Work experience essay primary school
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Health promotion interventions for work experience essay primary increasing stroke awareness in ethnic minorities: a systematic review of the buy college application essay universal, literature. © Gardois et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014. Stroke places a significant burden to all affected individuals, but it is perhaps more significant amongst members of black, minority and ethnic communities, who may experience poorer awareness of work primary stroke symptoms than the general population. Recently, several initiatives tried to improve public awareness that symptoms of stroke need to be treated as a medical emergency. However, ethnic communities present cultural barriers, requiring tailored health promotion interventions, whose effectiveness remains uncertain. Application Essay. Our systematic review aimed to experience essay identify relevant published evidence, synthesize the main study components and identify evidence of the effectiveness of the nyu stern 3, interventions.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched for journal articles on health promotion interventions for increasing stroke awareness in ethnic minorities, published in English between 1995 and 2012. Search results were collaboratively assessed by the authors; included studies were analysed to identify their main characteristics, and work experience primary, a thematic analysis of application their content was conducted. No meta-analysis was performed, due to work experience school the heterogeneity of results. Eighteen studies were included, reporting 15 interventions conducted in the US, for essay cafeteria African-Americans or Hispanics; populations sizes differed between interventions. Experience School. Interventions were mostly carried out in community settings with different educational techniques, focussing on experiential methods. Health professionals usually organized the programs, delivered by nurses, other health professionals or volunteers. The few theory-based interventions focussed on individual-level behavioural change. Practical cultural adaptation strategies were not linked to specific theoretical frameworks.
Interventions widely differed as for target populations, settings, delivery methods, contents and professional roles involved. All study designs were quantitative, and the emerging evidence of effectiveness was inconclusive. Such interventions operate in essay on university, very complex scenarios, and several variables may influence their effectiveness. Work Experience Primary. Therefore, qualitative or mixed-methods study designs may shed light on barriers and facilitators, experiential education strategies and community involvement. Network- and community-level theories may help improving design and evaluation of interventions. Eleven case reports and buy college essay universal, four RCTs provide evidence about stroke awareness interventions organized in the US. The studies provide only partial and inconclusive evidence about the effectiveness of the interventions.
Hence, further research is needed on different countries and ethnic minorities. The need to increase stroke awareness in black, minority and ethnic communities (BMEs) is work essay primary a difficult, but vital challenge, required to save lives and reduce inequalities. Stroke places a significant burden on BME community members. Custermer. The second highest cause of death in work experience school, the world [ 1 ], stroke in 2004 had a worldwide prevalence of 30.7 million cases, with 9 million new cases every year [ 2 ]. A significant proportion of patients die from essay stroke [ 3 ], and survivors often experience disability or impairment for US data, see [ 4 , 5 ]. Consequently, health system costs resulting from stroke-related deaths and disabilities are high, between 2 and 4% of total expenditure [ 3 , 6 , 7 ]. This significant financial burden is likely to increase in the future since the majority of strokes affects the elderly [ 7 ]. Experience Essay Primary. Studies from the U.S. [ 8 , 9 ] and essay cafeteria, the UK [ 10 , 11 ] suggest that ethnic minorities experience higher stroke risk and incidence and experience essay, worse outcomes in mba essay, comparison to the general population, due to hereditary, environmental, social and health-system factors. Moreover, ethnic minorities experience increased risk of work experience essay pre-hospital delays, and show lower stroke awareness than the describe in the economy essay, general population. Current evidence based management of stroke involves rtPA thrombolysis within three hours from onset [ 12 ]. It is thus imperative that symptoms are recognized early to allow prompt admission to the nearest stroke unit. Nonetheless, very few eligible patients receive the recommended treatment [ 13 , 14 ], mainly because of experience school delayed hospital admission due to pre-hospital delays, i.e. delays occurring from the onset of symptoms to admission [ 15 , 16 ]. Two studies suggests that belonging to on university cafeteria a BME community increases the risk of significant pre-hospital delays [ 16 , 17 ]. In addition to school acting on preventable risk factors [ 18 ], the strategy of increasing stroke awareness has often been employed to reduce pre-hospital delays, both in the general population and in BME communities. A recent review showed that awareness of symptoms of writing stroke is low in experience essay, the general population, and tends to be poorer in ethnic communities [ 19 ]. Consequently, stroke awareness improvement is part of national stroke strategies in different countries [ 20 – 23 ]. Furthermore, a recent review [ 16 ] shows that initiatives to improve awareness that symptoms of uvic mpa thesis stroke need to be treated as a medical emergency have recently been undertaken in experience school, several countries. Such initiatives used different channels and strategies, such as mass media advertisements, community involvement and health education techniques.
They targeted both the general population and at-risk groups, including ethnic minorities. However, the evidence of effectiveness of the custermer writing, initiatives for work essay stroke awareness improvement is on university inconclusive, especially for interventions targeting BME populations. Awareness of primary school stroke symptoms does not automatically translate into the ability to recognize such stroke symptoms in describe the role of business in the economy, a patient [ 24 ]. In particular, no linear relationship emerges between the level of stroke awareness in experience essay school, a community, the application essay, behavioural intent to essay primary call emergency medical services (EMS) when witnessing a stroke, and the reduction of the role economy essay pre-hospital delays [ 25 – 27 ]. Deciding to call the work experience primary school, EMS when witnessing a stroke resembles a collective, network-mediated, community-based decision-making process [ 28 – 30 ]. Therefore, Teuschl Brainin found that educational initiatives improve stroke awareness, but reduced pre-hospital delays are not associated with better stroke awareness [ 16 ]. Ethnic communities include a high concentration of at-risk individuals, and present cultural barriers to the uptake of 3 stroke awareness messages, requiring community-based and culturally tailored health promotion interventions [ 31 , 32 ]. Work Experience Essay. For example, in custermer writing, the UK the effect of mass media campaigns such as F.A.S.T. a [ 33 ] on BME community members seems to be limited [ 34 , 35 ]. Thisprompted the UK National Audit Office to state that The Department [of Health] (…) should consider particularly how to work primary engage with groups at on university cafeteria higher risk of stroke, such as people of Afro-Caribbean and South Asian ethnicity [ 36 ]. Finally, recent contributions have tried to define the cultural appropriateness of interventions and the main principles for conducting research in work, ethnicity and health [ 37 – 39 ]. It is therefore critical to understand which health promotion interventions have been carried out to increase awareness of stroke symptoms and adequate response in BME communities, and whether there is evidence to demonstrate their effectiveness. Consequently, we decided to review the literature to establish the main characteristics of health promotion interventions directed towards increasing awareness of stroke symptoms and appropriate response (i.e., calling EMS) in uvic mpa thesis, BME communities. Additionally, we assessed the evidence of experience their effectiveness.
To answer our research questions, we undertook a systematic review of the literature. We aimed to nyu stern mba essay retrieve all studies describing health promotion interventions designed for increasing awareness of stroke symptoms and appropriate response (i.e., calling EMS) in BME communities. We also decided to map the main study components and to identify any evidence of effectiveness of the described interventions. This section describes the search strategy, inclusion and exclusion criteria for identified articles, the work experience primary school, process of application essay universal article selection and essay primary school, the process of cafeteria data analysis and synthesis. Our review had the following objectives: identifying relevant published evidence; selecting studies according to rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria; synthesizing the experience primary, main components of included studies; identifying evidence of the effectiveness of the described interventions, if any. The PRISMA checklist [ 40 ] was used as a guide to custermer report the results of the review. Search, screening and experience essay primary, selection strategy. Search strings used in the Pubmed database. (Stroke[Mesh] AND (knowledge OR (warning sign OR warning signs) OR recognition OR awareness) Limits: Humans, English, Publication Date from buy college application universal 1996) (stroke AND (knowledge OR (warning sign OR warning signs) OR recognition OR awareness) AND (2011/07/15[Date - Entrez] : 3000 [Date - Entrez])) The string matched our inclusion and exclusion criteria (see below), and work essay, it was agreed upon by all authors, following pilot searches that combined different permutations of mba essay terms. The second and third steps in the search strategy were directed at identifying In-Process articles included in the database in the six months prior to the search, which would be lost if using only the first step in the strategy.
