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bergson essay This essay comes from the author's 2002 Broadview Press edition of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland , which contains, in addition to the text and an introduction, Alice's Adventures Under Ground , Lewis Carroll's first version of the story, contemporary reviews, and other materials. (The preceding link contains the full table of you deal with depression contents.) cholars, critics, psychoanalysts, and topics logicians have all scrutinized Carroll's writings; but few of them have offered an explanation of why or how his creations are funny. The problem with any serious discussion of humor, of course, is that the analysis inevitably destroys the you deal depression fun. How much more satisfying it is to elucidate Hamlet's melancholy than to explain Falstaff's jokes! Nevertheless, humor is at the very heart of Carroll's major works, and no discussion of thesis them could be complete without an examination of some of the principles of that humor, especially as they apply to Alice. Henri Bergson's essay on laughter, published in 1900, is a classic statement of the how do principles of bowling alone humor. Although his analysis focuses upon the comedy of manners, it is how do you deal applicable to Carroll's humor as well. Like Carroll, Bergson lived through the technological revolution that made the duality of man and dissertation topics machine a vital concern of how do you deal with philosophers, novelists, poets, and humorists.
Bergson believed that life is a vital impulse, not to be understood by reason alone, and sees the comical as something encrusted on rap music thesis, the living. Early in his essay Bergson observes that laughter and emotion are incompatible: It seems as though the comic could not produce its disturbing effect unless it fell, so to say, on the surface of how do depression a soul that is thoroughly calm and unruffled. Indifference is its natural environment, for laughter has no greater foe than emotion. In both his comic poetry and prose Carroll maintains a fairly consistent detachment from his characters, and his characters likewise usually remain remarkably detached from their environment. The Cheshire Cat best illustrates Bergson's point.
The obvious symbol of intellectual detachment, it wears the fixed grin of an amused observer. It can appear as only a head for it is representative of a disembodied intelligence. Alice maintains a similar detachment from plan her surroundings. She forms no strong or lasting relationships with any of the depression creatures or persons in Wonderland and Looking-Glass Land. Alone Essay! Upon meeting the depression sorrowful Mock Turtle, Alice pitied him deeply and inquires, What is statistical his sorrow? Any emotional bond here is quickly undermined by the Gryphon's abrupt answer:It's all his fancy, that: he hasn't got no sorrow, you know. Come on!
A sentimentalist might have difficulty in appreciating comedy for, as Bergson notes, to how do with depression produce the whole of its effect . . . the comic demands something like a momentary anesthesia of the heart. Its appeal is to intelligence, pure and simple (p. 63). Carroll's parodies of the didactic and sentimental verses of dissertation Isaac Watts, for example, are funny in so far as the reader is you deal depression aware of the originals and attentive to the intellectual cleverness involved in reshaping them. The emotions that the moral sentiments originally invoked are repressed by the wit of the parodies.
Bergson refines his observation that laughter appeals to intelligence pure and simple by adding, this intelligence, however, must always remain in touch with other intelligences. He continues: The comic will come into being, it appears, whenever a group of men concentrate their attention on one of their number, imposing silence on their emotions and calling into alone play nothing but their intelligence (p. 65). Alice provides exactly that focus of concentration for the reader. She is the instrument of how do with humor as Carroll the narrator engages the mind of the reader to consumer behaviour topics share with him the absurdity that arises in how do you deal depression her various encounters with the creatures of Wonderland. Carroll invites the reader to conspire with him to laugh at their mutual representative battling with foreign intelligences. Essay! Basic to you deal with depression Bergson's conception of the comic is the alone essay tension that exists between rigidity and suppleness: rigidity is the comic, and laughter is its corrective (p. 74).
He sees a laughable expression of the face as one that promises nothing more than it gives. It is a unique and depression permanent grimace. One would say that the person's whole moral life has crystallised into this particular cast of features (p. 76). He concludes that automatism, inelasticity, habit that has been contracted and maintained are clearly the lesson persuasive causes why a face makes us laugh (p.
76). Tenniel's illustrations are significant in this respect, for they help to fix the expressions of how do you deal such characters as the bowling alone essay Cheshire Cat with its sinister grin and the Queen of Hearts with her perpetual scowl. The Queen's favorite expression, Off with his head! or Off with her head! likewise is as fixed and predictable as her expression. The sentiment is obviously not funny, but its repetition is. In more general terms Alice displays a battle between rigidity and suppleness.
Alice embodies secure conventions and self-assured regulations, and Wonderland is dedicated to how do with depression undermining those conventions and regulations. Later, in Through the consumer Looking-Glass the strict rules of a chess game impose a degree of order upon an unruly set of characters. In this connection another statement by Bergson is revealing: The attitudes, gestures and movements of the human body are laughable in exact proportion as that body reminds us of a mere machine (p. 79). In Through the Looking-Glass Alice and the other characters are treated as chess pieces to be manipulated in a very rational game. In short, they have become things and, as Bergson notes, we laugh every time a person gives us the impression of being a thing (p. How Do! 97).
Similarly, the battles between Tweedledee and Tweedledum and between the Lion and the Unicorn are comic because they are repetitive and predictable. Similarly, Wonderland's Red Queen appears robotic in her repeated, though disregarded, commands for beheadings. Discussing the humor of disguise, Bergson argues that any image . . . suggestive of the notion of a society disguising itself, or of a social masquerade, so to speak, will be laughable (p. 89). Both the Caucus-race and the trial of the dissertation statistical Knave of Hearts illustrate Bergson's thesis. How Do! In the former, all the dissertation statistical gumtree contestants are awarded prizes, thereby ignoring the substance of the race, namely, finding a winner. In the trial scene, the procedures are of paramount importance, the how do with depression guilt or innocence of the defendant being of little significance.
In both cases a kind of relentless automatism that converts human beings into comic puppets rules supreme. One final observation by Bergson has relevance to essays school Carroll's humor: Any incident is comic that calls our attention to the physical in a person, when it is the moral side that is concerned (p. 93). The humor resides in one's perceiving the how do tension in a soul tantalised by the needs of the body: on essays graduate school, the one hand, the moral personality with its intelligently varied energy, and, on the other, the stupidly monotonous body, perpetually obstructing everything with its machine-like obstinacy (p. 93). Thus, he argues, we laugh at a public speaker who sneezes just at the most pathetic moment of his speech. Our attention is how do with depression suddenly recalled from the soul to the body. Alice's frustrations in regulating her body size are cases in point. She longs to enter into the loveliest garden you ever saw but she could not even get her head through the dissertation doorway.
There are numerous passages in the Alice books, such as Alice's flood of tears and how do you deal depression the Duchess' baby's uncontrollable sneezing, in which the human body baffles, betrays and embarrasses the soul. One of the functions of humor, as Bergson sees it, is to make us human and natural during an age of mechanization. One of Carroll's early poems, Rules and Regulations, establishes that at the outset of his career he both prized and mocked rigidity. In his fascination with mechanical gadgets he possessed in microcosm a well-ordered, smoothly running universe. In the compulsiveness tidiness of both his personal life and his writings he achieved an order not inherent in nature. Neither the elusive garden in personal graduate school Wonderland nor the cool geometry of Looking-Glass Land, however, offers more than a temporary oasis in you deal a mutable, biological, and mortal wasteland. Carroll recognized that the machinery of conventions and customs, mathematics and logic, helped to define by contrast and momentarily sustain and comfort the frightened, imperfect, and comic adventurer. Bergson, Henri. Laughter, in should rap music be censored thesis Comedy , introd. by Wylie Sypher.
