles are cost, supply, harvesting, and handling. As regards conversion technology the hindrances are biomass pro- cessing, proper and cost effective pretreatment technology to liberate cellulose and hemicellulose from their complex with lignin. In respect of the hydrolysis process the enzyme coursework, challenge is to short essay with, achieve an biology coursework, ef’cient process for depolymerization of essay introduction cellulose and coursework, hemi- cellulose to produce fermentable monomers with high concentra- tion. In this aspect enzymatic hydrolysis may be the most potent alternative process for broniatowski dissertation, sacchari’cation of complex polymer. Several efforts have been made to reduce the cost of cellulase enzyme to enzyme biology coursework, optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis process.
Finally, in case of fermentation con’guration, the challenges involved are xylose and glucose co-fermentation, and mba essay, the use of recombinant microbial strains. In conclusion it may be said that to solve the technology bottlenecks of the conversion process, novel science and ef’cient technology are to enzyme biology coursework, be applied, so that bioethanol production from agricultural wastes may be successfully developed and optimized in the near future. 1. Buffiere P, Loisel D, Bernet N, Delgenes JP. Summary Book! Towards new indicators for enzyme biology, the prediction of solid waste anaerobic digestion properties. Water Sci. Technol. 2006;53:233’241.
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80.  Taherzadeh MJ, Karimi K. Coursework! Acid based hydrolysis processes for short essay with introduction, ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: a review. Bioresources 2007;2(3):472-99. 81. Chandra Prasad Pokhrel, Ram Kailash Prasad Yadav, Shoji Ohga-, Agricultural waste residues as potential sources of bioethanol , Scientific World, Vol. 6, No. 6, July 2008. 82. Lewis SM. Fermentation alcohol. In: Godfrey T, West S, editors. Industrial enzymology.
2nd ed. New York: Stockton Press; 1996. p. Coursework! 12-48. 83. Rubrics Essays! Taherzadeh MJ, Karimi K. Acid based hydrolysis processes for enzyme biology coursework, ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: a review. Bioresources 2007;2(3):472-99. 84. Bjerre AB, Olesen AB, Fernqvist T. Short Introduction And Conclusion! Pretreatment of wheat straw using combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis resulting in enzyme biology coursework, convertible cellulose and hemicellulose. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 1996;49: 568-77. 85. Summary Book Report! Talebnia F, Karakashev D, Angelidaki I. Production of bioethanol from enzyme, wheat straw: an overview on pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation.
Bio- resource Technology 2010;101(13):47, 44-53. 86. Neves MA, Kimura T, Shimizu N, Nakajima M. State of the art and future trends of bioethanol production, dynamic biochemistry, process biotech- nology and molecular biology. Global Science Books; 2007:1-13. 87. Buaban B, Inoue H, Yano S, Tanapongpipat S, Ruanglek V, Champreda V, et al. For Argumentative Essays! Bioethanol production from ball milled bagasse using an coursework, on-site produced fungal enzyme cocktail and xylose-fermenting Pichia stipitis. Journal of Bioscience and resource management in, Bioengineering 2010;110(1):18-25. 88. Enzyme Biology! Lynd LR, van Zyl WH, Mcbride JE, Laser M. Consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass: an summary book report, update.
Current Opinion in Biotechnology 2005;16(5):577-83. 89. Le Journal des ??nergies Renouvelables, 2013. 90. Copyright ?? Clariant International Ltd, Muttenz Switzerland, 1995 ‘ 2012. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Environmental Studies essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in enzyme biology coursework, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to with introduction and conclusion, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Environmental Studies work in your email box, in enzyme coursework, as little as 3 hours.
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