The first author performed the same search, with the necessary adaptations, in the other three databases. Only studies describing one or more health promotion interventions aimed at increasing awareness of stroke symptoms, warning signs and appropriate response (i.e., calling EMS) in BME communities were eligible for inclusion. We defined BME communities as any ethnic minority community in any country. Consequently, any intervention whose target audience was composed of at least 50% BME community members was eligible for work essay primary school inclusion. We included interventions if they targeted either the general population of BME communities, or specific subcategories, e.g. Essay. students, parents, the elderly or stroke survivors. However, we excluded articles describing health interventions only aimed at health professionals or lay health workers, including health champions (i.e. community members trained in health promotion), advisers or community health workers. We also included studies if stroke awareness was not the sole aim of the reported interventions. For example, some articles related to interventions concerning stroke risk factors in addition to stroke awareness, while others concerned knowledge of cardiovascular diseases or diabetes alongside stroke awareness itself.
We excluded studies identifying barriers, facilitators, or specific attitudes and needs of potential targets of stroke awareness interventions, and work experience primary, studies identifying theoretical issues not related to data emerging from health promotion interventions. Interventions conducted with any health promotion technique were eligible, either based on explicit behavioural change theories or not. We did not exclude any article because of the study design. However, we only included refereed articles since they usually represent the most updated and highest-quality literature on health promotion, in comparison to uvic mpa thesis other scientific contributions (e.g.: books, conference proceedings, dissertations, etc.). We only included articles in essay primary school, English for practical reasons relating to non-availability of essay translation services. In addition, we considered eligible for inclusion only articles published from 1996, since the first trial showing effectiveness and safety of experience essay rtPA for stroke treatment if administered within three hours of onset of symptoms was published in December 1995 [ 41 ]. It is essay cafeteria therefore assumed that this trial would only have had an impact on health promotion interventions after 1995. Characteristics of work experience essay primary school populations targeted by the interventions.
Target ethnic groups. Hispanics; African Americans. Survivors (stroke and TIA) Survivors (stroke and TIA) Duraski 2003 [ 48 ]; Duraski 2006 [ 49 ] Children and young adults (aged 9–26) Parishioners of African-American churches.
African Americans; Hispanics. Individuals taking part in church activities. Patients at nyu stern mba essay 3 risk for stroke. Morgenstern 2007 [ 56 ]; Gonzales 2007 [ 52 ]; Mullen Conley 2010 [ 29 ] Middle school students and work essay, their parents. African Americans; Hispanics. Women aged 40 years. Hispanics; African Americans. Students aged 9-11.
African Americans; Hispanics. Parents of primary school children. Members of an essay cafeteria Afro-American church. Outcomes and work, study design of selected studies. Reported effectiveness a. Boden Albala 2010 [ 44 ] Randomized controlled trial (RCT) Article reports only on protocol and baseline. Article reports only on uvic mpa thesis, protocol and baseline. Article reports only on work experience school, protocol and baseline. Article reports only on protocol and baseline. Duraski 2006 [ 49 ]; Duraski 2003 [ 48 ] Case study (repeated measures design with 3 groups)
No effectiveness for treatment seeking behaviour (call EMS); unknown effectiveness for nyu stern mba essay knowledge of essay stroke symptoms. Morgenstern 2007 [ 56 ]; Gonzales 2007 [ 52 ]; Mullen Conley 2010 [ 29 ] Yes for uvic mpa thesis children; unknown for parents. None (only for outcomes other than stroke symptoms) a Effectiveness of an intervention refers to its ability to essay improve the knowledge of stroke symptoms and the intention to call 999 in target populations. Intervention type, focus, duration and uvic mpa thesis, setting. Duration of work experience primary school intervention. • Two sessions about stroke education. 2 brief sessions within 3 weeks of stroke/TIA onset.
Hospital or home. • Stroke education program (video) Single, brief session. • Educational materials to take home. • Blood pressure screening and referral. • Community centers, and business plan center, community organizations • Stroke navigators visiting patients. Advice sessions over one year. Duraski 2006 [ 49 ]; Duraski 2003 [ 48 ] • Short slide presentation. Community centres and community organizations.
• Stroke risk assessment screening. • Focus group session. 30 to work 60 minutes. • Cardiovascular diseases and stroke education sessions. About 2 hours for each intervention. • Integration with Bible study, individual counselling, healthy food. • Educational sessions, distribution of educational package to buy college ambassadors Various, depending on experience primary, specific interventions.
Faith-based institutions, churches. • Educational activities by uvic mpa thesis ambassadors in churches, e.g. by experience essay brochures, videos, posters. • Trained beauticians educated their customers. A session at the beauty salon. • Distribution of stroke-related study packets.
• Education about knowledge of stroke symptoms and modifiable stroke risk factors. 1-hour initial educational intervention:15’ follow-up. Medical practice (some follow-ups at of business in the economy home). Morgenstern 2007 [ 56 ]; Gonzales 2007 [ 52 ]; Mullen Conley 2010 [ 29 ] • Lessons to experience school children about uvic mpa thesis, stroke signs and symptoms and to improve skills, self-efficacy and behaviour. • Four 50-minute classes each year for three years. School and home. • Parents were taught about stroke by their children as homework assignment. • homework with parents at home.
12-14 counselling sessions, (only a minority on stroke awareness) Various faith-based, academic and essay primary, non-academic sites. • Health demonstrations, video presentations, personal testimonies, medical screenings. • Culturally and age-appropriate music and dance to business enhance an interactive didactic curriculum including the FAST mnemonic 1-hour sessions over 3 consecutive days.
• Stroke communication intervention. Short (not quantified) • Shared completion of stroke-related homework between children and essay school, parents. Interventions over two years. A rural African American church. • Health screenings and weight watchers program. • Integration with faith-based activities. Health professionals, theories and application universal, cultural adaptation of interventions. • Two health educators. • Social cognitive theory. • Bilingual materials with translation by community health worker.
• 1 physician or nurse. • Visuals integrating community places. • Film footage of community stroke survivors recalling stroke experiences in their own language. • Integration and instructions for current community resources. • Conversations about barriers such as mistrust of the health care system. • A community committee evaluated cultural appropriateness of the intervention. • Involvement of local stroke support group. • African American actors instructed by Stroke Association. • Video produced by the American Heart Association, with African-American actors. • Trained college students acting as health champions.
• Social cognitive theory. • Generic mention that the presentations were culturally sensitive. • Stages of change. • Lay community health workers. • Theory of work experience reasoned action. • Usage of American Heart Association’s tailored educational materials. • theory of planned behaviour. • Provision of tailored health education. Duraski 2006 [ 49 ]; Duraski 2003 [ 48 ] • Presentation developed for custermer writing the Hispanic culture. • Emphasis on risk factors affecting the Hispanic community. • Information was not literally translated to Spanish.
• Verbal/written educational materials in Spanish about stroke warning signs/symptoms. • Focus groups with communities to ensure appropriateness of experience school presentation. • Option to have focus groups in Spanish or English. • Culturally sensitive information, not simply translated from English to mba essay 3 Spanish. • Stages of change. Morgenstern 2007 [ 56 ]; Gonzales 2007 [ 52 ]; Mullen Conley 2010 [ 59 ] • Social cognitive theory. • Culturally sensitive strategy developed through a focus group with parents, students and teachers. • Aspects of Mexican-American culture included inclusion of Mexican American health professionals in design. • KIDS project health professionals. • Focus groups with local students, parents and teachers;.bilingual materials. • Stages of change.
• Culturally appropriate health education curriculum and materials. • Physical exercise and other health professionals • Two stroke education professionals. • 2 community health professionals. • Children administered the intervention. • Theory of reasoned action. • Rap and hip-hop (songs and dance) • Social cognitive theory (self-efficacy) Given the essay primary, heterogeneity of the included study designs, a quantitative meta-analysis of results would not be possible. Data emerging from the analysis of the identified variables have therefore been aggregated and uvic mpa thesis, described in terms of the three identified elements of the research question (population, intervention and outcomes/study design). In addition, to obtain insights from the data, the first author also read in depth the selected articles, and performed a thematic analysis of the work, main emerging topics [ 43 ]. Such topics were either used to integrate and clarify the uvic mpa thesis, meaning of variables included in work experience essay school, the tables, or to explore further dimensions of the interventions.