New York: Doubleday, 1956.
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A Kabbalistic Guide to Lucid Dreaming and Astral Projection. Director of Research, ORA Project , The Philosophers of how do with depression, Nature (PON) Copyright 1997. All Rights Reserved. The projection of consciousness has been an integral part of kabbalistic teachings, from the Merkavah (Chariot) Riders and personal statement essays graduate school, their journeys to the starry Palaces ( Hekelot ) of the invisible world, to Traveling in how do Spirit Visions with the early adepts of The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in the 19 th can early 20 th centuries. While a wide variety of approaches has been formulated to assist the disciples of these diverse schools, much of their techniques require an extensive amount of preparatory teachings and/or ritual assistance. For those who have little or no knowledge of traditional 10-12 th century Merkavah doctrines, or no interest in learning the necessary signs, symbols, and invocations for Golden Dawn style techniques and their ‘spin offs’, yet want a Hermetic approach to alone essay, their inner world, there is a solution. It is also simple, direct, and does not require an extensive amount of visualization or creative imaging. With. The following experiment was carried out over dissertation topics a three month period, from you deal depression, December 1996 to February 1997.
During that time, no additional ritual methods were performed, either for personal development, or in a group, in bowling order to asses the value of the how do you deal depression, technique as it stood alone. The majority of the experiments occurred at night, before going to sleep, and about half the time, in the morning upon consumer dissertation topics, waking, while still in a borderline state. How Do. It is designed for those who would like to have an ‘out of body experience’ but lack either the necessary visualization skills required of so many of the present techniques, or who have had violent experiences leaving their body, and personal statement essays school, would like a more gentle approach to the astral planes. It can be carried out by either experienced ‘traveler’ or beginner with equal ease, and possibly, similar results. The theoretical background behind this experiment is how do with depression, strictly kabbalistic, and is applicable to either the traditional Tree of Life (Golden Dawn), the revised Tree of behaviour topics, Life as applied to the Portae Lucis material, 1) or the Palaces as outlined in the Sepher Zohar . In short, any systematic outline of the you deal depression, interior body-world of thesis, humanity can be applied, as long as it has concise, easy to visualize symbols for how do you deal with depression, the various planes of consciousness. The working assumption is that we as conscious beings originate in the Ain Soph Aur , or Limitless Mind of God. We incarnate through various stages of increasing density and matter, into the present world, in cultures essay order to gain the experiences that will allow us to go from ‘potential beings’ into Self Actualized, or Self Created Beings.
In our journey of development we take on characteristics and ‘bodies’ of various vibrations, and on our ‘return’ we shed these bodies in exchange for increasingly subtle bodies and worlds of Light. These Worlds are categorized in how do with depression the Gnostic, Kabbalistic, Hermetic, and Alchemical texts under different names and numbers, but share the same essential qualities and functions overall. That is, they go from the most dense world of material Earth, to the most subtle of different cultures essay, Infinity, or the point of depression, our origin, the Mind of the Creator. Within our physical body we have various organs of psychic perception, called psycho-spiritual centers in modern Western esoteric nomenclature, and essay, chakras in Sanskrit. How Do You Deal With. These centers correspond to several levels of our physiology, that is on lesson plan essay, one level, our nervous system and plexus, as well as our endocrine system of hormone secreting glands. Other correspondences exist as well, but for our purposes these are the ones used most commonly and how do with, efficiently. Astral projection is often suggested through the solar plexus, but for many this can be an unnerving and unsettling experience. Other suggestions are purely visual, such as rising out of your body like a mist, or as having a second ‘body of light’ present next to your physical one.
It is said that advanced practitioners can project their consciousness at the time of behaviour dissertation, their death through the upper centers, thus ‘dying consciously’. The centers suggested here are the top and front of the head, or the how do you deal, “Crown” and “Third Eye” centers, associated with the pineal and pituitary glands. Some even use the back of the services gumtree, head, the medulla oblongata, or brain stem. In the Indian texts, each chakra is associated with a particular power ( siddha ), which is how do you deal with depression, awakened in rap music be censored thesis the aspirant, and as such, allows the student to then project their consciousness through the different psychic centers in increasing complexity and subtlety, until finally, the Crown is reached. In kabbalistic practices however, the centers are rarely used as such, but instead intense visualization of the etherial Worlds is used, until they are progressively realized, or rituals combined with more generalized energizing of the psychic body are used, alone or in conjunction with these visualized worlds. The modern variation of this often involves the use of Tarot cards, and is called Pathworking, or the use of Hebrew letters. Eastern Orthodox monks have used intense visualization on the solar plexus, as a small sun, as a method of achieving exteriorization, and some schools use the heart as a center of displacement, however, the how do you deal, previously mentioned methods are the most commonly used to date. Alchemists use tinctures, or medicines to assist in the projection of consciousness. Although, these should not be confused with hallucinogenic, or psycho-active drugs. The effects of alchemical medicines generally occur when their user is relaxed, sleeping, or in meditation.
They in effect, assist the projection of consciousness, that is the dissertation statistical, expansion of awareness, rather than induce or cause it directly. How Do With Depression. It is essays school, possible to take an alchemical medicine and drive a car unimpeded. In Eastern techniques, the number of psychic centers attributed to the body vary in number depending on the school in question. In general, it is said that we have at least seven major and five minor psychic centers. Location, color attributes, mantras, or vowel sounds attributed to them however vary considerably. 2) According to Sri Aurobindo, the throat center is associated with the externalization of mental forces, and the link between the higher and lower mental spheres. Like in some color scales of kabbalah, grey is associated with this center.
3) In Serpent of how do with, Fire: A Modern View of Kundalini , Darrel Irving points out that the dissertation statistical services gumtree, Vissudha chakra is presided over by the dual deities of Shakini and Shiva . Each is five faced, representing the you deal, five Elements, and three eyes, showing physical and psychic perception, or knowledge. Shakini is seen as Light itself, and Shiva, like the Hermetic ideal, is androgynous, half white and half gold. Consumer Behaviour Dissertation Topics. The center is associated with the purification of intelligence, the psychic substratum or ether ( akasha ), and depression, hearing. The color given is smoky-purple. As with Sri Aurobindo’s color, purple is should, also sometimes given as associated with the throat center in modern kabbalistic works. 4) Along with the remaining upper two psychic centers, these three constitute the only centers whereby direct psychic perception is you deal depression, possible. 5) In the West, the Throat center is less well defined, although it shares in all of the above named characteristics. In Kabbalah of the lesson persuasive essay, Golden Dawn , Pat Zalewski states that the throat center is associated with the thyroid gland and controls respiration. How Do With Depression. As with yoga, each of the preceding centers is associated with an Element, starting with Earth, Water, Fire, and Air.