PRISMA 2009 flow diagram representing the uvic mpa thesis, selection process. The searches in the four databases yielded 7549 references, included in a database using the reference management software Endnote X2 by Thomson Reuters. Thereafter, automatic deduplication of results was performed, followed by work experience a manual check of all remaining references. We identified 1812 items as duplicates, while the remaining 5737 articles represented the for fitness center, initial dataset on which the work, selection was performed. According to our selection criteria, we subsequently excluded 602 references, as they were not journal articles or were published in languages other than English. We therefore conducted the writing, screening on work experience essay primary, 5135 references. In this phase, the plan center, first author screened the title of work essay each reference to verify if it matched the inclusion criteria. Cases of uncertainty were resolved by reading the abstract, if available. The first author resolved doubts and interpretive difficulties by essay on university discussing specific cases and criteria with all other authors. To validate the work experience school, process, two other authors (AB and EG), blinded and uvic mpa thesis, following the same procedures, screened 515 randomly selected references (10% of the dataset). Hence, 20% of the dataset was screened by at least two researchers: the results showed a uniform application of the screening methods.
At the work school, end of the screening process, 5015 articles were excluded, according to exclusion and inclusion criteria. Consequently, we thoroughly assessed for eligibility 120 articles, using the abstract and, in case of uncertainty, the full text. For each review identified during the eligibility assessment process, all relevant references were checked and added to the list of business plan articles to be checked for eligibility, if not previously identified by the search strategy. Furthermore, we assessed for eligibility all citations from the included articles that had not been included in the search results. This step allowed for work primary further inclusion of 21 articles. In total, 141 full text articles were assessed for eligibility. Eighteen matched the buy college essay, inclusion and work experience, exclusion criteria and were included in the review [ 29 , 44 – 60 ]. However, in some cases, more than one article reported the results of the same study, referred to different stages of the custermer writing, study. An intervention named KIDS – Kids identifying and essay primary, defeating stroke was reported in three articles [ 29 , 52 , 56 ]. Plan For Fitness Center. A stroke prevention and work primary school, awareness intervention for essay universal the Hispanic community in work primary, the Chicago area was reported in two articles [ 48 , 49 ]. Business Plan For Fitness. Hip-hop stroke, which was the work essay school, topic of two articles [ 58 , 59 ], described two entirely distinct phases of the intervention, targeted at describe the role of business in the economy essay different segments of the community and administered by different actors.
Hence, they were considered as two different interventions. The total number of interventions found in the literature amounts to 15 studies, reported in experience, 18 articles. Search and selection results also confirmed that no review was available on the role in the economy essay, the topic: consequently, we classified all included articles as primary studies. Results of the analysis are described in three synoptic tables, organized according to work essay school the P.I.C.O.S. framework, often used in systematic reviews of medical literature [ 40 , 61 , 62 ]. The acronym outlines the five main dimensions of writing a research question for a systematic review – population, intervention, comparison, outcome and study design. Work Experience Essay School. Here, we did not consider comparison, since a number of interventions did not use specific comparators: accordingly, the three tables contain a synoptic description of items referring to on university cafeteria population, intervention and outcomes. Experience Essay. In the uvic mpa thesis, tables, studies are identified by the name of the first author followed by essay school the publication year. The complete reference is available in the final reference list. Two rows contain more than one study, since the buy college application essay universal, results of more than one article were aggregated when they reported on work essay primary, the same intervention. Specific ethnic minorities, age of subjects and population sizes. Table 2 displays the main characteristics of the describe the role of business essay, populations targeted by the interventions. Since all interventions took place in the US, African Americans were the most represented ethnic group, targeted by 80% of interventions, followed by Hispanics (or Mexican Americans), targeted by 53% of interventions.
No other ethnic group was represented. Most interventions were designed for groups, while 33% were delivered to individuals. However, such a distinction is sometimes difficult to establish, since in experience primary, some interventions designed for groups individuals received considerable attention (e.g. by buy college essay screening, individual counselling after the work school, session, etc.) [e.g. [ 49 , 51 ]. Buy College Essay. No intervention targeted communities as a whole. As for the specific population within the target ethnic groups, only 20% of interventions were targeted at either stroke or TIA patients or patients at risk for primary stroke. Uvic Mpa Thesis. Another 20% of the interventions were delivered to the general population of essay primary a specific geographical area or community, while 60% were targeted at specific subgroups, such as church members, women, students and parents. Uvic Mpa Thesis. Most interventions were targeted at adults (over 18 years of age), with only a few exceptions [ 50 , 56 , 58 ]. Work Experience Primary School. Further, population size proved difficult to calculate. To obtain a rough estimate, we classified the intervention as small if it involved less than 100 participants, medium if 101–500 participants were involved, and large in cases of more than 500 participants. According to this criterion, seven interventions were medium, three small and five large.
However, evaluation may have concerned a smaller number of participants for each intervention, since not all enrolled individuals have taken part in the evaluation. Table 3 describes the outcomes and mba essay, study design of included studies. All interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and behavioural intention, while no intervention was specifically designed to target and measure real behavioural change directed to call EMS when witnessing a stroke. Sixty-seven per cent of primary school studies had an experimental design and provided some form of evaluation, while 33% of studies did not provide any evaluation [ 46 , 50 , 53 , 57 , 60 ]. However, only a minority of studies (27%) employed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design [ 29 , 45 , 47 ], all the others being case studies. For the evaluation, eight studies used pre- and post-intervention tests [ 29 , 45 , 49 , 51 , 54 , 55 , 58 , 59 ], and two were only preliminary reports, lacking evaluation data [ 44 , 47 ]. Of the eight studies providing evaluation results, six were case studies [ 49 , 51 , 54 , 55 , 58 , 59 ] and two RCTs [ 29 , 45 ]. Both case studies and RCTs referred to business plan center very different populations, interventions and outcomes. Due to this heterogeneity (as evidenced by the synoptic tables), no quantitative synthesis of results was possible. Two studies reported that the experience primary, intervention was not effective [ 51 , 55 ]. Nyu Stern Mba Essay 3. The six studies reporting that the intervention was effective [ 45 , 49 , 53 , 56 , 58 , 59 ] raise some methodological concerns. Morgenstern et al. Experience Essay Primary School. [ 56 ] found the essay on university, intervention effective only for a subgroup of the school, target population (school children), while insufficient data were available to establish the effectiveness of the intervention for the other subgroup (parents).
Additionally, the pre- and post-intervention test was not validated. In two cases, reported in three articles [ 45 , 48 , 49 ], the the role of business, difference between pre- and post-intervention test results was minimal, although statistically significant. Finally, Duraski’s study [ 49 ] had no control group. The lack of a control group also characterizes the other three studies claiming effectiveness for the described interventions [ 54 , 58 , 59 ]. Evidence of experience effectiveness exists in all six studies for specific outcomes in specific populations (e.g. a moderate increase in the knowledge of stroke symptoms maintained over a short time). Uvic Mpa Thesis. However, no generalizable evidence of work effectiveness exists for health promotion interventions aimed at improving knowledge of essay stroke symptoms and related actions in primary school, BME communities.
All included studies used only quantitative methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions, thus excluding both qualitative and mixed methods designs. Interventions: country, focus and business plan center, delivery techniques. Tables 4 and 5 summarize the most important dimensions of the health promotion interventions described in the selected articles. Firstly, all interventions were carried out in the United States. Consequently, all data concern a specific context, and work experience, no data on other relevant areas such as Europe, the Far East or Australia is available. Cafeteria. All interventions included at primary least a component relating to awareness of stroke symptoms and related actions.
Forty percent were mostly focussed on on university, awareness, 33% had a shared focus between awareness and prevention or risk factors, while 27% were focussed on prevention or risk factors, with only few activities on awareness of experience symptoms. The interventions were delivered using very different techniques; also, sessions had different active components, ranging from educational videos [ 44 , 45 , 53 , 57 ] to very informal, one-to-one advice sessions [ 47 , 49 , 54 ]. Educational sessions prevail, either in the form of lessons [ 44 , 51 , 57 , 60 ], slide presentations [ 46 , 49 , 50 ] or classroom lectures [ 56 , 58 ]. Often, such sessions were interactive, allowing for the exchange of questions and answers between health promoters and the audience, and occasional role playing [ 44 , 49 , 50 , 54 , 58 ]. Five interventions also included distribution of informative materials about stroke, and in some interventions these materials were meant to be shared with families and friends [ 46 , 53 , 54 , 56 , 59 ]. For further details, see Table 3 , column intervention type. Duration of custermer interventions, settings and actors involved. Interventions administered in a single session of information and work experience essay primary, advice were generally brief, lasting between 30 minutes and two hours. In some interventions, sessions were repeated over weeks, months or even years, frequently covering different stroke-related topics for the same audience [ 44 , 47 , 55 – 58 , 60 ]. Of Business. Interventions were delivered in primary school, a range of different settings.
Interventions aimed at patients were held either at their homes, or in hospitals or medical practices [ 44 , 45 , 47 , 55 ]. Interventions designed for the general population or specific subgroups were generally organized where the target populations used to meet or convene. Hence, churches were used for describe the role of business in the economy church members [ 46 , 51 , 53 , 57 , 60 ], schools for students [ 56 , 58 ], community centres and organizations [ 46 , 49 ], hospitals and medical practices [ 53 ] and one intervention was held in abeauty salon [ 54 ]. Actors designing and delivering the interventions varied widely. Forty-seven percent of interventions were delivered by multiprofessional groups, while 53% were delivered by a single profession. Health professionals, in most cases with an academic affiliation, organized and designed the programs. Interventions were delivered by nurses, research nurses and nursing students [ 44 , 49 – 51 , 55 , 57 , 60 ], trained health champions or ambassadors (students, church members, beauticians) [ 46 , 47 , 53 , 54 , 59 ], health educators and other community health workers [ 44 , 47 , 58 ], physicians [ 56 , 57 ].
Theories underpinning interventions and work experience primary, techniques for cultural adaptation. We explored the mba essay, extent to which the interventions were theory-based, and whether they provided clear definitions of experience essay school cultural adaptation. Business For Fitness Center. Fifty-three percent of studies [ 45 , 49 – 51 , 53 , 54 , 58 , 60 ] did not mention the utilization of any theory to experience essay primary school design and evaluate the intervention. The Role Of Business In The Economy Essay. As for the remaining studies it is difficult to define them as theory-based, since theories were only briefly mentioned, and no clear link with the factual content of the health promotion program was established. Four studies [ 44 , 46 , 56 , 58 ] mentioned social cognitive theory [ 63 ], three [ 44 , 47 , 55 ] motivational interviewing [ 64 ], three more [ 46 , 55 , 57 ] stages of work essay school change [ 65 ], two [ 47 , 58 ] theory of reasoned action see also [ 66 , 67 ], one [ 47 ] theory of planned behaviour [ 68 ]. All are individual-level, theoretical frameworks, mostly informed by psychology. Further, in most cases theories were used as a reference for stroke risk and prevention, and only in three instances [ 44 , 56 , 59 ] for essay on university cafeteria the component of the primary school, intervention addressing stroke symptoms and essay, related actions. As for cultural adaptation of interventions, as many as 33% of the studies did not mention any specific strategy; two further studies [ 46 , 47 ] simply referred generically to cultural tailoring or cultural sensitivity of the interventions. The remaining studies reported in some detail their cultural adaptation strategy.
These included different tactics and practical actions. Work Experience School. Four programs [ 44 , 49 , 50 , 56 ] adopted of languages spoken by ethnic minorities for materials and events (especially for Hispanic communities), or used a language corresponding to the level of health literacy of community members. Three interventions [ 44 , 49 , 56 ] incorporated the point of view and specific issues of uvic mpa thesis communities through focus groups or committees of work school community actors or workers in planning and implementation, early feedback, or community involvement. In two of these studies [ 44 , 56 ], community members were included in the intervention team. A related strategy was to buy college application universal include community-based role models as actors, artists or testimonials, and to use visuals integrating community places or surroundings [ 44 , 45 , 56 , 58 , 59 ]. Moreover, two studies [ 44 , 49 ] reported addressing community-specific barriers to essay primary behaviour change, and custermer, specific health beliefs and risk factors.
Some consideration was also given to the social structure of communities, with related roles and cultural characteristics. Familism, family structures and intergenerational contact were taken into account [ 56 ] and dance and hip-hop were used to work experience essay primary convey the health promotion message [ 58 , 59 ]. None of these studies referred to writing general frameworks or models of essay primary school cultural adaptation, theories of uvic mpa thesis ethnicity, and the like, the approach being mostly practical. Consequently, no common definition of cultural competence or adaptation emerged from the primary school, included studies. Writing. Moreover, no study included a specific justification of the experience essay school, reason why some specific cultural traits had been selected as typical of custermer writing that particular community.
Barriers and facilitators for the success of interventions. No study aimed at systematically identifying barriers and facilitators for work primary the success of the interventions, hence comments on such a topic were occasional. Only the importance of funding and continuity of the program over buy college time was identified as a facilitator in work school, 27% of the studies [ 46 , 51 , 57 , 60 ]. Other facilitators included the uvic mpa thesis, involvement of work primary school gatekeepers of the venues where the the role in the economy essay, interventions took place [ 51 , 54 , 60 ], providing transportation [ 44 , 47 , 48 ] and financial incentives or gifts [ 29 ] and work essay primary, using reminders to increase participation [ 52 ]. Describe Economy Essay. Moreover, using small groups in interventions [ 51 ], combining a captive audience and a trusted educator [ 54 ] and giving participants individual attention [ 51 ] seemed to facilitate participation in some of the interventions. Conversely, barriers included time demands on work experience primary, gatekeepers, health professionals and coordinators [ 57 ] and the young age of some prospective participants, not perceiving stroke prevention as a priority [ 29 ]. Community involvement: strategies and problems. All studies except two [ 50 , 55 ] outlined strategies to involve communities and ensure their buy-in of the intervention.
Such strategies were generally time-consuming and required considerable resources. Mba Essay 3. Examples included the work essay primary, use of committees of advocates, gatekeepers and community members, to obtain advice on community involvement, program content and delivery techniques and channels and on the final evaluation. Focus groups were adopted for this purpose, alongside brief pilot interventions involving community members [ 44 , 49 , 52 , 59 ]. Particular care was taken in identifying community gatekeepers to help or take the lead in organizing sessions [ 48 , 51 , 54 , 57 , 60 ], while some interventions explicitly adopted a train-the trainer approach [ 46 , 47 , 53 , 54 , 57 , 60 ]. In this case, health professionals and campaigners provided stroke education to specific members of the community, such as school children, pastors, beauticians, who, in turn, played a relevant part in educating parents, customers or church attendants. In the of business essay, case of a particularly sizeable and structured program, the whole organization of experience sessions in a community site (association, church, etc.) was devolved to previously instructed local leaders [ 57 ]. Other involvement strategies included fostering flexibility and community creativity [ 52 , 57 ], using community-based health professionals [ 29 , 57 ], and adopting multi-channel involvement strategies (word of buy college universal mouth, gatekeepers, web site, advertising, community association meetings) [ 29 , 57 ]. No intervention was aimed at specific social networks within communities. When sizeable groups were targeted, the main objective was still to increase the primary, knowledge of individuals within the groups, without consideration for universal community or social network dynamics.
Six of the included articles made passing mention of social networks or social support [ 45 , 52 , 56 , 57 , 59 , 60 ]. Experience Essay. Some studies mentioned the on university, importance of experience primary school using schoolchildren as trainers for their parents, regarding stroke knowledge, and underlined the related difficulties [ 56 , 59 ]. The Role Economy. Others generically mentioned the importance of improving stroke knowledge of relatives and other members of the support networks for stroke patients [ 45 , 52 ]. The most complex intervention stressed both the importance and the difficulty of coordinating networks of work essay school different organizations involved [ 57 ]. Uvic Mpa Thesis. In the same study social ties and work primary school, networks were used to recruit participants for the intervention, and to plan, test and implement it. Collaboration between networked actors with different roles was highlighted as important for custermer the success of a further intervention [ 60 ]. However, none of the interventions put in place a systematic strategy for tapping social networks and primary, social support resources. Educational strategies adopted in the interventions. Ten studies emphasized the value of active, interactive and experiential education strategies, but only some of these provided details of the educational methods. Small groups [ 29 , 57 ], role-plays and enactment of scenarios by participants [ 29 , 44 , 59 ], encouraging flexible discussion of writing stroke awareness [ 29 , 44 , 56 – 58 ], enabling self-efficacy [ 29 , 52 , 56 ] and interactive multimedia resources [ 29 , 52 , 56 , 58 ] were the most frequently cited methods. Work Experience School. Exercises and assignments were used to promote involvement of participants in custermer writing, producing health promotion materials and work experience school, spreading the message to their families [ 29 , 52 , 56 , 57 , 59 ]. Describe Of Business In The Essay. Arts and music were also employed to involve community members in the educational activities, together with promoting the creativity of participants [ 29 , 52 , 56 , 58 , 59 ]. In long interventions [ 29 , 52 , 56 – 60 ], different methods were linked to each other and work experience primary school, produced positive feedback. For example, in one circumstance, students interviewed their parents on stroke awareness and then produced information materials accordingly [ 29 , 56 ]. Community-based health promotion (CBHP) interventions are usually considered complex and difficult to plan, perform, and evaluate. Nyu Stern Mba Essay. This is due to the high number of variables involved, including complex behavioural factors, the primary school, influence of culture and custermer, norms on work primary school, health behaviours and the simultaneous presence of several health promotion interventions [ 69 , 70 ]. This difficulty is plan center clearly revealed by work experience primary school the studies included in business plan center, our review.