While not stated, it might be presumed that the different essay, Throat center is then the first center to be associated with Spirit, or Quintessence, as in yoga. Here however, we run into a problem regarding the attributes associated with this area. In alchemy, the throat is ruled by Mercury, the how do with depression, god of Air, as well as magic, voice, and initiation. In the systems generally used (i.e. Golden Dawn), no planetary attribute is given to the throat.
Instead, it is the sepherothic realm of Daath that presides over this region. Daath is Hebrew for ‘knowledge’ and maybe that is the topics, best attribute for things associated with the how do you deal with depression, mind, speech, and bowling alone essay, magic. However, for many kabbalists, Daath is a region better left alone, and depression, feared more than the so-called Qlippoth, or Demonic realms. How did Daath come to be seen with such awe? Mostly from the statistical, second-hand reports of book learned occultists repeating what they read. Although, if we keep in mind that Daath is Knowledge , then some interesting correlations can be drawn. Israel Regardie states:
“This central point between two symbolic pillars of the opposites, the place of balanced power from which the working of the opposites may correctly be viewed, is the implication of DAAS , which is the name of how do you deal with, this shadowy Sephirah. Rightly it is shadowy, and the word is used advisedly for in the majority of us who have not cultivated the difficult art of avoiding the opposites, the development of plan persuasive, this new principle has proceeded with the utmost slowness. You Deal With. It is a new factor of adaptation or equilibrium, especially between the two broad divisions of consciousness — the ego on lesson, one hand with its desire for adjustment to modern life with its refined and how do you deal with depression, non-natural conditions, and on the other hand with the superficial level of the instinctual life, concerned with primitive things, of self-assertion and the unbridled gratification of its every whim and caprice.” 6) “DAAS (sic), the shadowy Sephirah, which develops in the course of evolution as we learn the domination of our mental and emotional propensities, is situated at different cultures, the nape of the neck. Its position is at a point on the spine just below the occiput, about one or two inches above the you deal depression, larynx, and its diameter may be imagined to be about four inches in lesson persuasive essay extent. It is conceived to be a symbolic link, self-induced, and self-devised, between the higher Genius on how do with, the one hand, and on the other, the ego, the consciousness self referred to that group of characteristics clustered around TIPHARAS (sic).” 7) Regardie also refers to Daath as “The Link” between the Higher Self and the ego, or waking brain. Gareth Knight states that Daath is where ‘pure force takes on form” 8) and that it is “the highest unity in the world of forms” 9) , and “Daath is the highest point of awareness of the human soul regarded as a soul…”. 10) “The Daath powers in balanced function, of different cultures essay, course, give the type of person with a mission or sense of destiny who will have sufficient detachment to cut his way through any obstruction to his aims, at no matter what cost, and who has absolutely no concern for what danger the future may have in how do you deal store such is lesson essay, his faith in his powers and how do you deal, acceptance of his destiny.” 11) Unfortunately, most of what is said regarding Daath, like the other spheres, is of a cosmological nature, and essay, difficult to apply to our individual consciousness. The abstract ideas associated with it, coupled with vague warnings and trepidation are not directives on how to approach this sphere within our psyche ( and very real psycho-spiritual, semi-physical center!) in a positive and growth oriented manner.
Possibly what Knight is saying, on a personal level, is how do you deal with depression, that the psycho-physical sphere associated with Daath allows for the highest awareness in human consciousness when it is progressively opened. When this occurs, many of the fears, obstructions, and psychological malfunctions that have previously plagued us, fall away under the intense awareness of different, our true power and presence as Beings becoming consciously Divine. In summary, maybe the fears are real, in that once we cross the Bridge of Knowledge, there is no turning back. Once we go from the theoretical to the experiential, we cannot return to ignorance. When innocence is lost, it is gone for how do depression, good. Thus, we can cross the ‘bridge’ several times: from the essay, material world to the psychic; from the psychic to the more abstract mental realms; and from the mental to the highly spiritual, from which none is said to have returned. How Do With. Most of what is reported about Daath may be in relation to this last and highest reality. Lesson Plan Persuasive. The function of this technique, is to assist those who desire it, to cross their personal psychic bridge from the visible into the invisible with consciousness and memory. Mercury, Hermes and the Psychopomp.
Knight suggests using the caduceus, a symbol of the god Mercury, and the psychopomp Hermes, as a symbol for approaching Daath. This relationship of the Throat Center to Mercury must not be overlooked, for it is this very relationship that we are seeking to establish within ourselves. To be able to enter into the psychic realms with the aid and assistance of our Higher Genius, as well as our human intellect, and to make use of the how do with depression, information upon return to personal school, waking consciousness. We want, in effect, to do as Hermes does, “Walk Between Two Worlds” and unite them within our psyche. The symbols for how do, Mercury is the stylized caduceus in the form of the personal essays, combined symbols of how do you deal depression, Luna (Moon), Sol (Sun), and Terra (Earth). Combined they state the function of this part of our psychic anatomy. The upturned lunar symbol represents our brain, nervous system, and psychic functioning, resting upon the Solar symbol beneath. The Sun, is our spiritual powers, life force, and intuition.
It sits astride the symbol for matter, or the equal armed cross. The Cross of the should rap music thesis, Four Elements is the you deal with depression, symbol of material existence, and is at once our physical bodies as well as the material world we live in. Behaviour. In the symbol for Mercury, we see that the how do you deal depression, terrestrial energies, or matter, are dominated, by the Solar forces of the Sun, and Soul. However, these spiritual forces are in turn dominated by the intellect and physical brain of man. That is, the brain directs them, or represses them, depending on the spiritual health of the aspirant. It also illustrates a unique point. That is, the bowling alone essay, relationship between the heart, sun, brain, and spiritual awakening. As messenger of the gods, Mercury assists in the transfer of knowledge, and not in the creation or interpretation of that knowledge, these functions being left to the brain and psychic heart. The heart is the seat of intuition, the Voice of the Soul, and the Interior Master, only how do depression, through its awakening can we become conscious and free beings. Should Rap Music Be Censored Thesis. However, the energy of the awakened heart, with all of its love, must be transferred to the physical brain for insight and understanding.
In doing so, it requires the assistance of the Throat center. Once in the brain, the energy must also be able to return to the heart, or send information there for spiritual consideration, via the Mercurial Center. Herein lies some confusion for some folks. It is said that the you deal with depression, heart is the center of intuition, yet it is in the pituitary body of the consumer behaviour dissertation, physical brain that intuition is realized in mundane consciousness. Is it not possible to simply awaken the pituitary body without the needed functions of the psychic heart?
The answer is yes. To understand this somewhat confusing relationship between the how do you deal with depression, heart, pituitary gland, and bowling alone essay, our spiritual awakening, we need to how do depression, realize that according to esoteric tradition both of these organs are Solar in nature, and as such effected by the material and spiritual Sun. Just as the pituitary gland reacts to physical light, it also reacts to the awakening of the spiritual light caused by an awakened Heart — a Heart filled with love. The brain in lesson essay general is Lunar, but certain aspects of it respond to other planetary influences in their specific functions. This need to awaken both the heart and brain, is what is required for how do you deal with depression, travels through the psychic realms. An awakened heart with no brain is subject to an extreme lack of personal statement school, practicality; and a brain with no heart can function psychically, but only in a cold and detached manner. The ‘thinking heart’ and depression, ‘feeling brain’ are what Mercury help us to establish. In doing so, the polarity is overcome through union and the material and remaining psychic forces of our body are brought into play in a harmonious manner. The use of blues, and purples is said to essay, show the relationship between Daath, and the ideas of a Higher Mind (Blue/Chesed) and Yesod (Purple). Thus, the Daath , or sphere of Knowledge that we are contacting through our meditations is our personal one, and not that of the transpersonal or Cosmic Daath on how do you deal depression, the Tree of Life, of which so many dangers have been written and attributed. It is also the synthesis of the Supernal Upper Trinity in a form we can approach and understand more easily.
12) Also, if Yesod, or the gateway and principle sphere of the astral realm is dissertation, a reflection of Daath “on a lower arch” as our British fraters and sorors are so fond of saying, then meditations on how do depression, the “Daath” sphere in different cultures ourselves should not only with, sublimate the sexual creative powers of Yesod, but also allow us to alone essay, enter into astral consciousness more fully and completely. Some Additional Thoughts From the East. In Chinese and Mongolian Chi Kung, meditation on the throat center is used precisely for these purposes: (1) sublimation of the you deal, sexual force 13) , and (2) assisting in the conscious projection of essays school, consciousness and the induction of how do you deal, lucid dreaming. It is the connecting center between the heart and the brain. “Taoists who practice Dream Yoga focus on the throat point when going to sleep so as to consciously cross the different essay, bridge between the waking state and the dream state. Being able to dream lucidly helps one gain greater control of one’s Chi (internal energy) and also enables one to consciously bridge the gap between life and you deal, death.” 14) Conscious dreaming is used to awaken the “Seventy-Two Magical Abilities”, in order to prepare them for eventual transfer to the waking, material world. This is an interesting number, as it matches the number of permutations of the “Great Name” of God, or Shemhamphorasch . Theoretically, each of personal essays graduate, these Names, Signs, Seals, and correspondences 15) could be awakened using the technique outlined in this article.
As in India and how do you deal, Western techniques, the throat is associated with air, spirit energy, and personal essays graduate school, consciousness in Taoist practices. The Philosophers of Nature 16) suggest three methods of projecting consciousness: mental, astral, and ethereal projection. The first technique suggests using the Throat center for projection, and states that the dis-alignment of the physical and psychic bodies will occur at the level of the neck. It is this basic idea that the following experiment is based upon. In order to present the subconscious with an orderly supply of symbols in with depression a coherent and meaningful manner, the use of either the Hindu Tattwas, Alchemical Elements, or Kerubic Signs can be initially used. Dissertation Statistical Gumtree. Afterwards, the planetary signs of the seven principal planets are used in you deal with their place. This progressive use of the same symbols allows the subconscious to understand that these symbols are meaningful and essay, are the official means of transferring consciousness from one level to another. If done repeatedly, the symbols will not be needed after a period of time, and if done with good heart and mind, one may potentially realize their ‘interior level’ during one of the dream states provoked.
While full-scale astral projection may not immediately occur, the degree of lucid dreaming, dream memory, and even a limited increase in one’s ‘magical voice’ will be experienced. It is up to each aspirant to make the with depression, most of these ‘out-of-body’ dream states, and increase their level of intensity so as to realize full and controlled projection of consciousness. Unlike other methods of projection, through regular practice, the method outlined here will in most cases work gently and progressively, i.e. increased dreaming, then lucid dreaming, and finally astral projection, thus allowing for an acclimation of consciousness to these new states of being. Step One — Obtain a set of symbols for the Four Elements and consumer dissertation topics, Spirit, and the Seven Planetary Signs. Start with Earth, then progress to Water, Air, Fire, and Spirit as the days proceed. The basic procedure will not change, only the symbols used to attain projection. Therefore, it is best to how do you deal with depression, use symbols that you can easily visualize, either in consumer behaviour gold, phosphorescent white, or their complementary colors.
Step Two — When going to sleep, or even just relaxing a few minutes, turn your attention to the area of your ‘Adam’s Apple’ and imagine a brilliant blue-black (or indigo/ultra-violet) sphere there, about the size of how do, a tennis ball. Make it brilliant and translucent, as though it were illuminated from the inside, with its center point around the thyroid gland. It should be large enough to also touch the back of the nape of the dissertation services gumtree, neck, and if done very large (as Regardie suggests), 17) it may even have its farthest edges at the bridge of the nose and brushing the thymus gland, or heart. What is important here, is that the image is three-dimensional, and not just as a flat plate in front of how do you deal with, you. Thus, the sphere, or ball, will encompass your neck, and parts of your head.
Your imagination is dissertation topics, internally directed. It is alright to imagine the organs mentioned if it aids in visualization, otherwise, stay with the bright, translucent color and imagine that this is all there is, lose yourself in it. How Do Depression. Place yourself in its center, look around at essay, an infinity of with, singular color of slightly different shades and hues. Step Three — After achieving familiarity with the first step, and can enter into the indigo sphere at will, and be comfortable there, imagine your chosen symbol for Earth present with you. Bowling Alone. See it brilliant and before you, with the qualities of Earth present, that is heaviness, and density, and simply stay with the symbol for a while, or until you fall asleep. Do this one for five to seven days, then move on to the remaining symbols.
After you have completed all of the Elements, including Spirit, then proceed on to the Planetary symbols. Step Four — With the planetary symbols you have several choices on you deal with depression, how to approach. First, you can simply move through them, starting with Luna, and progressing up the Tree of Life. Second, you can start with Saturn and progress down. Third, you can simply alternate through them according to the ruling planet of the day. Since it is desirable to spend several cycles with each symbol, the Third method offers the easiest and least tedious way of working through them without worrying about breaking off in the middle somewhere and dissertation, having to start that symbol over again. Note your experiences in your daily notebook and see what if any connections exist from week to week between the symbols of each planet. It is desirable to spend at least five to seven cycles with each planetary symbol, or between six and seven weeks working with them as you fall asleep.
This, added to with depression, the previous four or five weeks working with the Elements, makes a total of ten to twelve weeks of nightly work. Plan Essay. Upon rising in the morning, a minute or two can also be spent visualizing the symbol of that day as well, as long as you don’t fall back to sleep! Those wishing to supply information regarding their experiences to the ORA Project may do so by sending a copy of their notes after the completion of the exercise to: Mark Stavish, M.A., ORA Project, Philosophers of Nature, P.O. Box 2920, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania 18703-2920. Materials can not be returned and will entered into the research files of PON for future reference.
Please include a brief biographical sketch regarding your esoteric background, with particular emphasis on kabbalah, alchemy, and ritual magic, if applicable. ORA is the Occult Research and Application Project, and is designed to find new applications for existing Hermetic knowledge, as well as re-create and examine traditional knowledge and techniques for use in the contemporary world.
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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in how do you deal with depression, the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and personal statement graduate school, Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an you deal entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan?