Firstly, even in a relatively homogeneous context of community-based health promotion interventions aimed at African Americans or Hispanics living in the US, planning and work essay school, evaluation methods differed significantly. There is growing recognition that the design and evaluation of health promotion interventions need to be informed by theory [ 71 – 73 ]. Business For Fitness Center. However, theory-based health promotion interventions were in the minority in work essay primary, the sample used for our review. Consequently, clearly specifying the theoretical foundations of the design and evaluation methods of an application universal intervention may considerably improve its implementation. Moreover, theories used in the included studies focussed on the individual level, while six studies have recently showed that community- and network-level theories may prove effective in designing and evaluating community-based health promotion interventions [ 74 – 79 ]. Hence, using community- or network-oriented theories may help health promoters to work experience essay primary school systematically take into nyu stern mba essay account dimensions of an work experience intervention that could have a significant impact on describe the role economy, its effectiveness. Furthermore, no evidence was available for work European countries, where minorities show cultural and social characteristics directly influencing health-related attitudes differing from US minorities.
For example, Scheppers et al. [ 80 ] show that ethnic minorities experience a number of barriers to accessing health services, frequently linked with particular cultural, religious or social practices. Such practices are different between ethnic minorities: for custermer writing example, UK Pakistanis and work essay, US African-Americans are likely to universal have very different health beliefs and ill health-attribution. Scheppers et al. Work Experience School. also maintain [ 80 ], that the organization of health services in different countries plays an important contextual role in shaping health-related attitudes of ethnic minorities. Mba Essay 3. Also, studies concerning the definition of work experience essay cultural competence often emphasize the importance of nyu stern 3 specific, contextual aspects, rather than abstract definitions of ethnicity, in order to successfully conduct health promotion and health care initiatives [ 38 , 81 ]. Therefore, specific key factors (perception of work experience primary health and illness, language, available community resources, specific barriers and facilitators) may greatly differ between different ethnic minorities living in different countries. For all these reasons, it seems difficult to generalize any results from the included studies to the UK or European situation. Universal. It would, however, be important to note that further research related to stroke awareness improvement is aimed at addressing non-US based ethnic minorities. Although in most studies cultural adaptation was considered as important, cultural adaptation was almost always linked to practical or pragmatic strategies. Consequently, no intervention took into account the recent contributions that tried to define cultural appropriateness of experience essay school interventions and the main principles for conducting research on ethnicity and health [ 37 – 39 ]. Consequently, using theory and data from this specific literature may help in uvic mpa thesis, designing interventions that are more congruent with specific characteristics of ethnic minorities. Furthermore, the experience essay, evidence of effectiveness emerging from the custermer, included studies is experience primary inconclusive. Fifty-three percent of the studies provided evaluation results, and only 25% of these included a control group.
As a result, current available evidence of the effectiveness of business plan such interventions seems inconclusive. Work Primary School. In addition, no qualitative study satisfied our inclusion criteria. While acknowledging the importance of writing quantitative evidence, it seems that integrating a qualitative approach would be appropriate for complex health promotion interventions. In fact, such interventions involve different variables such as ethnicity, knowledge and work primary school, behaviour change, and - most importantly – their success seems to heavily depend on complex contextual factors. Qualitative research is often advocated as an appropriate method in evaluating health promotion interventions [ 82 , 83 ] especially because it can provide an on university cafeteria holistic perspective [ 84 , 85 ]. Qualitative research may therefore explore this under-researched topic and identify dimensions influencing the work experience, effectiveness of stroke awareness interventions for ethnic minorities. To the uvic mpa thesis, best of essay primary our knowledge, this was the first systematic review to date on of business economy, health promotion interventions for stroke awareness in ethnic minorities.
The results outline the main characteristics of stroke awareness interventions for ethnic minorities in the US, alongside strength and limitations of work experience primary both the interventions and the evaluation procedures. Review findings may therefore provide a useful starting point for academics and practitioners wishing to further analyse or plan similar health promotion initiatives in other parts of the 3, world. Limitations include the fact that searches were restricted to peer-reviewed journal literature written in the English language. Although we searched the most relevant databases, broadening the work experience, search to business plan supplementary sources and including more languages may increase the number of retrieved studies. The same results might be obtained by work school the inclusion of conference proceedings, dissertations, books and book chapters and grey literature results.
Implications for further research. Since cultural adaptation seems important in this context, there is a critical need for studies on health promotion interventions for stroke awareness in ethnic minorities other than African Americans and Hispanics. Furthermore, such interventions operate in essay, very complex scenarios, and several variables may have an impact on essay primary, their effectiveness. Qualitative or mixed-methods study designs may help to nyu stern mba essay understand contextual factors influencing community-based health promotion, including barriers and facilitators, experiential education strategies and methods for involving communities. Finally, network- and community-level health promotion theories may contribute useful insights both in designing and evaluating health promotion interventions on stroke awareness for ethnic minorities. In this review we set out to find evidence about the work essay primary school, effectiveness of nyu stern mba essay interventions to increase stroke awareness in ethnic minorities. Our results show that this is work experience essay primary a particularly understudied area, and business plan center, that all included studies refer to the US. Evidence of effectiveness from 11 case reports and experience, four RCTs focussed on short- to medium-term knowledge improvement for individuals seems particularly weak and inconclusive. Therefore, we suggest that further research is conducted on in the essay, different countries and ethnic minorities. a The acronym of the campaign stands for Face, Arms, Speech, Time to call EMS (the first three being distinctive stroke symptoms).
Paolo Gardois, Andrew Booth, Elizabeth Goyder and essay, Tony Ryan contributed equally to this work. The author’s PhD was funded through a CLAHRC studentship as part of the Stroke Theme programme of the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) CLAHRC for South Yorkshire. All views and opinions expressed are those of the author, and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. Further details of the CLAHRC for South Yorkshire and the Stroke Theme can be found at http://www.clahrc-sy.nihr.ac.uk . Authors' original submitted files for uvic mpa thesis images. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. All authors contributed equally in designing the study and critically discussing the results. PG carried out the bibliographic searches, selected the studies, analysed the data, contributed to work experience primary the discussion and the role of business essay, drafted the essay school, manuscript. EG and TR contributed to the study design, selection of studies and interpreting the results. AB contributed to center design the work essay school, search strategies, the selection process and the interpretation of results. EG, TR and AB critically revised the manuscript.
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2004, Bristol: Policy Press Google Scholar Wendel ML, Burdine JN, McLeroy KR, Alaniz A, Norton B, Feliz MRJ: Community capacity: theory and application. Work Primary. Emerging Theories in Health Promotion Practice and Research. Essay. 2009, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 277-302. Google Scholar Bryant CA, McCormack Brown KR, McDermott RJ, Debate RD, Alfonso ML, Baldwin JA, Monaghan P, Phillips LM: Community-based prevention marketing: a new framework for work essay school health promotion interventions. 3. Emerging Theories in Health Promotion Practice and Research. 2009, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 331-356. Google Scholar Scheppers E, Dongen van E, Dekker J, Geertzen J, Dekker J: Potential barriers to the use of health services among ethnic minorities: a review. Work Essay Primary. Fam Pract. In The Essay. 2006, 23: 325-348. 10.1093/fampra/cmi113. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Williamson M, Harrison L: Providing culturally appropriate care: a literature review.
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Now the first step in working with any templating engine is to actually put a template together. Essentially, you want to put together a basic HTML page that properly lays out your various page components, be it the header, the footer, a navigation pane and a core content window. Page templates with HTML and CSS. There are two basic approaches to essay primary creating a basic template, one of which is bad, and one of which is good. Plan Center? The bad way? To use HTML tables, laying out headers and work experience primary, footers and all of the other various elements using rowspan and colspan elements. Don’t be offended if that was your go-to mechanism of the past.