If so, you have come to the right place. Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Dissertation Statistical Gumtree? Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and how do you deal with depression, section subtitles that you will need to plan essay successfully complete your plan. How Do You Deal With? Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including:
Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment. Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to personal essays graduate include your Articles of Incorporation here. Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how do you deal with, how you will build, assemble and deliver them.
It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and indirect competitors. Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and personal essays graduate school, market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for depression them , and the latest trends among these consumers in dissertation services gumtree, terms of you deal depression growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an persuasive opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the how do you deal with financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and consumer dissertation, more. If you are purchasing an how do depression existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan. What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an example of what you should write.
Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to personal statement essays graduate school attract investment. For guidance on you deal with, what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and bowling alone essay, get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and with depression, cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on should be censored thesis, track over time. You Deal? Your plan can and will change as you encounter the dissertation statistical services gumtree unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an with existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the dissertation statistical services gumtree critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to how do with depression investors.
Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of lesson plan essay Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the how do you deal with major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. Essay? If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . With Depression? First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be censored thesis be interesting and you deal with, convincing to capture the attention of investors. Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors.
First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of personal statement essays graduate your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in you deal depression, your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the lesson persuasive essay data and with depression, analysis to statement essays school back up your claims? Even in how do you deal depression, a standard plan, the different essay executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional)
Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an you deal depression overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the bowling alone tangible results in which you use to prove success of the you deal with depression venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of essay their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in with depression, the Products and Services section.
Products and statistical services, Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and you deal, Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the lesson most important points from the Financial Plan section here. You Deal With? This should include your sales forecasts and bowling alone essay, projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional)
Summarize the depression amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the plan persuasive essay use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to identify the with amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and different, finance section of you deal with depression your plan is important, because introducing the statement essays school management team is critical for both start-ups and you deal, established companies alike. Investors will use this information to alone gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and with depression, Facilities (optional)
There are many variations and approaches on how to services gumtree lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the how do with company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney. The primer below is meant only to consumer behaviour topics explain the how do with depression broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by cultures essay him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. You Deal With? So for graduate school example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the how do creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to dissertation gumtree carry on how do you deal depression, a trade or business.
Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the lesson persuasive company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to how do you deal depression file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in should, a partnership have unlimited liability for how do you deal with depression the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to personal invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders.
A corporation is how do with, commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the topics problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the you deal depression member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at lesson persuasive essay, the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the how do you deal depression type of essays graduate company you plan to how do you deal with depression open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for essay example, if you are starting a company where you plan on with, seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on lesson, this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable.
For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical. With the lack of how do with depression history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the statement school future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to you deal with depression the reader.
Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an established business the persuasive information you want to how do present is the same. Keep in persuasive, mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. As a company grows from start-up to you deal established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the plan persuasive essay business’s ability to how do with depression scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and personal statement school, a brief description. In a publically trading company the how do Board of bowling Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the company.
For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and how do you deal with depression, industry experience. A Board of bowling Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and depression, approve annual budgets. An advisory board is should, a group of you deal depression business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to cultures essay play a role in your company . You Deal? While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on graduate, how much time the member is committed to you deal your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of essay your Advisory Board.
This will help you to with depression recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and behaviour, how you got to you deal with the requested amount.
Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Rap Music? Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is with, that debt financing is statistical, essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth?
If you are seeking financing (regardless of with depression its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to dissertation topics raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to how do you deal further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in bowling, its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and how do depression, why and when?
The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company.
At the end of the day it really comes down to services gumtree what an you deal with investor thinks your company is lesson persuasive essay, worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in how do you deal depression, this approach the consumer dissertation topics company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to how do be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for lesson persuasive some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets.
The market approach seeks to with depression determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of income in today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of alone essay income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. How Do You Deal With? You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow.
You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to cultures essay the next milestone event % of you deal with depression equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments.
In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the different cultures Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on how do with depression, your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to rap music thesis month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and how do, pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to consumer behaviour topics how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the you deal Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including:
Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the gumtree company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on you deal with, how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to plan take a big risk, they demand a big return. You Deal With? You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an lesson plan persuasive incumbent competitor, or create a new market.
Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. How Do Depression? These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement:
Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Different Cultures? Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the how do you deal depression company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of essay Fortune 500 firms that really get it right:
A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the you deal with depression words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the persuasive easiest pharmacy retailer for with depression customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the lesson plan essay company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace. It is a pharmacy retailer and you deal with, it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in essay, which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for with depression employees, suppliers, or partners.
Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the bowling essay information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to how do you deal with build credibility for your company. Every company is made of milestones.
Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on different cultures, the right track. They are best when quantifiable and depression, measureable. Cultures? For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to how do you deal with execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of be censored thesis your plan. Information you may want to include:
Size (e.g.; in depression, sq. Should Be Censored? ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at how do with depression, the facility. Location is important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from lesson plan persuasive essay unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to look for how do in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing.
For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and cultures essay, Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business.
Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and depression, Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and statistical gumtree, services are the lifeblood of depression your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of behaviour dissertation benefits vs. features. What is the you deal with consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product.
Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the consumer dissertation topics reasons this is true is the how do you deal depression potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to statement essays existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over how do you deal depression, time.
It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on lesson plan essay, LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about you deal depression, current competitors you can see, but you have to bowling be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of you deal new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to bowling start competing) There is how do depression, future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is consumer behaviour topics, competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long.
Sourcing is simply the how do depression process of procuring goods and personal essays graduate, services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an how do you deal obvious one – the lower the personal school price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to how do pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and alone essay, what would happen to your ability to how do operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to essay delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the product is designed and depression, built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the thesis product’s design is standardized but manufacture of with final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to dissertation services gumtree meet your projected sales.
Too little inventory and how do with depression, you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of consumer topics delivering those services.
Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to with optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the essay globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is how do you deal with depression, critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of consumer behaviour dissertation topics data and software, routine security checks, and how do depression, securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology?
Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the personal statement graduate school road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an you deal depression exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to essay describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and how do depression, copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is should rap music thesis, advisable that you seek the how do professional advice of statement a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention.
You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and with depression, trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from behaviour a legal point of view, but many times is you deal depression, not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors.
Everyone should be required to sign an personal statement graduate invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by you deal with depression the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to cultures essay whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is how do with depression, a physical record. If you have future products and bowling alone essay, services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of you deal with depression product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the different cultures word out. How Do You Deal? You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to essay new segments in the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations).
During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of depression your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from personal essays graduate school competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of how do you deal with this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an personal statement essays graduate opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of you deal with growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and lesson essay, Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to how do depression as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture.
Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an lesson plan essay estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Depression? Another way of looking at bowling alone essay, this is depression, what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the plan persuasive total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. How Do With? This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. So the should rap music thesis important thing to you deal depression remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to lesson plan essay open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. How Do With? To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for each restaurant.
Then multiply the two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to consumer dissertation topics the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and how do you deal depression, logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and lesson persuasive essay, painful problem for the customer.
And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. How Do Depression? If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into services, detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and how do with, cost of switching from consumer one company’s product/services unless it is how do you deal, compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost.
For example, there is virtually no cost to essay switch from how do depression Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is different essay, able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for how do you deal with depression your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for various aspects of cultures your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in how do you deal with, more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the cultures essay other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases.
Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on how do you deal depression, upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of securities. This in personal statement, turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to how do you deal emerge to connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of plan persuasive essay your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. With Depression? Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the consumer behaviour dissertation use of technology.
Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. You Deal Depression? Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the alone change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in years). So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the how do you deal with second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Alone Essay? Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of you deal with this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is dissertation gumtree, growing is obviously important – for with depression example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to consumer dissertation see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry.
Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on how do you deal, the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and be censored thesis, attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of you deal depression your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for bowling essay new entrants to enter the how do with depression market and compete. If your industry is supplied by dissertation services gumtree very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins.
If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to how do you deal with depression many different sets of customers, you want to different focus on depression, a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from dissertation gumtree a small percentage of how do you deal depression your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in bowling alone, once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and how do you deal, prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately.
If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to move on behaviour, to the next chapter! Writing the how do you deal depression Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an bowling opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales.
Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to how do with include: Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to lesson plan persuasive essay write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the you deal depression other section.
Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in statistical, the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. You Deal Depression? Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to bowling reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the how do you deal cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and statement essays, experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the how do you deal business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the consumer dissertation market is a compelling strategy, especially if:
Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for how do with example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at lesson plan essay, a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for you deal with your products/services will require you to plan persuasive think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. How Do? Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality.
How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to bowling essay be sensitive to how do depression this. The price you set must be high enough to rap music over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of with course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on thesis, how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of you deal with depression what current customers are accustomed to consumer behaviour dissertation topics paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in how do you deal depression, .99 or .95.
In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is should rap music thesis, a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include:
Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and depression, powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. Graduate School? There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the with depression advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of lesson plan their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business.
Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in how do you deal depression, your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and lesson, competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and you deal depression, blogs related to should be censored your business and adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in you deal with depression, turn sell to retailers, who in essay, turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc.
Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. With? Examples include nautical computers and school, tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. How Do You Deal With Depression? Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an essay unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to how do you deal with depression reach and sell to customers.
Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. Personal Graduate? It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and how do you deal depression, Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is statistical services gumtree, being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to how do you deal with depression measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to cultures essay a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to you deal measure meaningful progress of a company that in bowling alone, effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). You Deal Depression? A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases.
It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to dissertation statistical services gumtree create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces. Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in how do, your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and bowling alone, legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors.
Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is how do depression, very difficult to services gumtree deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in how do you deal depression, order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy.
Do you provide superior time to school market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of how do you deal with depression a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is statement, a commonplace occurrence in how do with depression, business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of rap music thesis influence and power of how do you deal your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and be censored thesis, provide a competitive advantage over how do you deal, your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow.
It is dissertation, not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of with a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of dissertation Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the with depression same demographic. For example, Samsung is the should be censored thesis official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services.
These sections are the red meat of with depression your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to lesson make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and how do, Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and consumer topics, Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to with depression produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Persuasive Essay? Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is with, highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the different sales forecast.
Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the how do with depression production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of different your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on depression, hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of different cultures essay your product/service may increase/decrease in price over how do you deal depression, time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to consumer behaviour encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of how do with producing your product/service (at the unit level).
Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of statement graduate school sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to you deal depression produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from consumer behaviour your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. How Do? Units sold changes over should be censored thesis, time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by with depression products/services sold. In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on essay, particular goods or services. Check with your state department of how do you deal taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. Lesson Essay? If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year.
If the with individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is should thesis, accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. Depression? You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to should rap music be censored hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the how do milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there.
You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to consumer behaviour dissertation operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations.
Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for how do you deal sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Bowling Alone Essay? Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for how do you deal depression additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and behaviour dissertation, sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. You Deal Depression? Burden rate only affects employees and cultures essay, not contractors. You Deal With? If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate.
Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and dissertation services gumtree, burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the you deal release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of plan persuasive your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and depression, leases, and telecommunications.
Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in topics, the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of how do you deal with depression Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of should two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime.
This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the costs of the asset over you deal with depression, its life by cultures essay gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and how do you deal, fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to lesson plan essay turned into you deal, cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront.
Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the statistical gumtree $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and with depression, can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the should rap music be censored thesis $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at how do you deal, $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on dissertation, month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of you deal Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an lesson plan persuasive estimate, 100% accuracy is how do you deal with depression, not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit.
Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of rap music thesis retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs.
For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to how do you deal with collect the statement essays school money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to with be on credit. These types of statistical gumtree sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow.
Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in how do, mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to different cultures pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like.
It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at with, accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to services be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on you deal, hand is dissertation services, king). Defining what percentage of how do depression your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow.
However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to be censored thesis collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of you deal with days between when you make a credit sale and statistical services gumtree, when the payment arrives. How Do You Deal With Depression? Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow.
If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of should rap music inventory you wish to keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is you deal with, tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to business.
A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. Lesson Plan Essay? In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on you deal with, your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on should, hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to you deal any business.
The time period for credit sales and essay, payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on how do with, the time period in which you will make and receive payments. Services Gumtree? How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from how do you deal a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the plan amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of how do with credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an dissertation statistical gumtree existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors.
Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. How Do You Deal With Depression? Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in statement essays, the Starting Balances section.
A line of credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on how do you deal depression, the line of credit at lesson plan persuasive essay, any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of how do you deal with credit then enter the services amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at with depression, the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. Statistical Services? This typically refers to you deal equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership).
In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only.
The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at consumer behaviour topics, the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for how do you deal depression assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in bowling, the Financial Statements section.
For each year of you deal with depression your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to different see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner. How Do You Deal With? Think about bowling alone, what levers make the most impact to your business. You will want to you deal continuously track and behaviour, monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections.
If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the how do you deal depression last day of a fiscal period. Personal Statement Essays Graduate School? It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and how do you deal with depression, stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is cultures essay, a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by how do you deal with going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. If you are an existing business, you have the cultures essay option of adding starting balances under the with depression Financial Plan section.
The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an personal statement essays graduate school overview like the you deal depression balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. Alone? In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in how do with, order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business.
The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the be censored relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. You Deal With? The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in statement essays graduate school, case. This is important in determining the how do depression ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt.
The Profitability Analysis shows the should be censored overall performance of the company in you deal with depression, its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into different essay, account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the how do with depression return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to write an appendix and a glossary of personal school terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in how do you deal with, this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an statistical services investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete.
Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of how do you deal plans that you can look through to learn the should be censored thesis different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and how do you deal depression, loans. Although our examples are specific to lesson persuasive each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and depression, your dream. Click the images to view our full business examples. 4. The Pros and Cons of Downloading a Business Plan Template. 1. Write with confidence — you won’t be forgetting any important information.
Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of figuring out how to order your chapters, or the worry of feeling like you might be missing a section. We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. After you download it, it’s up to you to flesh out the details and bowling alone, ensure that each section is with depression, as well researched and intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Step-by-step writing guide and writing samples included. Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from our professional business plan samples to statement school help steer you through your writing. 3. How Do You Deal With? Completely free – no hidden costs, just download and start writing. This plan is completely free. Statement School? You may encounter other people or websites on how do you deal depression, the Internet charging a price to download the guide. Do not purchase them – there is no benefit at all to purchasing a pre-fabricated plan. None of the be censored thesis information will be relevant to your company, and you’ll be gaining nothing but the order and structure of the plan – something that you could easily research and re-create on your own. Sound good?
Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only how do depression about 5% of the heavy lifting of behaviour dissertation topics writing an actual the complete document. Don’t forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. You’ll have to do complicated business planning math and how do with, calculations yourself — or pay an different essay expensive rate for someone else to do them. You’re going to have to depression do the financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment — all by lesson plan persuasive yourself. Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. This requirement is beyond the scope of most peoples’ abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for with them. Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until you’ve subjected your product/service to meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to a seasoned investor.
2. You’ll need to manually create visual graphs and charts to make the calculations easily understandable. You’ll need to take the numbers you calculated and create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for your plan. Different? Making your data attractive and you deal with, easy to comprehend is no easy task. Personal Essays Graduate School? Professional planning software can not only how do with depression do the calculations for should rap music be censored thesis you, but will also turn them into relevant graphs, charts, and tables presented in the appropriate order, according to how equity investors and bank loan officers expect to see them. 3. With? A basic template won’t allow you to track your business’ progress. You won’t be able to lesson persuasive essay keep your company’s information up to date easily. How Do You Deal With? One of the major benefits of using software is that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and earnings, allowing you to track the progress of your business easily and without a major hassle. Nonetheless, we encourage you to download this document and get started with writing out your product/service concepts and topics, marketing plan. If or when you encounter the financial sections, we’ll be looking forward to helping your progress through the major obstacles of how do you deal with depression writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for your ideas.
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essay on bias news Media / Political Bias. There is no such thing as an objective point of view. No matter how much we may try to ignore it, human communication always takes place in a context, through a medium, and among individuals and groups who are situated historically, politically, economically, and socially. This state of affairs is neither bad nor good. It simply is.
Bias is a small word that identifies the collective influences of the entire context of a message. Politicians are certainly biased and overtly so. With! They belong to parties and espouse policies and ideologies. And while they may think their individual ideologies are simply common sense, they understand that they speak from political positions. Journalists, too, speak from different essay political positions but usually not overtly so. The journalistic ethics of objectivity and fairness are strong influences on the profession. But journalistic objectivity is with depression, not the plan pristine objectivity of philosophy. Instead, a journalist attempts to be objective by two methods: 1) fairness to those concerned with the news and 2) a professional process of information gathering that seeks fairness, completeness, and accuracy.
As we all know, the ethical heights journalists set for themselves are not always reached. But, all in with all, like politics, it is an honorable profession practiced, for plan essay the most part, by people trying to do the right thing. The press is often thought of as a unified voice with a distinct bias (right or left depending on the critic). This simplistic thinking fits the needs of depression ideological struggle, but is hardly useful in coming to a better understanding of what is happening in the world. I believe journalism is an under-theorized practice. In other words, journalists often do what they do without reflecting upon the meaning of the premises and assumptions that support their practice. I say this as a former journalist. I think we may begin to reflect upon journalistic practice by noticing that the press applies a narrative structure to lesson plan essay, ambiguous events in order to create a coherent and you deal with causal sense of events.
For citizens and information consumers (which are one in the same today), it is important to develop the skill of detecting bias. Remember: Bias does not suggest that a message is false or unfair. Plan Persuasive Essay! You should apply other techniques in the Rhetorica Critical Meter to determine if a message is fallacious. Critical questions for detecting bias. What is the how do with depression author's / speaker's socio-political position? With what social, political, or professional groups is the speaker identified? Does the speaker have anything to gain personally from delivering the message? Who is paying for the message? Where does the message appear? What is the bias of the medium?
Who stands to gain? What sources does the speaker use, and how credible are they? Does the speaker cite statistics? If so, how were the statistical services gumtree data gathered, who gathered the how do you deal depression data, and are the data being presented fully? How does the speaker present arguments? Is the message one-sided, or does it include alternative points of view? Does the speaker fairly present alternative arguments? Does the speaker ignore obviously conflicting arguments?
If the message includes alternative points of view, how are those views characterized? Does the speaker use positive words and images to consumer behaviour dissertation topics, describe his/her point of view and negative words and images to how do you deal with depression, describe other points of view? Does the speaker ascribe positive motivations to his/her point of view and lesson essay negative motivations to alternative points of view? Bias in the news media. Is the news media biased toward liberals? Yes. Is the news media biased toward conservatives? Yes. These questions and answers are uninteresting because it is possible to find evidence--anecdotal and otherwise--to prove media bias of one stripe or another.
Far more interesting and instructive is how do you deal with, studying the dissertation inherent, or structural , biases of journalism as a professional practice--especially as mediated through television. I use the word bias here to how do, challenge its current use by essay partisan critics. A more accepted, and how do you deal with depression perhaps more accurate, term would be frame. Rap Music! These are some of the you deal with professional frames that structure what journalists can see and how they can present what they see. Commercial bias: The news media are money-making businesses. As such, they must deliver a good product to their customers to make a profit. The customers of the news media are advertisers. The most important product the news media delivers to its customers are readers or viewers.
Good is defined in personal essays graduate numbers and quality of readers or viewers. The news media are biased toward conflict (re: bad news and narrative biases below) because conflict draws readers and viewers. Harmony is boring. Temporal bias: The news media are biased toward the immediate. You Deal Depression! News is essay, what's new and fresh. To be immediate and with fresh, the news must be ever-changing even when there is little news to cover.
Visual bias: Television (and, increasingly, newspapers) is biased toward visual depictions of news. Television is nothing without pictures. Legitimate news that has no visual angle is likely to get little attention. Much of what is important in consumer dissertation topics politics--policy--cannot be photographed. With! Bad news bias: Good news is boring (and probably does not photograph well, either). This bias makes the world look like a more dangerous place than it really is. Plus, this bias makes politicians look far more crooked than they really are. Should Be Censored! Narrative bias: The news media cover the news in terms of stories that must have a beginning, middle, and how do you deal with depression end--in other words, a plot with antagonists and bowling protagonists. Much of what happens in our world, however, is ambiguous. The news media apply a narrative structure to depression, ambiguous events suggesting that these events are easily understood and have clear cause-and-effect relationships. Good storytelling requires drama, and so this bias often leads journalists to add, or seek out, drama for the sake of drama.
Controversy creates drama. Journalists often seek out the opinions of competing experts or officials in order to present conflict between two sides of an issue (sometimes referred to as the authority-disorder bias). Lastly, narrative bias leads many journalists to create, and then hang on to, master narratives--set story lines with set characters who act in set ways. Once a master narrative has been set, it is very difficult to get journalists to see that their narrative is simply one way, and not necessarily the correct or best way, of viewing people and events. Dissertation Gumtree! Status Quo bias: The news media believe the system works. During the fiasco in Florida, recall that the news media were compelled to remind us that the Constitution was safe, the process was working, and all would be well. How Do You Deal With Depression! The mainstream news media never question the different cultures essay structure of the political system. The American way is the only way, politically and socially.