There are plenty of tools and the role essay, technologies on the market that still use HTML tables for laying out content. In fact, if you’re still doing work with WebSphere Portal 6.1, you’re essentially forced to. But if you’ve been doing modern web development, and when I say modern, I mean circa 2002, you should be using stylesheets and DIV elements instead. By the way, we said that there were two ways: tables and stylesheets. It might be worth adding that there is an primary option that lies somewhere between two and uvic mpa thesis, three, which is work experience primary HTML5 with CSS3. HTML5 adds a variety of application essay, new template based tags, such as footer and header, but that is outside of the scope of this particular tutorial. They're easy to use though, so if you are using the HTML5 standard, check them out after going through this tutorial. Here's a simple page layout, with all of the key elements included. As you can see from the code below, the HTML is little more than a bunch of work essay primary school, DIV tags with id attributes describing the area, be it sidebar, footer or messages-container. The code behind the curtain.
With the HTML page coded, the manner in which the writing, various elements get arranged on the page is determined by the accompanying stylesheet. The magic behind CSS based layouts. Work Experience Primary School? Key attributes used for laying out the page include height, width, and the float attribute which determines how different DIV elements interact with each other. Mba Essay? Notice that the content DIV and the sidebar DIV use a float:left setting. This allows them to sit side by side, so long as they fit within the confines of the work primary, containing DIV tag. The clear:both setting in the footer-container ensures that the footer is not placed in line with any other DIV that may have a float attribute assigned to it. And that is how a software developer initially attacks the job of developing a dynamic template for their website. But of for fitness center, course, the experience primary, code we currently have is static. The next step is to introduce a templating technology. Since we're interested in custermer writing JSF and Java EE, Facelets will be the work experience essay, technology we'll be using to add some life to this application.
You can follow Cameron McKenzie: @cameronmcnz. Interested in more articles and opinion pieces from business plan for fitness, Cameron McKenzie? Check these out: Dig Deeper on Software programming languages. IBM, Lightbend team up on work experience primary school cognitive application development platform. Buy College Application Universal? The reasons the work experience essay primary school, COBOL language is irrelevant -- and why Java's okay.
Choose your own adventure: Ottinger's advice about in the economy essay, simple code and complex models. Best programming languages for enterprise development. Work Experience Essay School? IBM, Lightbend team up on cognitive application development platform. Choose your own adventure: Ottinger's advice about writing, simple code and complex models. DevOps software development promise aided by experience primary OpenStack. How to custermer use Java conditional statements effectively. This Java programming example will help you learn the language. Learning modern programming languages like Ruby made easy.
Learning Ruby for Java developers: A comparative tutorial. Best programming languages for work experience, enterprise development. Custermer? Why Java is the most popular programming language. The most exciting new parts of Java EE 7 and Java 8. Work Primary? The reasons the COBOL language is irrelevant -- and why Java's okay. Find more PRO+ content and other member only offers, here. By submitting you agree to receive email from TechTarget and its partners. If you reside outside of the United States, you consent to having your personal data transferred to and processed in the United States. Privacy. Please create a username to comment. Learn how to essay on university use Java development tooling at JavaOne 2017.
Leading enterprise architects and developers will discuss a variety of experience primary school, improvements to Java development tooling, including . How cloud computing platforms fuel digital transformation. Experts advise attendees to focus on data stewardship and orchestration to make the most of digital transformation strategies at . Twilio Studio brings low-code development to DevOps. Twilio has introduced Twilio Studio, a new, low-code visual development environment that enables developers and business users to. AI in software testing has arrived. Machine learning can make many software testing tasks easier, faster and writing, more reliable. Here's how AI is going to change the primary school, . Essay Cafeteria? Why private APIs are the hottest thing around and other news. Experience School? We all know APIs are popular, but a new survey from Postman shows just how important they are. In other news, Sauce Labs offers . Why the future of IT jobs may give techies a pass.
Citizen data scientists are now equipped with tools like low-code platforms, AI and automation and are revolutionizing the essay on university cafeteria, world . Experience Primary School? Finance IT case study: Reporting secrets of Derek Rose. Plan For Fitness? CEO Sacha Rose says specialist reporting tools have saved the company thousands by avoiding unnecessary mistakes. School? WestJet turns to gamification to help its Oracle ERP users soar. WestJet's initial gamification project focuses on expense reporting. The Transformation of HR is Underway. HR is being transformed while we watch. Swisscom makes gains by shrinking data warehouse systems. When Swisscom needed to merge two SAP ERP systems and several SAP BW data warehouses, it upgraded to one SAP BW on HANA system to. Swisscom makes gains by shrinking data warehouse systems. SAP Data Hub debuts at SAP TechEd 2017.
SAP bolstered its claim as a cloud-first company with several announcements at TechEd 2017, including Data Hub and writing, ABAP running . ERP upgrade ushers in mobile apps, upends paper processes. An ERP upgrade sent a manufacturer's existing company culture into primary a tailspin. Would paper processes or digitization prevail? Fears about Prism's long-term impact on cloud declared overblown Forrester claims the the role economy, fallout from the 2013 Prism surveillance scandal has had a minimal effect on the cloud industry. Finding the right distribution inventory management plan.
In this expert tip, learn the different approaches toward perfecting distribution inventory management. All Rights Reserved, Copyright 2000 - 2017, TechTarget.
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Essay on Youth Violence and Media. There has been a lot of research conducted on the notions that violence portrayed in media - such as television, video, film, music, newspapers and books - can have adverse effects on the children viewing it. Many people have suggested that media has allowed violence to become so prevalent in our societies. It has also been suggested that media has been responsible in making the children violent as well. Statistics have shown that an average person watches as much as 7 hours of television every day. Work Essay Primary! It does not come as any surprise that a child between the age of two and five watches approximately 28 hours of television ever week (Johnson, 1990: Hoffman, 1990).
Another thing that comes to mind is that there has been a lot of allowance of violence in the media ever since broadcasting was deregulated in 1980. These images of violence and anti-social behavior tend to entice the same in people who watch them (Fox, Kaslow, Lewvant, McDaniel, Norton, Storandt Walker, 1994). It has been recognized that children who are continuously being exposed to violent images in the media tend to incorporate the ideas behind violence in mba essay 3, their learning process (Bandura, Ross Ross, 1963; Cannon, 1989; Wilson Hunter, 1983). The phenomenon of violence is work experience primary school also very complex and there are many factors that can or cannot induce violent behavior in a human being. Many people have suggested that the individuals' personalities, their family backgrounds, their cultural, educational, and religious implications, all contribute to acts of violence. Essay! It is believed that children learn from things that happen around them and also by observing people who are important to work them, e.g. parents, teachers, priests etc. Custermer! This is because children start to develop a sense of themselves and work essay school, others and a sense of right and wrong very early (Piaget, 1932; Sullivan, 1953; Winnicott, 1965). Children who are raised in a society where inequality is supported, they find more evidence of selfishness, competition and domination, they are more likely to of business in the economy grow up to be violent people (West, 1993). From this we can derive the fact that children are more likely to be exposed to work experience essay violent material in the media if they are not supervised properly and are not guided properly.
Many researches have contributed to this as realizations have been made that prolonged exposure to violence and anti-social behavior in the media to children causes them to be more involved in the use of alcohol and drugs (Evans, 1987; McBee, 1982), and cheat more in school, (Greene, 1992; Greene Saxe, 1991; McBee, 1982). Even though it has been said that there is a very positive relationship between violence in a person and application universal, violence that he/she has been exposed to in the media (Freedman, 1984; 1986), there are many other factors that also have to be considered when viewing the exact effect of work experience primary, violence in essay, media on a child or a person. Although almost everyone would agree that children who view violence in experience, media might turn out to be violent in their real lives, this cannot be the only factor that must be considered when drawing such a conclusion. That is to say that some of the the role of business essay, evidence that has been gathered from the laboratory experiments and other correlational research tend to point otherwise. Some of the laboratory findings have suggested that watching violent images on television can increase the probability of work essay primary, subsequent maladaptive behavior (Evans McCandless, 1978). According to some researchers, this was especially true when the violence was rewarded (Bandura et al., 1963). Andison (1977) found that the effects on uvic mpa thesis, aggression by viewing violence on television are not necessarily more in children as compared to the adult viewers. Work Experience Primary School! This research, even though inconclusive, also found that the effects of violence in media were slightly stronger on adults than they were on preschool children. These findings are very different from those that have suggested that media can have more effects on children since they are more susceptible in their growing years.
Research that has been conducted in business for fitness center, the field and also by correlation also provides some other important perspectives on this issue. These researches show that the images of violence viewed on television can have various different kinds of effects on the viewer and these effects largely depend on work experience essay primary school, the personality of the mba essay, viewer. It was noted that male children who watched only nonviolent shows on television were found to be generally more aggressive than those who had watched violence on television (Feshbach Singer, 1971). Work Experience Essay Primary School! Findings by Friedrich and Stein (1973), however, have suggested that there exists a complex relationship between interpersonal aggression and the watching of violent television programs. It was also found that people who were high on the aggression list and those who saw violence in the media, took a longer time in coming down from essay their aggressive state than did high-aggressors who saw neutral or nonviolent images. On the other hand, those who were low on aggression and who saw nonviolent images became more aggressive than those who saw violence on experience essay primary, television. This means that even those images that were nonviolent evoked an aggressive response under certain conditions (Gadow Sprafkin. 1989).
The programs that were used to determine this included Sesame Street and Mister Rogers' Neighborhood (Coates, Pusser Goodman, 1976). These findings have made many researchers question the true nature of essay cafeteria, violence in the media and experience essay primary, how it can or cannot affect the child in various ways. Uvic Mpa Thesis! Some studies have also suggested that it is not the nature of the programs but the number of hours that a child spends in experience school, front of the television that is the 3, cause of the adverse effects. This is work essay primary school so according to application Belson (1978), who believes that aggression could be derived from watching violent television as often as it could be derived from watching nonviolent images. The research on children has been restricted to because of many factors. It is believed that children are a special audience (Dorr, 1986). They are generally considered to be more vulnerable to the exposure of various contents on television, more than adults are known to be affected. This is work experience essay primary school because the minds of children are in a stage of business plan, cognitive immaturity and the cognitive pathways in their minds can easily be shaped by various media that are fed into it. It has been found that television is a particularly attractive thing for the children and the children tend to view television more than they indulge in other activities. This is why television has an enormous potential of shaping the way a child might think and act.
There are many kinds of programs that come on the television and primary school, many of them have been specifically designed to mold and nurture the minds of custermer writing, children. Thus it is primary school also very possible that children who view violent images on essay, television can have certain adverse affects on their brains. This can in turn affect their personalities and experience essay school, instill a fascination with violence for the rest of custermer, their lives. As discussed above, there is experience school much disagreement as to plan for fitness center exactly how television viewing can or cannot affect the minds of children. One that that is for sure is that children do tend to watch a whole lot of television. Although there are many estimates, a slightly more conservative estimate gives that an average child watches as much as 3 hours of television everyday (Huston et al., 1990). The effects of viewing tend to depend largely on the nature of the programs but this is also debatable since the experience primary school, factors involving individual personalities are also to be considered.
Most of the children who watch television are not discouraged to do otherwise by their parents (Bryant, 1990). In an average American family, a television is a very important part of family life. Custermer! Families sit together and watch many television shows and experience essay, most of the business, times young children are watching television in front of their parents. One study concluded that children watched television with children more than seventy percent of the time (St. Peters, Fitch, Huston, Wright, Eakins, 1991). It has also been determined that television habits are formed in the early years of a child. A child watches a considerable amount of television after the age of 3 onwards mostly because the family around him is watching television (Huston, Wright, Rice, Kerkman, St.
Peters, 1990). The parents are mostly blamed for not regulating their children's television viewing habits. This has also been found that not many parents put in an effort to regulate their children's television viewing patterns. Children learn by their parents' examples and if the parents watch a lot of television, so do the children. (St. Peters et al.,1991). The parents also play an primary school, integral role in the children's mind about the contents of what they view on essay on university cafeteria, television. If the parents also enjoy watching violent images on television, the work experience essay, children are also more likely to like and nyu stern mba essay, thus view more violence on television. Many studies have indicated that explaining what the child just saw on television can greatly help resolve many issues in the child's mind and also helps them to make better and informed decisions later on.
It is work experience essay believed that if the parents discuss the ideas behind the custermer, aggression shown on experience primary school, television with their children, the violent images tend to have a considerably less affect on the child (Desmond, Singer, Singer, 1990; Wright, St. Peters, Huston, 1990). It has also been theorized that television may also affect the whole family as a group, that is, in the way that they spend their time and events together (Bryant, 1990). There are many television programs on the air that show other families interacting with each other. These families have served as role models for many American families all over the nation for many years. It is very likely that your normal average family is akin to these families and takes up and adopts many or some of the patterns that they see being interacted on television. Nyu Stern Mba Essay 3! These patterns can be considered as what defines normality for these people. For the most part, it is very relevant to study the literature that is on the topic of the effects of televised violence on aggression (Geen Thomas, 1986; Hearold, 1986; Roberts Maccoby, 1985). The fact that keeps recurring is that it is only the televised viewing that brings about an increased aggressive state but it other factors also have to be considered. There are also many people who do not agree with this and say that televised violence really does not affect the people in any negative way (Freedman, 1984, 1988; McGuire, 1986).
Since most of the studies that have concluded the adverse effects of television violence on people have been based in laboratory experiments, many people tend to reject the conclusions. School! “Critics of laboratory research base their arguments on allegations that such studies represent only analogs of aggressive behavior and not cross-sections of it (e.g., Freedman, 1984). Partly because of such arguments, interest in laboratory experiments began to essay wane in the 1970s as research on the effects of televised violence became based more and more on work essay primary, studies in natural settings. Some of these studies, usually called field experiments, involved the use of buy college universal, experimental methodology in natural settings. Work Essay Primary! A number of for fitness center, such investigations were reported during the essay primary school, 1970s and, although they have been criticized as lacking internal validity (Freedman, 1984), these studies yielded consistent findings of a positive relationship between observation of televised violence and aggression” (Geen, 1994). Friedrich-Cofer and Huston (1986) provide a detailed discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of these studies. Uvic Mpa Thesis! Also, Wood, Wong Chachere (1991) also reported the results and meta-analysis of 28 filed experiments that were conducted between 1956 and experience essay primary, 1988. Custermer Writing! “The studies included in this analysis were chosen because they investigated the work school, effects of media violence on aggression among children and adolescents during unconstrained social interaction with strangers, classmates, and friends. Wood and her colleagues concluded that media violence does enhance aggression in such settings and that, because all the experiments involved short-term immediate reactions to observed violence, the effects may be due to the role in the essay temporary changes in affect and arousal as well as to long-term processes like modeling” (Geen, 1994). A very large amount of research was done on the correlation between television viewing and aggression during the 1980s. “One such investigation was the final phase of a longitudinal project begun in the late 1950s by work experience essay, Eron and his associates (Eron, Walder, Lefkowitz, 1971). The research began with the study of custermer writing, third-grade students in a rural county in upstate New York.
Each child's level of work experience primary school, aggressiveness was assessed through ratings made by parents, peers, and describe the role economy essay, the children themselves; each child's preference for violent television programs was also measured. Measures of the same variables were obtained 10 and 22 years later from many of the experience primary school, same children. The method of cross-lagged panel correlation was used for analysis of the data. The results of the 10-year follow-up (Lefkowitz, Eron, Walder, Huesmann, 1977) revealed that among boys the amount of televised violence watched during third grade was positively correlated with aggressiveness 10 years later, whereas the correlation between aggressiveness during Grade 3 and the amount of violent television watched a decade later was essentially zero. Following the assumptions of cross-lagged correlation analysis, Eron and his associates inferred a causal relation between observing violence and aggressiveness from these data. For girls, both correlations were not significantly greater than zero. In 1984, Huesmann, Eron, Lefkowitz, and Walder reported the business plan for fitness, results of the 22-year follow-up. Primary! A positive relationship between childhood television viewing and subsequent aggressiveness was again suggested: The seriousness of crimes for which males were convicted by age 30 was significantly correlated with the amount of nyu stern, television that they had watched and primary school, their liking for essay cafeteria violent programs as 8-year-olds.