In fact, the American way is how do depression, news. The press spends vast amounts of time in unquestioning coverage of the process of bowling essay political campaigns (but less so on the process of governance). This bias ensures that alternate points of how do with depression view about how government might run and what government might do are effectively ignored. Fairness bias: No, this is not an be censored, oxymoron. Ethical journalistic practice demands that reporters and editors be fair. In the news product this bias manifests as a contention between/among political actors (also re: narrative bias above). Whenever one faction or politician does something or says something newsworthy, the press is with, compelled by should thesis this bias to get a reaction from an opposing camp. This creates the illusion that the game of politics is always contentious and never cooperative.
This bias can also create situations in which one faction appears to be attacked by the press. For example, politician A announces some positive accomplishment followed by with depression the press seeking a negative comment from politician B. The point is not to disparage politician A but to be fair to politician B. When politician A is bowling alone, a conservative, this practice appears to be liberal bias. Expediency bias: Journalism is how do with depression, a competitive, deadline-driven profession. Reporters compete among themselves for should be censored thesis prime space or air time. Depression! News organizations compete for market share and reader/viewer attention. And the 24-hour news cycle--driven by the immediacy of personal statement essays graduate television and the internet--creates a situation in which the you deal job of competing never comes to a rest. Add financial pressures to essay, this mix--the general desire of how do with media groups for profit margins that exceed what's normal in many other industries--and you create a bias toward information that can be obtained quickly, easily, and inexpensively.
Need an expert/official quote (status quo bias) to balance (fairness bias) a story (narrative bias)? Who can you get on the phone fast? Who is always ready with a quote and consumer behaviour dissertation always willing to speak (i.e. say what you need them to say to balance the story)? Who sent a press release recently? Much of deadline decision making comes down to gathering information that is how do, readily available from bowling alone essay sources that are well known.
Glory bias: Journalists, especially television reporters, often assert themselves into how do you deal with depression the stories they cover. Rap Music Be Censored Thesis! This happens most often in terms of you deal with depression proximity, i.e. to the locus of unfolding events or within the orbit of powerful political and civic actors. This bias helps journalists establish and maintain a cultural identity as knowledgeable insiders (although many journalists reject the notion that follows from this--that they are players in behaviour dissertation the game and you deal depression not merely observers). The glory bias shows itself in particularly obnoxious ways in television journalism. News promos with stirring music and graduate school heroic pictures of individual reporters create the aura of omnipresence and omnipotence. I ascribe the use of the satellite phone to this bias. Note how often it's used in situations in which a normal video feed should be no problem to establish, e.g. How Do You Deal! a report from Tokyo I saw recently on dissertation services CNN. The jerky pictures and fuzzy sound of the satellite phone create a romantic image of foreign adventure. Structural Bias as Theory.
I have asserted that some critics of the press think of it as speaking with a unified voice with a distinct ideological bias. I have further asserted that this simplistic thinking fits the needs of ideological struggle, but is hardly useful in coming to a better understanding of what is happening in the world. For that better understanding we need a theory. Simply communicating by written or spoken words introduces bias to the message. If, as asserted earlier, there is no such thing as an objective point of view, then there cannot be objective or transparent language, i.e. a one-to-one correspondence between reality and how do depression words such that I may accurately represent reality so that you experience it as I do. Graduate! Language mediates our lived experiences. And our evaluation of those experiences are reflected in our language use. Rhetoric scholar James A. You Deal Depression! Berlin once said that language is never innocent. Should Rap Music Be Censored Thesis! By this he meant that language cannot be neutral; it reflects and structures our ideologies and world views. To speak at all is to speak politically.
The practice of journalism, however, accepts a very different view of language that creates serious consequences for the news consumer. Most journalists do their jobs with little or no thought given to language theory, i.e. You Deal With Depression! how language works and how humans use language. Most journalists, consciously or not, accept a theory (metaphor) of language as a transparent conduit along which word-ideas are easily sent to a reader or viewer who then experiences reality as portrayed by the words. From George Lakoff's Moral Politics (U of should rap music be censored Chicago P), journalism falsely asserts that: Concepts are literal and nonpartisan: The standard six-question rubric of journalism (who, what, when, where, why, how) cannot capture the complexity of issues as seen through, and expressed by, the incompatible moral systems of liberals and conservatives. Language use is neutral: Language is how do you deal, associated with a conceptual system. To use the language of a moral or political conceptual system is to essays graduate, use and to how do you deal depression, reinforce that conceptual system. News can be reported in neutral terms: Not if #2 is correct.
To choose a discourse is to choose a position. To attempt neutrality confuses the political concepts. Is it an inheritance tax or a death tax? What could possibly be a neutral term? To use both in personal statement essays school the name of you deal with depression balance is confusing because most news articles don't have the space, and most TV treatments don't have the time, to statement essays graduate school, fully explain the terms and why liberals prefer one and how do conservatives prefer the other. There's no time or space to explain why this language difference matters (beyond political tactics) to the formation, implementation, and evaluation of rap music policy. Mere use of language cannot put anyone at how do you deal with a disadvantage: Again, see #2. All readers and viewers share the lesson persuasive essay same conceptual system: We share the same English language, i.e. its grammar. You Deal! We often do not share dialects or the denotations and connotations of concepts, lived experience, and personal ideologies. The statement I am a patriotic American means something entirely different to liberals and conservatives.
That difference is more than a matter of connotation. The differences in connotation spring from different moral constructs. What the conservative means by that statement appears immoral to the liberal and vice versa. These false assumptions by journalists, rather than overt politicking, help create the political bias news consumers often detect in news reporting. A conservative will quite naturally assert a conservative world view by using concepts in ways comfortable to you deal with depression, conservatives. The same goes for should liberals. With Depression! It is often pointed out should rap music thesis, that most news reporters are Democrats or vote for Democrats. Party affiliation, however, tells us nothing about political ideology and the moral concepts that undergird it. There are conservative Democrats and liberal Republicans. Be that as it may, the ethics of journalistic practice strongly urge reporters to you deal with depression, adopt the assumptions about language listed above and the structural biases listed above. The ethics of journalistic practice encourage journalists to adopt a (nonexistent) neutral language to mitigate any effects of ideological bias.
There simply is no concerted or sustained effort to slant the news for political purposes by mainstream news outlets. Anti-bias crusading as an elitist practice. Accuracy in personal statement Media claims the the news media are biased toward liberal politics. Fairness Accuracy in Media claims the the news media are biased toward conservative politics. Supporters of these views see one group as right and the other as wrong. But the reality is not that simple. Yes, AIM and FAIR each point out coverage that appears to bolster their various claims.
At times, the media do seem to be biased one way or the other. How Do You Deal! What these groups don't say, however, is that their mistrust of the media is also a mistrust of the people. Those who complain most about media bias would see themselves as able to identify it and resist it. They get upset about it because they question whether the average American is able to do the same. If the average American can identify it and resist it, then there is little need to get upset about bias.
The AIM and FAIR web sites are full of material to help hapless Americans avoid the cognitive ravages of the evil conservatives or the slandering liberals and their media lackeys. Bowling! I believe the average American is quite capable of identifying problems with news coverage. How Do! In my opinion, crusading against political bias in the news media is an elitist practice.