Again, aggressiveness at age 8 was not related to either overall viewing practices or preference for experience school violent programs at age 30” (Geen, 1994). Singer and Singer (1981) also conducted a study and showed a connection between how watching violence on television affected the aggressiveness in children. This study was conducted on nursery school age children for 1-year. Of Business Economy! “At four times during the year, 2-week periods were designated as probes during which parents kept logs of their children's television viewing. Meanwhile, observers recorded instances of aggressive behavior by the children during school hours. When data were combined across all four probes, aggressive behavior was found to be significantly correlated with the total amount of time spent in watching “action-adventure” programs, all of which manifested high levels of violence.
This effect was found for both boys and experience essay school, girls. The pattern of cross-lagged correlations over custermer the four probe periods led the Singers to conclude that the school, television viewing was leading to the aggressive behavior over the first two comparisons (i.e., from probe 1 to 3 probe 2 and work primary school, from probe 2 to probe 3). Over the final comparison (from probe 3 to 3 probe 4), however, the cross-lagged pattern showed that not only was earlier viewing correlated with subsequent aggression, but also that earlier aggression was correlated with subsequent viewing. Experience Essay Primary! In other words, by the latter phase of the study a reciprocal effect was being shown. As in earlier periods, observation of violence was presumably eliciting aggressive behavior; in addition, aggressive children were also watching more of the violent “action-adventure” shows” (Geen, 1994). This second finding, that people who are high on the aggressiveness scale might like to watch more violence on television is consistent with the results of the custermer, laboratory experiments conducted by Fenigstein (1979). In this experiment, people who had had a history of physical aggression against others tended to work experience essay school select television viewing material that was more violent in nature than compared to those who were not as aggressive. In a similar correlational study, Diener and DuFour (1978) also presented similar results. Media has always provided children with entertainment and visual imagery and imagination that have worked to enhance their minds and also develop their brains. Media has also helped the children in keeping their fears in check and controlling their anxieties. “Many preschool children begin a secure night's sleep by having a parent read a story about three pigs whom a wolf sought to eat. The two pigs who quickly built shelters of uvic mpa thesis, straw and of wood so that they could play the rest of the work experience essay, day were devoured by the wolf.
The third built his house of brick and would go out early in the mornings to obtain food while the wolf was still asleep. He eventually scalded to death and ate the big bad wolf. According to Bettelheim (1975), this story “teaches the cafeteria, nursery age child in a most enjoyable and dramatic form that we must not be lazy and take things easy, for if we do we may perish. Intelligence, planning, and foresight, combined with hard labor, will make us victorious over even our most ferocious enemy--the wolf!” (pp. Work Experience Essay School! 41-42). It may at first seem odd that a child would choose to be frightened at bedtime, a time often already characterized by uvic mpa thesis, anxiety brought on by darkness and by the prospect of being alone.
The fairy tale initially increases that anxiety, then provides a mechanism for work relief. The child's serial identifications with the helpless and terrified, then resourceful, then victorious pig lend strength to the child's struggle with his or her anxieties and facilitate sleep” (Derdeyn et al, 1994). Thus some researchers stress the mba essay, fact that violent images in work experience essay primary school, the media are necessary for the role economy children since it helps them deal with many things and to motivate the mastery of their own emotions and states of mind. So what is the conclusion that we come to? Is the violence in media bad for the children, or is some of it necessary? Does viewing violence on television have any adverse affects on the children? Is it the nature of television programming that is more harmful or just watching any kind of television bad? Although many of the laboratory experiments that have been reviewed herein suggest that there is a positive relationship between aggressiveness and experience school, television viewing, the research remains inconclusive. But it will not be wrong to face the nyu stern, direction of thought that violence in school, the media does lead to aggressive behavior, as pointed out by the longitudinal studies that were conducted during the 1980s. Uvic Mpa Thesis! “The issue may never be settled to everyone's satisfaction, and certainly more research, using state-of-the-art methodology, is needed to settle the experience essay, many remaining problems before conclusive evidence may be forthcoming. Even so, at the present time we do appear to have a fairly large amount of what Cook and his colleagues (1983) have called “circumstantial evidence” for a hypothesis that observation of violence on television produces some increase in aggressiveness of the viewers” (Geen, 1994)
Various scholars and plan, researchers have tried to work experience school explain the relationship between television violence and aggression in different ways. “Until recently, such explanations were based on theoretical concepts that were popular during the 1960s, such as disinhibition, arousal, and activation of conditioned responses. During the 1980s, two new theoretical explanations emerged, both of which are based on more recent cognitive models of behavior” (Geen, 1994). So far, the evidence that has been collected from various types of center, studies, including laboratory experiments, field experiments, longitudinal studies, and archival studies, are in favor of the notion that viewing violence on television does have adverse affects on work experience primary school, the aggressiveness of the on university, subjects who are watching the programs. These studies have focused on children, adolescents and young adults, and a wide range of constrained and unconstrained behaviors. Even though there might be many limitations to these studies due to the large number of population and the small number of sample, the experience essay, results from so many researchers have seemed to point to the same direction. “Underlying processes that mediate the effect have not been extensively studied to date. However, some promising developments in theory are taking place, involving the development of uvic mpa thesis, models derived from affective, cognitive, and motivational psychology.
The debate over work experience essay primary school the consequences of writing, television violence for aggression is by no means over, and future studies of the problem will benefit from both the large literature on the subject and the emergence of the new theoretical approaches” (Geen, 1994). A comprehensive literature review has been presented herein that has purported the work essay school, role that media can play in the aggressiveness of the viewers. It can be concluded that even though media can play a big role in the way a person grows up to react in a negative way, it is not the only factor that is to be taken in consideration. “But to the extent to which the media can influence behavior and facilitate the expression of violence in certain individuals, it is important that carefully designed interventions be implemented. This is particularly the case since the media can also have clear educational influences in teaching a prosocial message and the complexity of human motivation as shown in our analysis” (Herron et al, 1998) of the various literature presented above. Television is custermer writing a very popular media and work school, it is expected that people, especially children, will continue to watch television and their lives will continue to be affected by the various programs and shows that they watch. It is very important today, for all the parents, teachers, and on university cafeteria, model citizens, to work essay primary school get involved and try to make the affects of media as non-violent on our children as possible. All the parents must monitor the television watching activities of their children. For Fitness Center! The parents must make sure that they sit and watch television with their children and keep explaining to them what is going on. The children need to know how the violent images shown on essay primary, television are not real and business plan center, that they should not try to emulate what they see on television.
Parents should not use television as a 'babysitter' and must make the television viewing experience a family affair with the children. “It is work experience essay school our contention that the abdication of parental responsibilities and the erosion of the family are major contributors to the increasing number and the severity of the societal problems we face, including our subject, violent behavior” (Herron et al, 1998). The teachers in schools must also actively participate in educating the children about uvic mpa thesis what they see on television. “The development of critical viewing skills should be the part of every elementary school curriculum. Curricula for the development of critical viewing skills already exists and has been shown to be effective (e.g., Singer, Singer Zuckerman, 1981). Teaching children how to watch television more productively is extremely important because the use of educational television and other media appears to be growing in work experience primary school, all educational levels” (Herron et al, 1998). Even those people who are not educators and are not yet parents must also help the children by the role of business in the essay, any which way that they can. The reason for this is that all citizens experience first hand the conditions as posed by the society.
The children of today are going to grow up to form the societies of tomorrow. Experience! We must all look after our children and make sure that they do not grow up under negative circumstances that can affect their minds and their behaviors. “Our concerns about violence should not only include the need to monitor the describe in the economy essay, kinds of programs our children watch but to advocate an understanding of the personal, family and primary, societal issues which cause violence and determine what role television can play in reaching that understanding” (Herron et al, 1998). This means that everybody in the community must become involved if we are all to minimize the affects of violence in on university cafeteria, media on our children. Experience Essay Primary School! There is a large chance that the violence in the media can propagate the nyu stern mba essay, interface and experience essay primary school, can directly, or indirectly, affect the business, viewers, especially children. At the same time, however, the same media can also be used to experience school negate the business plan for fitness, harmful affects. There should be more awareness shows on television that teach children the hazards of violence and these must try to grab their attention without the use of work, violence or other objectionable material. Business Plan For Fitness Center! “As a prime mover in supplying information, it can provide increased awareness of issues such as violence which will impact on large numbers of people. It is our hope that many will seek solutions to such problems by becoming more sophisticated users of what is available to them in the media. It is also our hope that people will become more psychologically aware: better interpersonal skills that come with psychological understanding can only result in a more peaceful world” (Herron et al, 1998).
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